Victims of Communism Memorial

Goddess of Democracy replica
George W. Bush speaking at the memorial's dedication ceremony
Statue by Thomas Marsh

Memorial in Washington, D.C. located at the intersection of Massachusetts and New Jersey Avenues and G Street, NW, two blocks from Union Station and within view of the U.S. Capitol.

- Victims of Communism Memorial

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Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation

Non-profit anti-communist organization in the United States, authorized by a unanimous Act of Congress in 1993 for the purpose of "educating Americans about the ideology, history and legacy of communism."

The Victims of Communism Memorial is a recreation of the "Goddess of Democracy", which was destroyed in Tiananmen Square by the government of the People's Republic of China
Chairman Edwin J. Feulner

The organization was responsible for building the Victims of Communism Memorial in Washington, D.C. It is a member of the European Union's Platform of European Memory and Conscience.

Goddess of Democracy

10 m statue created during the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests.

Vera Mukhina's Worker and Kolkhoz Woman sculpture (seen on a Russian stamp here on the right) influenced the creators of the Goddess of Democracy
Victims of Communism Memorial in Washington, D.C., recreation by Thomas Marsh
A Goddess of Democracy statue in a different pose, in Hong Kong at the 21st anniversary of the Tiananmen protests of 1989
The former statue at York University in Canada
The new bronze statue at York University in Canada (unveiled June 4, 2012)
Goddess of Democracy replica at the Vancouver campus of the University of British Columbia
Goddess of Democracy statue in San Francisco's Portsmouth Square

Since its destruction, numerous replicas and memorials have been erected around the world, including in Hong Kong, San Francisco, Washington, D.C., and Vancouver.

Tom Lantos

Holocaust survivor and American politician who served as a U.S. representative from California from 1981 until his death in 2008.

The 11th district that Lantos served from 1981 until 1993 included a small portion of San Francisco, as well as Daly City and San Mateo.
San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom and Lantos
United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon with Tom and Annette Lantos
Presenting the Dalai Lama with the Congressional Gold Medal, 2007
Lantos's grave in Congressional Cemetery, Washington, D.C. The letters at the bottom are a Hebrew acronym for May his soul be bound up in the bond of eternal life.

In June 2007, Lantos called former German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder a "political prostitute" at the dedication ceremony of the Victims of Communism Memorial, which caused a political backlash from the German government.

Communist state

One-party state that is administered and governed by a communist party guided by Marxism–Leninism.

The meeting place of the Chinese National People's Congress
A map of current communist states
States that had communist governments in red, states that the Soviet Union believed at one point to be moving toward socialism in orange and other socialist states in yellow (note that not all of the bright red states remained Soviet allies)

In Washington D.C., a bronze statue based upon the 1989 Tiananmen Square Goddess of Democracy sculpture was dedicated as the Victims of Communism Memorial in 2007, having been authorized by the United States Congress in 1993.

Lev Dobriansky

Professor of economics at Georgetown University, U.S. ambassador to the Bahamas and anti-communist advocate.

Paula Dobriansky

In 1993, Congress authorized the NCNC to begin raising funds to build a Victims of Communism Memorial.

Goddess of Democracy (Hong Kong)

6.4-metre faux bronze statue sculpted by Chen Weiming, inspired by the original 10-metre tall Goddess of Democracy.

Bronze Goddess of Democracy at the 21st anniversary of the Tiananmen protests of 1989
Chen Weiming in front of his Tiananmen Massacre relief sculpture
White plastic Goddess of Democracy replica
The bronze statue in Times Square being confiscated by the HK Police
Students putting the statue in its place at the university campus
Students attend an open-air meeting at the university campus
The Goddess and the accompanying relief at the Chinese University Shatin campus

The Chinese government has tried to distance itself from any discussions about the original statue or about the Tiananmen Square protests, and in the case of the Victims of Communism Memorial it called the building of a replica an "attempt to defame China."

Mass killings under communist regimes

Mass killings under communist regimes occurred during the 20th century through a variety of means, including executions, famine, and deaths through forced labour, deportation, and imprisonment.

Map of current and former communist states
The last issue, printed in red ink, of Karl Marx's journal Neue Rheinische Zeitung from 19 May 1849
Prosecutor General Andrey Vyshinsky (centre) reading the 1937 indictment against Karl Radek during the second Moscow Trial
The Soviet famine of 1932–1933, with areas where the effects of famine were most severe shaded
Sign for the Solovetsky Stone, a memorial about repression in the Soviet Union at Lubyanka Square which was erected in 1990 by the human rights group Memorial in remembrance of the more than 40,000 innocent people shot in Moscow during the Great Terror
Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and Lavrenti Beria (in the foreground), who was responsible for mass deportations of ethnic minorities as head of the NKVD
Mass graves dating from 1937 to 1938 opened up and hundreds of bodies exhumed for identification by family members
A large portrait of Mao Zedong at Tiananmen
Skulls of victims of the Khmer Rouge Killing Fields in Cambodia
Mengistu Haile Mariam, the former communist leader of Ethiopia
Map of Stalin's Gulag camps in the Gulag Museum in Moscow, founded in 2001 by the historian Anton Antonov-Ovseyenko
Red Holocaust − small pile of stones commemorating the victims of communism and the first such memorial in Germany.
Victims of the Soviet NKVD in Lviv, June 1941
Katyn 1943 exhumation (photo by International Red Cross delegation)
Plaque on Toompea, the building of the Government of Estonia, commemorating government members killed by communist terror
Replica of the Goddess of Democracy statue in Hong Kong's June 4th Museum
A memorial to the 1989 Tiananmen Square events in the Dominican Square in Wrocław, Poland
Statue located in Ávila, Spain recalling the events of Tiananmen Square
Memorial at the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum in Phnom Penh
Killing Field mass graves at the Choeung Ek Cambodian Genocide centre
Chankiri Tree (Killing Tree) at Choeung Ek, where infants were fatally smashed during the genocide

In Washington D.C., a bronze statue modeled after the Goddess of Democracy sculpture, which was created during the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests, was dedicated as the Victims of Communism Memorial in 2007, having been authorized by the Congress in 1993.

National Captive Nations Committee

Anti-Communism advocacy group based in Washington, D.C. It was established in 1959 according to by President Dwight D. Eisenhower, which introduced the Captive Nations Week, with the purpose to maintain the Captive Nations List.

In 1993, Section 905 of the Public Law 103-199 authorized the NCNC to establish an organization, the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation, to construct, maintain, and operate the Victims of Communism Memorial in Washington, D.C.

Taiwan Foundation for Democracy

Non-profit organisation headquartered in Taipei.

TFD headquarters in Daan District, Taipei

The foundation was one of the largest donors to the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation, donating US$1 million towards the construction of the Victims of Communism Memorial in Washington, DC.

FRIENDSHIP Act of 1993

Passed by the 103rd United States Congressional session and enacted into law by the 42nd President of the United States Bill Clinton on December 17, 1993.

A bill to amend the act entitled "An act to organize forces to serve during the war," approved Feb. 17, 1864.

Monument to honor victims of communism