Victoria (Australia)

Swearing Allegiance to the Southern Cross at the Eureka Stockade on 1 December 1854 – watercolour by Charles Doudiet
Köppen climate types in Victoria
The estimated resident population since 1981
Melbourne, the state capital, is home to more than three in four Victorians.
Chinatown, Melbourne. 2.7% of the Victorian population was born in China, 6.7% of the Victorian population is of Chinese ancestry, and 3.2% of the Victorian population speaks Mandarin at home
The Victorian Parliament House, built in 1856, stands in Spring Street, Melbourne. The building was intended to be finished with a dome, but was not completed due to budget constraints.
The Legislative Council Chamber, as photographed in 1878
One of many local government seats, Geelong Town Hall
Camberwell High School, a public secondary school in Victoria
The University of Melbourne, ranked as one of the best universities in Australia and in the Southern Hemisphere, is Victoria's oldest university.
The State Library of Victoria forecourt
Victoria's stand at the Paris Exhibition Universal of 1867, showing bales of wool
Yallourn Power Station in the Latrobe Valley
A current Melbourne C 2 class (Citadis) and a D-class tram
Statue outside the Melbourne Cricket Ground commemorating the origins of Australian rules football
Panorama of the MCG during the AFL Grand Final on 30 September 2017
Island Archway on the Great Ocean Road in Victoria, Australia.
Aireys Inlet
Victorian cities, towns, settlements and road network
Average January maximum temperatures:
Average July maximum temperatures:
Average yearly precipitation:
The Melbourne skyline at night
Brighton Beach bathing boxes
Mornington Mills Beach
Autumn in the Dandenong Ranges
The Twelve Apostles
Jan Juc, Torquay

State in southeastern Australia.

- Victoria (Australia)

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From top, left to right: Melbourne skyline, Flinders Street Station, Shrine of Remembrance, Melbourne Cricket Ground, Royal Exhibition Building, Princes Bridge with Federation Square and St Paul's Cathedral.
A late 19th-century artist's depiction of John Batman's treaty with a group of Wurundjeri elders
Melbourne Landing,1840; watercolor by W. Liardet (1840)
South Melbourne's "Canvas Town" provided temporary accommodation for the thousands of migrants who arrived each week during the 1850s gold rush.
A large crowd outside the Victorian Supreme Court, celebrating the release of the Eureka rebels in 1855
Elizabeth Street lined with buildings from the "Marvellous Melbourne" era
The Big Picture, the opening of the first Parliament of Australia on 9 May 1901, painted by Tom Roberts
ICI House, a symbol of progress and modernity in post-war Melbourne
Map of Melbourne and Geelong urban areas
Storm passing over Melbourne CBD in summer. Melbourne is said to have "four seasons in one day" due to its changeable weather.
Melbourne's CBD as viewed from above the Shrine of Remembrance, with Southbank and the Hoddle Grid visible.
Government House (left) and skyscrapers seen from the Royal Botanic Gardens
"Melbourne Style" terrace houses are common in the inner suburbs have undergone gentrification.
Victorian era buildings on Collins Street, preserved by setting skyscrapers back from the street
Melbourne is home to 61 skyscrapers, the two tallest being Australia 108 (left), the Southern Hemisphere's only 100-plus-storey building, and Eureka Tower (right).
Established in Melbourne's East End Theatre District in 1854, Princess Theatre is mainland Australia's oldest continuously operating theatre.
Known for its bars, street art and coffee culture, the inner city's network of laneways and arcades is a popular cultural attraction.
National Gallery of Victoria
Statue at the MCG of Australian rules football founder Tom Wills umpiring an 1858 football match. The first games of Australian rules were played in adjacent parklands.
Melbourne hosts the Australian Open, the first of four annual Grand Slam tennis tournaments.
The 19th-century Coop's Shot Tower enclosed in Melbourne Central, one of the city's major retail hubs
The Crown Casino and Entertainment Complex contributes AU$2 billion to the Victorian economy annually.
Queen Victoria Market is the Southern Hemisphere's largest open air market and a popular tourist attraction.
Established during the gold rush, Chinatown is the longest continuous Chinese settlement outside Asia.
St Patrick's Cathedral
Ormond College, part of the University of Melbourne
Parliament House with W-Class heritage tram in foreground.
Royal Children's Hospital
The Bolte Bridge is part of the CityLink tollway system.
Situated on the City Loop, Southern Cross station is Victoria's main hub for regional and interstate trains.
An E-class tram in St Kilda. The city's tram network consists of 475 trams and is the largest in the world.
Sugarloaf Reservoir at Christmas Hills in the metropolitan area is one of Melbourne's closest water supplies.
Victoria Police vehicle in the city centre.
Storm passing over Melbourne CBD in August. Melbourne is said to have "four seasons in one day" due to its changeable weather.

Melbourne (Boonwurrung/Woiwurrung: Narrm) is the capital and most-populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, and the second-most populous city in both Australia and Oceania.

States and territories of Australia

The states and territories are federated administrative divisions in Australia, ruled by regional governments that constitute the second level of governance between the federal government and local governments.

Map showing the states of Australia and their governing political parties as of 2022.

The Federation of Australia constitutionally consists of six federated states (New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, and Western Australia) and ten federal territories, out of which three are internal territories (the Australian Capital Territory, the Northern Territory and Jervis Bay Territory) contiguous to the Australian mainland; and the other seven are external territories (Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island, and the Australian Antarctic Territory), which are offshore dependent territories.


Aerial view of Ballarat Central with Mt. Warrenheip on the horizon
Painting by Eugene von Guerard of Ballarat's tent city in the summer of 1853–54.
Troopers storm the rebels' stockade during the 1854 Eureka Rebellion.
The intersection of Lydiard and Sturt streets, c. 1905, shows a bustling city of trams, horses and pedestrians.
Development of the Ballarat North Workshops was a major initiative to capitalise on the city's burgeoning role as a railway town and transition from a declining gold mining industry.
View of central Ballarat from St Peter's Anglican Church
Ballarat's skyline is hidden from this view of the city looking east across Lake Wendouree to Mount Warrenheip.
Mount Warrenheip dominating the skyline from Dawson Street, with the town hall clock tower on the right.
Map of the urban area (grey) and the extent of the municipal area
Victorian era buildings
Streetscape with the former Post Office at the rear
Ballarat East Fire Station, the oldest continually operating fire station in the Southern Hemisphere, and the site of the first operational telephone, made by Henry Sutton.
Fog is common on autumn and winter mornings but usually dissipates by mid-morning.
Snowy scene in Sturt Gardens in 1905
Ballarat Town Common in autumn 2018
Main Street in Sovereign Hill, a large open-air gold mining museum, is Ballarat's most famous attraction.
Replica of the "Welcome Nugget", found at Ballarat, the second-largest gold nugget discovered in recorded history
Part of the Waubra Wind Farm
St Peter's Anglican Church, which represents the second most common religious affiliation in Ballarat
Ballarat Town Hall
Radio House, Lydiard Street North. Home to 3BA and Power FM
Federation University Australia's SMB campus is set among heritage buildings, including the former School of Mines and Industry (left).
Ballarat Mechanics' Institute
Ballarat Fine Art Gallery, the oldest and largest art gallery in regional Australia
Annual Agricultural Society Show at Ballarat Showgrounds, Wendouree
Her Majesty's Theatre, built in 1875
Ballarat Football Club, 1889. The club was founded in 1860 and is one of the oldest football clubs in the world.
Lake Wendouree hosted the rowing and canoeing events for the 1956 Summer Olympics.
Mars Stadium
Ballarat Base Hospital's Henry Bolte wing
Arch of Victory over the Avenue of Honour
Ballarat railway station
A V/Line train arriving at Ballarat station
A tourist tram on Wendouree Parade

Ballarat is a city in the Central Highlands of Victoria, Australia.


View of central Bendigo from Camp Hill
Bendigo Creek, named after a local shepherd and amateur boxer who, in turn, earned the sobriquet because his fighting style resembled that of English bare-knuckle champion William Abednego "Bendigo" Thompson.
Bendigo, 1853
Deep Gully Mine, 1857
Bendigo from Camp Hill, 1886
Alexandra Fountain in Charing Cross, c. 1920s, now listed along with the surrounding buildings on the Victorian Heritage Register
Fire threatening houses in Long Gully, west of Bendigo, during the 2009 Black Saturday bushfires
Sacred Heart Cathedral, Australia's third tallest church building
Hargreaves Mall, Bendigo's main shopping area
Established in 1854, Shamrock Hotel was rebuilt in 1897.
Rosalind Park featuring statuary and flanked by ornate Second Empire-style buildings
Capital Theatre
Bendigo is home to Sun Loong, the world's longest imperial dragon, a symbol of the city's Chinese heritage and a major drawcard of Bendigo's Easter Festival procession. For the remainder of the year, it is on display in the Golden Dragon Museum.
Bendigo Town Hall, a popular venue for music concerts
Queen Elizabeth Oval's 19th century grandstand
Tourist tram passing the Bendigo Post Office
Bendigo Bank (left)
Bendigo School of Mines
Tram on Pall Mall
A Vline train at Bendigo railway station

Bendigo is a city in Victoria, Australia, located in the Bendigo Valley near the geographical centre of the state and approximately 150 km north-west of Melbourne, the state capital.

Victorian Alps

View of Mount Buffalo from Mount Hotham, in summer.
Mount Hotham in winter
View of Mount Bogong above Mount Beauty, in summer.

The Victorian Alps, also known locally as the High Country, is a large mountain system in the southeastern Australian state of Victoria.


Aerial perspective of Geelong waterfront
Aerial panorama of Geelong facing the bay. Taken August 2018.
Depiction of early Geelong as a small collection of houses and paddocks by the bay
View of Geelong. 1856 oil painting by Eugene von Guérard.
A paddlesteamer approaches busy Geelong Harbour in 1857.
Opening of the Geelong tramway in 1912, Moorabool Street, Geelong.
The steamboat Edina leaving Geelong on its final journey on 21 June 1938
Eastern Beach in 1950
Redeveloped Waterfront Geelong (Steampacket Quay)
Little Malop St precinct, looking west.
Map of the Geelong urban area and the City of Greater Geelong
Suburban expansion in Grovedale
Unemployment rate in the Geelong labour market region since 1998
St Mary of the Angels Basilica
Geelong Town Hall
Geelong Library and Heritage Centre
The Geelong Art Gallery
Aerial perspective of GMHBA stadium, home of the Geelong Cats
2007 Bay Classic Series at Eastern Beach
The Gordon Institute of TAFE building in Fenwick Street
Main entrance to Geelong Hospital
The former Geelong A power station, now part of Westfield Geelong
Princes Freeway's Geelong Ring Road, looking south towards suburban Waurn Ponds
Jetstar aircraft at Avalon Airport
V/Line passenger trains at Geelong railway station
CDC Geelong bus at Geelong railway station
Off-Duty Geelong Taxi Network vehicle in Norlane

Geelong (Wathawurrung: Djilang/Djalang) is a port city in the southeastern Australian state of Victoria, located at the eastern end of Corio Bay (the smaller western portion of Port Phillip Bay) and the left bank of Barwon River, about 65 km southwest of Melbourne, the state capital of Victoria.

Southern Ocean

The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica.

The Antarctic Ocean, as delineated by the draft 4th edition of the International Hydrographic Organization's Limits of Oceans and Seas (2002)
A general delineation of the Antarctic Convergence, sometimes used by scientists as the demarcation of the Southern Ocean
The International Hydrographic Organization's delineation of the "Southern Ocean" has moved steadily southwards since the original 1928 edition of its Limits of Oceans and Seas.
"Southern Ocean" as alternative to the Aethiopian Ocean, 18th century
1928 delineation
1937 delineation
Area inside the black line indicates the area constituting the Pacific Ocean prior to 2002; darker blue areas are its informal current borders following the recreation of the Southern Ocean and the reinclusion of marginal seas
Continents and islands of the Southern Ocean
A map of Australia's official interpretation of the names and limits of oceans and seas around Australia
1564 Typus Orbis Terrarum, a map by Abraham Ortelius showed the imagined link between the proposed continent of Antarctica and South America.
Portrait of Edmund Halley by Godfrey Kneller (before 1721)
"Terres Australes" (sic) label without any charted landmass
James Weddell's second expedition in 1823, depicting the brig and the cutter Beaufroy
Famous official portrait of Captain James Cook who proved that waters encompassed the southern latitudes of the globe. "He holds his own chart of the Southern Ocean on the table and his right hand points to the east coast of Australia on it."
Admiral von Bellingshausen
USS Vincennes at Disappointment Bay, Antarctica in early 1840.
1911 South Polar Regions exploration map
Frank Hurley, As time wore on it became more and more evident that the ship was doomed ( trapped in pack ice), National Library of Australia.
MS Explorer in Antarctica in January 1999. She sank on 23 November 2007 after hitting an iceberg.
Seas that are parts of the Southern Ocean
Manganese nodule
An iceberg being pushed out of a shipping lane by (L to R) USS Burton Island (AGB-1), USS Atka (AGB-3), and USS Glacier (AGB-4) near McMurdo Station, Antarctica, 1965
The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is the strongest current system in the world oceans, linking the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific basins.
Location of the Southern Ocean gyres.
Regional Working Group zones for SOOS
Orca (Orcinus orca) hunting a Weddell seal in the Southern Ocean
A wandering albatross (Diomedea exulans) on South Georgia
Fish of the Notothenioidei suborder, such as this young icefish, are mostly restricted to the Antarctic and Subantarctic
Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) are the most southerly of Antarctic mammals.
Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) are a keystone species of the food web.
A female warty squid (Moroteuthis ingens)
An adult and sub-adult Minke whale are dragged aboard the Japanese whaling vessel
Severe cracks in an ice pier in use for four seasons at McMurdo Station slowed cargo operations in 1983 and proved a safety hazard.

From Cape Leeuwin, the limit then followed eastwards along the coast of mainland Australia to Cape Otway, Victoria, then southwards across Bass Strait to Cape Wickham, King Island, along the west coast of King Island, then the remainder of the way south across Bass Strait to Cape Grim, Tasmania.

Federation of Australia

The Sydney Town Hall illuminated in celebratory lights and fireworks marking the Inauguration of the Commonwealth of Australia, 1901. The sign reads One people, one destiny.
Governor of Queensland Lord Lamington reading the Queen's proclamation on Federation in Brisbane
Published in 1888 this cartoon depicts the anti-Chinese sentiment that was one of the driving forces behind the push for federation.
The Federal Oak in the gardens of the Victorian Parliament House in Melbourne. The tree was planted in 1890 by Sir Henry Parkes to commemorate the meeting of the Australian Federal Conference.
Political cartoon from 1900 that shows the colonies of New Zealand and Fiji rejecting the offer to join the Federation, with Zealandia referencing Australia's origins as a penal colony.
Andrew Inglis Clark, circa 1907
A ribbon produced in Sydney
Results by colony of the 1898 referendums
Results by colony of the 1899–1900 referendums
The letters patent issued by Queen Victoria creating the office of Governor-General, issued in 1900 as a part of the process of implementing the new federal constitution.
The Constitution of Australia
The Royal Exhibition Building in Melbourne is the site of the first sitting of Federal parliament.
One of the many arches made to celebrate Federation, the Citizens Arch – National Museum, Canberra

The Federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British self-governing colonies of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, and Western Australia agreed to unite and form the Commonwealth of Australia, establishing a system of federalism in Australia.

Parliament of Victoria

Victorian Legislative Assembly
Victorian Legislative Council
Knight Kerr Room, often used by Parliamentary Committees

The Parliament of Victoria is the bicameral legislature of the Australian state of Victoria that follows a Westminster-derived parliamentary system.


The Boonwurrung people, are an Aboriginal people of the Kulin nation, who are the Traditional Owners of the land from the Werribee River to Wilsons Promontory, Victoria, Australia.