Victorian era

VictorianVictorian-eraVictorian periodVictorian EnglandVictorian timesVictoriansVictorian ageVictorian BritainVictorian societymid-Victorian
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.wikipedia
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Queen Victoria

VictoriaVictoria of the United KingdomDiamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.
Known as the Victorian era, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors.

History of the United Kingdom

United KingdomBritishUK History
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.
Culturally the Victorian era was a time of prosperity and dominant middle-class virtues when Britain dominated the world economy and maintained a generally peaceful century, 1815–1914.

Edwardian era

EdwardianEdwardian periodEdwardian England
The era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period, and its later half overlaps with the first part of the Belle Époque era of Continental Europe.
The death of Queen Victoria in January 1901 marked the end of the Victorian era.

Belle Époque

Belle EpoqueLa Belle ÉpoqueBelle-Époque
The era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period, and its later half overlaps with the first part of the Belle Époque era of Continental Europe.
In the United Kingdom, the Belle Époque overlapped with the late Victorian era and the Edwardian era in a period known as Pax Britannica; in Germany, it coincided with the reigns of William I, Frederick III and the Wilhelminism of Wilhelm II; in Italy, with the reigns of Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I and early of the reign of Victor Emmanuel III; in Spain, with the period known as the Restoration during the reigns of Alfonso XII and Alfonso XIII; in Portugal, the period was known as the Fontismo; in Romania, with the reign of Carol I in Greece, with the reign of George I; in Russia, with the reigns of Alexander III and Nicholas II; in Denmark, with the reigns of Christian IX and Frederick VIII; in Sweden and Norway, with the reign of Oscar II; in the Netherlands, with the reigns of William III and Wilhelmina; in Belgium, with the reign of Leopold II and early of the reign of Albert I; in Switzerland, it coincided with the beginnings of the Swiss federal state; in Austria-Hungary, with the reign of Franz Joseph I; in Serbia, with the reign of Peter I; in Canada, it coincided with the beginnings of the Canadian Confederation; in the United States, emerging from the Panic of 1873, the comparable period was the Gilded Age (1870s-1900s) ; in Australia, it coincided with the period known as the Australian Gold Rush; in Brazil, it started with the end of the Paraguayan War; and in Mexico, the period was known as the Porfiriato.

John Russell, 1st Earl Russell

Lord John RussellLord RussellJohn Russell
Peel was replaced by the Whig ministry of Lord John Russell.
John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, (18 August 1792 – 28 May 1878), known by his courtesy title Lord John Russell before 1861, was a leading Whig and Liberal politician who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain in 1846–1852, and 1865–1866 during the early Victorian era.

Asa Briggs

Briggs, AsaAsa Briggs, Baron BriggsLord Briggs
Asa Briggs points out, "There were as many treatises on 'domestic economy' in mid-Victorian England as on political economy"
He was a leading specialist on the Victorian era, and the foremost historian of broadcasting in Britain.

Georgian era

GeorgianGeorgian periodGeorgian England
The era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period, and its later half overlaps with the first part of the Belle Époque era of Continental Europe.
The expansion of empire brought fame to statesmen and explorers such as Clive of India and Captain Cook, and sowed the seeds of the worldwide British Empire of the Victorian and Edwardian eras which were to follow.

George Eliot

Mary Ann EvansEliotMary Anne Evans
They included John Stuart Mill, Thomas Carlyle, George Eliot and Matthew Arnold.
Mary Ann Evans (22 November 1819 – 22 December 1880; alternatively Mary Anne or Marian ), known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist, poet, journalist, translator and one of the leading writers of the Victorian era.

Thomas Carlyle

CarlyleCarlyle, ThomasCarlyles
They included John Stuart Mill, Thomas Carlyle, George Eliot and Matthew Arnold.
Considered one of the most important social commentators of his time, he presented many lectures during his lifetime with certain acclaim in the Victorian era.

University of Leeds

Leeds UniversityLeedsYorkshire College
Nonconformists (especially Unitarians and Presbyterians) played major roles in founding new universities in the late 19th century at Manchester, as well as Birmingham, Liverpool and Leeds.
The university's history is linked to the development of Leeds as an international centre for the textile industry and clothing manufacture in the United Kingdom during the Victorian era.

Charles Dickens

DickensDickensianDickens, Charles
Victorian Britain, like the periods before it, was interested in literature (see Charles Dickens, Arthur Conan Doyle, Charlotte, Emily and Anne Brontë, Robert Louis Stevenson and William Makepeace Thackeray), theatre and the arts (see Aesthetic movement and Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood), and music, drama, and opera were widely attended.
He created some of the world's best-known fictional characters and is regarded by many as the greatest novelist of the Victorian era.

Gothic fiction

GothicGothic novelgothic horror
Though it remained influential throughout the period, there was a notable resurgence of Gothic fiction in the fin de siècle, such as in Robert Louis Stevenson's novella Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1886) and Oscar Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray (1891).
Another well known novel in this genre, dating from the late Victorian era, is Bram Stoker's Dracula.

Gilbert and Sullivan

Gilbert & SullivancollaborationGilbert and Sullivan Society
Michael Balfe was the most popular British grand opera composer of the period, while the most popular musical theatre was a series of fourteen comic operas by Gilbert and Sullivan, although there was also musical burlesque and the beginning of Edwardian musical comedy in the 1890s.
Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian-era theatrical partnership of the dramatist W. S. Gilbert (1836–1911) and the composer Arthur Sullivan (1842–1900) and to the works they jointly created.

Victorian burlesque

burlesqueburlesquesmusical burlesque
Michael Balfe was the most popular British grand opera composer of the period, while the most popular musical theatre was a series of fourteen comic operas by Gilbert and Sullivan, although there was also musical burlesque and the beginning of Edwardian musical comedy in the 1890s.
Victorian burlesque, sometimes known as travesty or extravaganza, is a genre of theatrical entertainment that was popular in Victorian England and in the New York theatre of the mid 19th century.

Henry Irving

Sir Henry IrvingIrving[Henry] Irving
Drama ranged from low comedy to Shakespeare (see Henry Irving).
H. Irving''', was an English stage actor in the Victorian era, known as an actor-manager because he took complete responsibility (supervision of sets, lighting, direction, casting, as well as playing the leading roles) for season after season at the Lyceum Theatre, establishing himself and his company as representative of English classical theatre.

Bandstand

band standbandstandsband rotunda
Brass bands and 'The Bandstand' became popular in the Victorian era.
Many bandstands in the United Kingdom originated in the Victorian era as the British brass band movement gained popularity.

Social novel

industrial novelproblem novelsocial problem novel
In the 1830s and 1840s, the social novel (also "Condition-of-England novels") responded to the social, political and economic upheaval associated with industrialisation.
Dickens was a fierce critic of the poverty and social stratification of Victorian society.

The Picture of Dorian Gray

Dorian GrayPicture of Dorian GrayLord Henry Wotton
Though it remained influential throughout the period, there was a notable resurgence of Gothic fiction in the fin de siècle, such as in Robert Louis Stevenson's novella Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1886) and Oscar Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray (1891).
The Picture of Dorian Gray begins on a beautiful summer day in Victorian era England, where Lord Henry Wotton, an opinionated man, is observing the sensitive artist Basil Hallward painting the portrait of Dorian Gray, a handsome young man who is Basil's ultimate muse.

William Batty

Batty's HippodromeVictorian England circus proprietor of the same name
The permanent structure sustained three fires but as an institution lasted a full century, with Andrew Ducrow and William Batty managing the theatre in the middle part of the century.
Batty was one of the most successful circus proprietors in Victorian England and helped launch the careers of a number of leading Victorian circus personalities, such as Pablo Fanque, the versatile performer and later circus proprietor (best known today from his mention in The Beatles song "Being for the Benefit of Mr. Kite!"), and W.F. Wallett, one of the most celebrated clowns of the era.

Saltaire

model villageSaltaire, West Yorkshire
The model town of Saltaire was founded, along with others, as a planned environment with good sanitation and many civic, educational and recreational facilities, although it lacked a pub, which was regarded as a focus of dissent.
Saltaire is a Victorian model village located in Shipley, part of the City of Bradford Metropolitan District, in West Yorkshire, England.

Edwardian musical comedy

Edwardian musical comediesmusical comedymusical comedies
Michael Balfe was the most popular British grand opera composer of the period, while the most popular musical theatre was a series of fourteen comic operas by Gilbert and Sullivan, although there was also musical burlesque and the beginning of Edwardian musical comedy in the 1890s.
Edwardian musical comedy began in the last decade of the Victorian era and captured the optimism, energy and good humour of the new century and the Edwardian era, as well as providing comfort during the First World War.

British Raj

British IndiaIndiaBritish rule
During 1857–58, an uprising by sepoys against the East India Company was suppressed, an event that led to the end of Company rule in India and the transferral of administration to direct rule by the British government.
They remained tied to the strictures of their religion, caste, and customs, but now with an overlay of British Victorian attitudes.

George Stephenson

StephensonGeorgeengineer
By 1825 railways were commercially feasible, as demonstrated by George Stephenson (1791–1848) when he built the Stockton and Darlington.
Renowned as the "Father of Railways", Stephenson was considered by the Victorians a great example of diligent application and thirst for improvement.

Michael Sadleir

Sadleir, Michael
Michael Sadleir was insistent that "in truth the Victorian period is three periods, and not one".
Sadleir's best known novel was Fanny by Gaslight (1940), a fictional exploration of prostitution in Victorian London.

Beefsteak Club

BeefsteakSublime Society of Beef Steaksbeefsteak clubs
Gentlemen went to dining clubs, like the Beefsteak Club or the Savage Club.
Moreover, in Victorian England, its Georgian heartiness and ritual, and old-fashioned uniform, no longer appealed.