Video Graphics Array

VGAVGA graphicsVGA cardVGA monitor640 x 480640x480 resolutionQVGA640 × 400640 × 480IBM Video Graphics Array
Video Graphics Array (VGA) is a graphics standard for video display controller first introduced with the IBM PS/2 line of computers in 1987, following CGA and EGA introduced in earlier IBM personal computers.wikipedia
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VGA connector

VGAVGA portVGA out
Through widespread adoption, the term has also come to mean either an analog computer display standard, the 15-pin D-subminiature VGA connector, or the 640×480 resolution characteristic of the VGA hardware.
The 15-pin VGA connector was provided on many video cards, computer monitors, laptop computers, projectors, and high definition television sets.

Digital Visual Interface

DVIDVI-IDVI-D
How discernible this degradation depends on the individual's eyesight and the display, though it is more noticeable when switching to and from digital inputs like HDMI, DVI or DisplayPort.
Featuring support for analog connections, the DVI specification is compatible with the VGA interface.

Mode 13h

320x200320×200320×200 at 256 colours
Mode 13h is the standard 256-color mode on VGA graphics hardware introduced in 1987 with the IBM PS/2.

Video display controller

display controllergraphics chipVDP
Video Graphics Array (VGA) is a graphics standard for video display controller first introduced with the IBM PS/2 line of computers in 1987, following CGA and EGA introduced in earlier IBM personal computers.
An example of such a hybrid solution is the original VGA card, that used a 6845 in combination with an ASIC.

Enhanced Graphics Adapter

EGAEGA graphics16 colors
Video Graphics Array (VGA) is a graphics standard for video display controller first introduced with the IBM PS/2 line of computers in 1987, following CGA and EGA introduced in earlier IBM personal computers.
The Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA) is an IBM PC computer display standard from 1984 that superseded and exceeded the capabilities of the CGA standard introduced with the original IBM PC, and was itself superseded by the VGA standard in 1987.

DisplayPort

SlimPorteDPDisplay Stream Compression
How discernible this degradation depends on the individual's eyesight and the display, though it is more noticeable when switching to and from digital inputs like HDMI, DVI or DisplayPort.
For analog VGA/YPbPr and dual-link DVI, a powered active adapter is required for compatibility and does not rely on dual mode.

D-subminiature

DE-9D-subDB-25
Through widespread adoption, the term has also come to mean either an analog computer display standard, the 15-pin D-subminiature VGA connector, or the 640×480 resolution characteristic of the VGA hardware.
Later analog video (VGA and later) adapters generally replaced these connectors with DE15 high-density sockets (though some early VGA devices still used DE9 connectors).

IBM Personal System/2

PS/2IBM PS/2Personal System/2
Video Graphics Array (VGA) is a graphics standard for video display controller first introduced with the IBM PS/2 line of computers in 1987, following CGA and EGA introduced in earlier IBM personal computers.
Most of the initial range of PS/2 models were equipped with a new frame buffer known as the Video Graphics Array, or VGA for short.

Super VGA

SVGASVGA graphics800x600
It was officially followed by IBM's Extended Graphics Array (XGA) standard but instead was effectively superseded by numerous slightly different extensions to VGA made by clone manufacturers, collectively known as Super VGA.
Originally, it was an extension to the VGA standard first released by IBM in 1987.

Text mode

text-onlytext-modetext version
The VGA supports both All Points Addressable graphics modes and alphanumeric text modes.
The border between text mode and graphical programs can sometimes be fuzzy, especially on the PC's VGA hardware, because many later text mode programs tried to push the model to the extreme by playing with the video controller.

Computer display standard

graphics modedisplay mode320x240
Through widespread adoption, the term has also come to mean either an analog computer display standard, the 15-pin D-subminiature VGA connector, or the 640×480 resolution characteristic of the VGA hardware.

Color Graphics Adapter

CGACGA graphicsColor Graphics Adapter (CGA)
Video Graphics Array (VGA) is a graphics standard for video display controller first introduced with the IBM PS/2 line of computers in 1987, following CGA and EGA introduced in earlier IBM personal computers. VGA is referred to as an "Array" instead of an "adapter" because it was implemented from the start as a single chip – an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) which replaced both the Motorola 6845 video address generator and the dozens of discrete logic chips that covered the full-length ISA boards of the MDA and CGA.
It is this "RGBI with tweaked brown" palette, shown in the complete palette to the right, that all later PC graphics standards such as EGA and VGA have retained for compatibility as a power-on default setting of their internal palette registers and/or DAC registers.

Motorola 6845

MC684568456545
VGA is referred to as an "Array" instead of an "adapter" because it was implemented from the start as a single chip – an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) which replaced both the Motorola 6845 video address generator and the dozens of discrete logic chips that covered the full-length ISA boards of the MDA and CGA.
Its functionality was duplicated and extended by custom circuits in the EGA and VGA PC video adapters.

Multi-Color Graphics Array

MCGAMulticolor Graphics Adapter (MCGA)
MCGA is similar to VGA in that it had a 256-color mode (the 256-color mode in VGA was sometimes referred to as MCGA) and uses 15-pin analog connectors.

Pixel

megapixelpxMP
SVGA enabled graphics display resolutions up to 800×600 pixels, 36% more than VGA's maximum resolution of 640×480 pixels.
Pixel counts can be expressed as a single number, as in a "three-megapixel" digital camera, which has a nominal three million pixels, or as a pair of numbers, as in a "640 by 480 display", which has 640 pixels from side to side and 480 from top to bottom (as in a VGA display) and therefore has a total number of 640 × 480 = 307,200 pixels, or 0.3 megapixels.

Code page 437

437CP437codepage 437
This functionality is hard-wired to the character numbers C0 hex to DF hex, where all horizontally connecting characters are found in code page 437 and its most common derivatives.
This character set remains the primary font in the core of any EGA and VGA-compatible graphics card.

Motherboard

motherboardsmainboardlogic board
Its single-chip implementation allowed the VGA to be placed directly on a PC′s motherboard with a minimum of difficulty, which in turn increased the reliability of the video subsystem by reducing the number of component connections, since the VGA required only video memory, timing crystals and an external RAMDAC.

HDMI

High-Definition Multimedia InterfaceHDMI 1.4HDMI 2.0
How discernible this degradation depends on the individual's eyesight and the display, though it is more noticeable when switching to and from digital inputs like HDMI, DVI or DisplayPort.
In December 2010, it was announced that several computer vendors and display makers including Intel, AMD, Dell, Lenovo, Samsung, and LG would stop using LVDS (actually, FPD-Link) from 2013 and legacy DVI and VGA connectors from 2015, replacing them with DisplayPort and HDMI.

Hercules Graphics Card

HerculesHGCHercules Graphics Adapter
VGA is not directly compatible with the special IBM PCjr or HGC video modes, despite having sufficient resolution, color, refresh rate and memory capabilities; any emulation of these modes has to be performed in software instead.
When it was disabled, the addresses used by the card did not overlap with those used by color adapters such as CGA or VGA.

List of 16-bit computer color palettes

List of 16-bit computer hardware palettes16 CGA colors256 simultaneous colors
CGA was able to display 16 fixed colors, and EGA extended this by using 16 palette registers, each containing a color value from a 64-color palette.
The Multi-Color Graphics Array (MCGA) and Video Graphics Array (VGA) used a 6-bits per channel, 64 levels Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) to give an 18-bit RGB palette (262,144 colors), from which can be selected any 2, 16, or 256 at a time.

RAMDAC

Its single-chip implementation allowed the VGA to be placed directly on a PC′s motherboard with a minimum of difficulty, which in turn increased the reliability of the video subsystem by reducing the number of component connections, since the VGA required only video memory, timing crystals and an external RAMDAC.
The term RAMDAC did not enter into common PC-terminology until IBM introduced the IBM VGA display adapter in 1987.

Overscan

underscancrop the edges of the pictureoverscan/underscan
These modes were also outright incompatible with some monitors, producing display problems such as picture detail disappearing into overscan (especially in the horizontal dimension), vertical roll, poor horizontal sync or even a complete lack of picture depending on the exact mode attempted.
When driven by analog video signals such as VGA, however, displays are subject to timing variations and cannot achieve this level of precision.

List of monochrome and RGB palettes

4096 colors12-bit4096
CGA was able to display 16 fixed colors, and EGA extended this by using 16 palette registers, each containing a color value from a 64-color palette.

Planar (computer graphics)

planarbit planebit-plane format
The later VGA includes one non-planar mode which sacrifices memory efficiency for more convenient access.

Mode X

Video tweakingX-Modes
"320×240×8" resolution was commonly called Mode X, the name used by Michael Abrash when he presented the resolution in Dr. Dobb's Journal.
Mode X is an alternative graphics display mode of the IBM VGA graphics hardware that was popularized by Michael Abrash.