Vidisha

Relative locations of the Heliodorus pillar, Besnagar, Vidisha, Sanchi and the Udayagiri Caves.
The inscription 𑀯𑁂𑀤𑀺𑀲 Vedisa (for the city of Vidisha) at Sanchi, Brahmi script, 1st century BCE.
Pataria Jain temples
Pillar in the Bijamaṇḍal with an inscription of Naravarman
Maladevi temple
Capital of one of the pillars of Ashoka, from Udayagiri near Vidisha.
Jain sculpture inside Bajramath temple
Vidisha District Museum.
View of platform No.1
Archaeological plan of the old city of Besnagar
Archaeological layers at Besnagar: the Temple of Vāsudeva in the forefront, and the Heliodorus pillar in the back
Besnagar pottery Period V
Besnagar silver punch-marked coins.
Besnagar Yakshini
Besnagar Kalpadruma
Besnagar Buddhist railings
Besnagar Buddhist railings
Besnagar pillar capitals
View of Heliodorus pillar
Besnagar Ganga statue

City in central Madhya Pradesh, India.

- Vidisha

140 related topics

Relevance

Greatest extent of Paramaras under Emperor Bhoja 9th.

Paramara dynasty

Rajput dynasty that ruled Malwa and surrounding areas in west-central India between 9th and 14th centuries.

Rajput dynasty that ruled Malwa and surrounding areas in west-central India between 9th and 14th centuries.

Greatest extent of Paramaras under Emperor Bhoja 9th.
Harsola copper plates
Greatest extent of Paramaras under Emperor Bhoja 9th.
Chamunda, Paramaras, 12th century CE, Madhya Pradesh.
The Bhojeshwar Temple, Paramara dynasty, Bhojpur
Detail of the masonry of the northern dam at Bhojpur
Statues at Bhojeshwar Temple, Paramara dynasty, Bhojpur.
Pillar in the Bijamaṇḍal, Vidisha with an inscription of Naravarman
A Chaulukya-Paramara coin, c. 950-1050 CE. Stylized rendition of Chavda dynasty coins: Indo-Sassanian style bust right; pellets and ornaments around / Stylised fire altar; pellets around.<ref>{{Cite web | url=https://www.cngcoins.com/Coin.aspx?CoinID=261205 | title=CNG: EAuction 329. INDIA, Post-Gupta (Chaulukya-Paramara). Circa AD 950-1050. AR Drachm (16mm, 4.41 g, 6h) | access-date=15 July 2017 | archive-date=4 September 2017 | archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170904104559/https://www.cngcoins.com/Coin.aspx?CoinID=261205 | url-status=live }}</ref>
Coin of the Paramara king Naravarman, c. 1094-1133. Goddess Lakshmi seated facing / Devanagari legend.<ref>{{Cite web |url=https://www.cngcoins.com/Coin.aspx?CoinID=88523 |title=CNG Coins |access-date=15 July 2017 |archive-date=27 March 2019 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190327090215/https://www.cngcoins.com/Coin.aspx?CoinID=88523 |url-status=live }}</ref>
Coin of the Paramara prince Jagadeva, 12th-13th centuries CE.

The dynasty reached its zenith under Munja's nephew Bhoja, whose kingdom extended from Chittor in the north to Konkan in the south, and from the Sabarmati River in the west to Vidisha in the east.

Heliodorus pillar

The fan-palm pinnacle Cunningham assumed belonged to the Heliodorus pillar.
a second pillar capital
a third pillar capital of similar style
Heliodorus pillar, 1913-15 excavation.
A cross-section of the Heliodorus pillar sketched during the 1913 CE archaeological excavation.
Structure and decorative elements of the Heliodorus pillar. The pillar originally supported a statue of Garuda, now lost, or possibly located in the Gujari Mahal Museum in Gwalior.
Main inscription of the Heliodorus pillar, circa 110 BCE.
Relief depicting a portable Garuda pillar, one of the oldest images of Garuda, Bharhut, 100 BCE. This may have been similar to the Garuda capital of the Heliodorus pillar.
a portable Garuda standard illustrated
310px
Images of the deities were probably present in shrines adjoining the pillars, in a style rather similar with their depiction on the coinage of Agathocles of Bactria (190-180 BCE). Here Saṃkarṣaṇa and Vāsudeva are shown with their attributes.
The deity to whom the Heliodorus pillar was dedicated: Vāsudeva, as depicted on a coin of Agathocles of Bactria, 190-180 BCE.
The fan-palm capital, found next to the Heliodorus pillar, is associated with Saṃkarṣaṇa.
The Makara capital, found at the site of the Heliodorus pillar, is associated with Pradyumna. <ref>{{cite book|last1=Ayyar|first1=Sulochana|title=Costumes and Ornaments as Depicted in the Sculptures of Gwalior Museum|date=1987|publisher=Mittal Publications|isbn=978-81-7099-002-4|page=13|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=G9eHPXL6UE0C&pg=PA13|language=en}}</ref> 2nd century BCE.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=VIENNOT|first1=Odette|title=Le Makara dans la Décoration des Monuments de l'Inde Ancienne : Positions et Fonctions|journal=Arts Asiatiques|volume=5|issue=3|date=1958|page=184|jstor=43484068 }}</ref> Gwalior Museum.<ref>Visible in the back of the image entitled "Lion capital – Udayagiri – 5th century": {{cite web|title=Gujari Mahal State Archaeological Museum – Gwalior|url=https://kevinstandagephotography.wordpress.com/2019/04/15/gujari-mahal-state-archaeological-museum-gwalior/#jp-carousel-16148|website=Kevin Standage|language=en|date=15 April 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last1=Ayyar|first1=Sulochana|title=Costumes and Ornaments as Depicted in the Sculptures of Gwalior Museum|date=1987|publisher=Mittal Publications|isbn=978-81-7099-002-4|page=13|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=G9eHPXL6UE0C&pg=PA13|language=en}}</ref>
A pillar capital shaped as a Kalpadruma tree, also found nearby at Besnagar, probably associated with Lakshmi. Indian Museum, Kolkata.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Ayyar|first1=Sulochana|title=Costumes and Ornaments as Depicted in the Sculptures of Gwalior Museum|date=1987|publisher=Mittal Publications|isbn=978-81-7099-002-4|page=13|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=G9eHPXL6UE0C&pg=PA13|language=en}}</ref>
Possible statue of the goddess Lakshmi, also associated with the Bhagavat cult.
Location of the Heliodorus pillar in relation to Besnagar, Vidisha, Sanchi and the Udayagiri Caves.
Heliodorus was the ambassador of king Antialcidas (here depicted on one of his coins).
The contemporary pillar in nearby Sanchi.

The Heliodorus pillar is a stone column that was erected around 113 BCE in central India in Besnagar (near Vidisha, Madhya Pradesh).

Man on a relief, Bharhut, Shunga period.

Shunga Empire

Ancient Indian dynasty from Magadha that controlled areas of the central and eastern Indian subcontinent from around 185 to 73 BCE.

Ancient Indian dynasty from Magadha that controlled areas of the central and eastern Indian subcontinent from around 185 to 73 BCE.

Man on a relief, Bharhut, Shunga period.
Royal family, Shunga, West Bengal 1st century BCE.
Shunga horseman, Bharhut.
Shunga period stupa at Sanchi.
East Gateway and Railings, Red Sandstone, Bharhut Stupa, 2nd century BCE. Indian Museum, Kolkata.
The Great Stupa under the Shungas. The Shungas nearly doubled the diameter of the initial stupa, encasing it in stone, and built a balustrade and a railing around it.
Extent of the Shunga Empire
Vedika pillar with "Yavana" Greek warrior. Bharhut, Madhya Pradesh, Shunga Period, c. 100-80 BC. Reddish brown sandstone. Indian Museum, Calcutta.
The Yavanarajya inscription, dated to "year 116 of Yavana hegemony", probably 70 or 69 BCE, was discovered in Mathura. Mathura Museum.
The Heliodorus pillar was built in Vidisha under the Shungas, at the instigation of Heliodorus, ambassador of the Indo-Greek king Antialcidas. The pillar originally supported a statue of Garuda. Established circa 100 BCE.
The Sunga territory circa 100 BCE, greatly reduced to the region of Magadha only, with many independent, petty kingdoms such as such as Mathura and Panchala
Shunga balustrade and staircase.
Shunga stonework.
Shunga vedika (railing) with inscriptions.
Deambulatory pathway.
Summit railing and umbrellas.
Elephant and Riders.
Balustrade post with Lakshmi.
Balustrade post with Yaksha.
Pillar with elephants supporting a wheel.
Personage.
Lotus.
Floral motif.
Foreigner on a horse, circa 115 BCE.
Ashoka supported by his two wives. Similar to [[:File:Sanchi King Ashoka with his Queens, South Gate, Stupa no. 1.jpg|the later relief at Gateway 1]].
Relic boxes found inside the stupa.
Stairway and railing.
Lotus medallions.
Floral designs.
Post relief.<ref>Marshall p.82</ref>
Relics of Sariputra and Mahamoggallana.
Chandraketugarth, goddess of fecundity.
Chandraketugarth.
Shunga Yakshi, 2nd–1st century BCE.
Shunga masculine figurine (molded plate). 2nd–1st century BCE.
Shunga woman with child. 2nd–1st century BCE.
Shunga Yaksha. 2nd–1st century BCE.
Shunga mother figure, with attendant. 2nd–1st century BCE.
Shunga fecundity deity. 2nd–1st century BCE.
Baluster-holding yakṣa, Madhya Pradesh, Shunga period (2nd–1st century BCE). Guimet Museum.
Amorous royal couple. Shunga, 1st century BCE, West Bengal.
Sunga Love Scene.
Bronze coin of the Shunga period, Eastern India. 2nd–1st century BCE.
Another Shunga coin
A copper coin of 1/4 karshapana of Ujjain in Malwa.
Shunga coin.

Its capital was Pataliputra, but later emperors such as Bhagabhadra also held court at Besnagar (modern Vidisha) in eastern Malwa.

Sanchi

Buddhist complex, famous for its Great Stupa, on a hilltop at Sanchi Town in Raisen District of the State of Madhya Pradesh, India.

Buddhist complex, famous for its Great Stupa, on a hilltop at Sanchi Town in Raisen District of the State of Madhya Pradesh, India.

Plan of the monuments of the hill of Sanchi, numbered 1 to 50.
The Ashoka pillar at Sanchi.
The capital of the Sanchi pillar of Ashoka, as discovered (left), and simulation of original appearance (right). It is very similar to the Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath, except for the abacus, here adorned with flame palmettes and facing geese, 250 BCE. Sanchi Archaeological Museum.
by later illustrations among the Sanchi reliefs
The Great Stupa under the Sungas. The Sungas nearly doubled the diameter of the initial stupa, encasing it in stone, and built a balustrade and a railing around it.
Foreigner on a horse, circa 115 BCE, Stupa No2.
Sunga period railings were initially blank (left: Great Stupa), and only started to be decorated circa 115 BCE with Stupa No.2 (right).
Sunga pillar No25 with own capital on the side.
Siri-Satakani inscription
Cave No.19
The Worship of the Bodhisattva's hair
Vedisakehi damtakārehi rupakammam katam
The Great Stupa at the time of the Satavahanas.
Temptation of the Buddha, with the Buddha on the left (symbolized by his throne only) surrounded by rejoicing devotees, Mara and his daughters (center), and the demons of Mara fleeing (right).
War over the Buddha's Relics, kept by the city of Kushinagar, South Gate, Stupa no.1, Sanchi.
King Ashoka visits Ramagrama, to take relics of the Buddha from the Nagas, but he failed, the Nagas being too powerful. Southern gateway, Stupa 1, Southern Gateway, Sanchi.
Ashoka in grief, supported by his two queens, in a relief at Sanchi. Stupa 1, Southern gateway. The identification with Ashoka is confirm by a similar relief from Kanaganahalli inscribed "Raya Asoko".
Bodhi tree temple depicted in Sanchi, Stupa 1, Southern gateway.
Temple for the Bodhi Tree (Eastern Gateway).
foreigners illustrated at Sanchi worshiping the Great Stupa
Foreigners worshiping Stupa
Greek travelling costume
Another one
Miracle at Kapilavastu
Miracle of the Buddha walking on the river Nairanjana
Procession of king Suddhodana from Kapilavastu
"The promenade of the Buddha", or Chankrama, used to depict the Buddha in motion in Buddhist aniconism.
Bimbisara with his royal cortege issuing from the city of Rajagriha to visit the Buddha
Foreigners making a dedication at the Southern Gateway of Stupa No 1
Stupas and monasteries at Sanchi in the early centuries of the current era. Reconstruction, 1900
Sanchi inscription of Chandragupta II.
Temple 17: a Gupta period tetrastyle prostyle temple of Classical appearance. 5th century CE
Statue of Padmapani (5th c.or 9th c.) Victoria and Albert Museum.
Pillar 26: one of the two four-lions stambha capitals at Sanchi, with lions, central flame palmette and Wheel of Law (axis, stubs of the spokes and part of the circumference only), initially located at the Northern Gateway of the Great Stupa. Sanchi Archaeological Museum.
Pillar 26: lion pillar capital at time of discovery, with Dharmachakra wheel (reconstitution). Northern Gateway.
this image
Pillar 35 column stump (right), and bell capital with abacus, positioned upside down.
Vajrapani statue of pillar 35, 5th c. CE. Sanchi Archaeological Museum.
Temple 18 at Sanchi, an apsidal hall with Maurya foundations, rebuilt at the time of Harsha (7th century CE).
Temple 45
The Great Stupa as breached by Sir Herbert Maddock in 1822. Watercolor by Frederick Charles Maisey, in 1851.
Ruins of the Southern Gateway, Sanchi in 1875.
A Gate to the Stupa of Sanchi 1932
Chetiyagiri Vihara
Inscribed panel from Sanchi in Brahmi script in the British Museum
The last two letters to the right of this inscription in Brahmi form the word "dǎnam" (donation). This hypothesis permitted the decipherment of the Brahmi script by James Prinsep in 1837.
General view of the Stupas at Sanchi by F.C. Maisey, 1851 (The Great Stupa on top of the hill, and Stupa 2 at the forefront)
The Great Stupa (Stupa No.1), started in the 3rd century BCE
Stupa No.2
Stupa No.3
Buddhist Temple, No.17
Remains of the Ashokan Pillar in polished stone (right of the Southern Gateway), with its Edict.
Sanchi Minor Pillar Edict of Ashoka, in-situ (detail of the previous image).
Remains of the shaft of the pillar of Ashoka, under a shed near the Southern Gateway.
Side view of the capital. Sanchi Archaeological Museum.<ref name="p.25-28 Ashoka pillar"/>
Shunga balustrade and staircase.
Shunga stonework.
Shunga vedika (railing) with inscriptions.
Deambulatory pathway.
Summit railing and umbrellas.
Flame palmette.
Flame palmette and lotus.
Peacock.
Woman riding a Centaur.
Lotus.
Half lotus.
Lion.
Elephant.
Elephant with branch.
Floral motif.
Lakshmi with lotus and two child attendants, probably derived from [[:File:Venus with two cupids 2.jpg|similar images of Venus]]<ref>An Indian Statuette From Pompeii, Mirella Levi D'Ancona, in Artibus Asiae, Vol. 13, No. 3 (1950) p. 171</ref>
Griffin with Brahmi script inscription.
Female riding a Centaur.
Lotus within beads and reels motif.
Stairway and railing.
Lotus medallions.
Floral designs.
Post relief.<ref>Marshall p. 82</ref>
Relics of Sariputra and Mahamoggallana.
Detail of the foreigners, in Greek dress and playing carnyxes and aolus flute. Northern Gateway of Stupa I (detail).
Foreigners holding grapes and riding winged lions, Sanchi Stupa 1, Eastern Gateway.<ref>"The Diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity, John Boardman, 1993, p. 112 Note 91</ref>
Foreigners riding horses.
Foreign heroe fighting a Makara
Foreigners on horses, wearing headbands, caps and boots. Western gate of Stupa 1.
Hero with headband wrestling a Makara.
Indians riding horses.
Indians riding bulls.
Indians riding bulls.
Queen Maya lustrated by Elephants.
The Buddha represented by the Dharmacakra.
Bodhi Tree.
Winged lion.
Winged lions.
The Buddha represented by the Dharmacakra.
Men and Women on Elephants.
Men and Women on Elephants.
Stupa representing a Buddha.
Lakshmi lustrated by Elephants.
Men on lions.
Men on lions.
2nd panel
3rd panel
Second panel
Bottom panel Dvarapala guardian deity or devotee.
Second panel
Possibly demons, or the attack of Mara.
Second panel
Bottom panel Dvarapala guardian deity or devotee.
2nd panel
3rd panel
A Seated Buddha statue (Gupta temple).
Buddha Statue (Great Stupa).
Seated Buddha (Great Stupa).
Pillar 34 with lion.<ref>Marshall p. 52 Pillar 34</ref>
The winged lion capital of pillar 34 (lost).
Great Stupa, Eastern Gateway, in 1875.
West Gateway in 1882.
South Gateway in 1882.
Great Stupa, Northern Gateway in 1861.
Temple 18 in 1861.
A vision of ancient Indian court life, using motifs from Sanchi (wood engraving, 1878).

The original construction work of this stupa was overseen by Ashoka, whose wife Devi was the daughter of a merchant of nearby Vidisha.

Approximate extent of the Gupta territories (pink) in 375 CE

Gupta Empire

Ancient Indian empire which existed from the early 4th century CE to late 6th century CE.

Ancient Indian empire which existed from the early 4th century CE to late 6th century CE.

Approximate extent of the Gupta territories (pink) in 375 CE
Gupta script inscription Maharaja Sri Gupta Gupta allahabad m.svg Gupta allahabad haa.jpg Gupta allahabad raa.jpg Gupta allahabad j.svg Gupta allahabad shrii.jpg Gupta allahabad gu.jpg allahabad pt.jpg ("Great King, Lord Gupta"), mentioning the first ruler of the dynasty, king Gupta. Inscription by Samudragupta on the Allahabad pillar, where Samudragupta presents king Gupta as his great-grandfather. Dated circa 350 CE.
Approximate extent of the Gupta territories (pink) in 375 CE
Queen Kumaradevi and King Chandragupta I, depicted on a gold coin.
14px
Standing Buddha in red sandstone, Art of Mathura, Gupta period circa 5th century CE. Mathura Museum.
Gold coins of Chandragupta II.
Sculpture of Vishnu (red sandstone), 5th century CE.
Jain tirthankara relief Parshvanatha on Kahaum pillar erected by Skandagupta
An 8 gm gold coin featuring Chandragupta II astride a caparisoned horse with a bow in his left hand.
Dharmachakra Pravartana Buddha at Sarnath from the Gupta era, 5th century CE.
A tetrastyle prostyle Gupta period temple at Sanchi besides the Apsidal hall with Maurya foundation, an example of Buddhist architecture. 5th century CE.
The current structure of the Mahabodhi Temple dates to the Gupta era, 5th century CE. Marking the location where the Buddha is said to have attained enlightenment.
Dashavatara Temple is a Vishnu Hindu temple built during the Gupta period.
Vishnu reclining on the serpent Shesha (Ananta), Dashavatara Temple 5th century
Buddha from Sarnath, 5–6th century CE
The Colossal trimurti at the Elephanta Caves
Painting of Padmapani Cave 1 at Ajanta
The Shiva mukhalinga (faced-lingam) from the Bhumara Temple
Nalrajar Garh fortification wall in Chilapata Forests, West Bengal, is one of the last surviving fortification remains from the Gupta period ,currently 5–7 m high
Nalanda university was first established under Gupta empire
Bitargaon temple from the Gupta period provide one of the earliest examples of pointed arches anywhere in the world
Ajanta caves from Gupta era
Krishna fighting the horse demon Keshi, 5th century

A large number of his copper coins also have been found from the Eran-Vidisha region and classified in five distinct types, which include the Garuda, Garudadhvaja, lion and border legend types.

A c. 1st century BCE/CE relief from Sanchi, showing Ashoka on his chariot, visiting the Nagas at Ramagrama.

Ashoka

Indian emperor of the Maurya Empire, son of Bindusara, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from c. 268 to 232 BCE.

Indian emperor of the Maurya Empire, son of Bindusara, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from c. 268 to 232 BCE.

A c. 1st century BCE/CE relief from Sanchi, showing Ashoka on his chariot, visiting the Nagas at Ramagrama.
Ashoka's Major Rock Edict at Junagadh contains inscriptions by Ashoka (fourteen of the Edicts of Ashoka), Rudradaman I and Skandagupta.
King Ashoka visits Ramagrama, to take relics of the Buddha from the Nagas, but in vain. Southern gateway, Stupa 1, Sanchi.
The Major Rock Edict No.13 of Ashoka, mentions the Greek kings Antiochus, Ptolemy, Antigonus, Magas and Alexander by name, as recipients of his teachings.
The Aramaic Inscription of Taxila probably mentions Ashoka.
The Saru Maru commemorative inscription seems to mention the presence of Ashoka in the area of Ujjain as he was still a Prince.
Kanaganahalli inscribed panel portraying Asoka with Brahmi label "King Asoka", 1st–3rd century CE.
Stupa of Sanchi. The central stupa was built during the Mauryas, and enlarged during the Sungas, but the decorative gateway is dated to the later dynasty of the Satavahanas.
Illustration of the original Mahabodhi Temple temple built by Asoka at Bodh Gaya. At the center, the Vajrasana, or "Enlightenment Throne of the Buddha", with its supporting columns, being the object of adoration. A Pillar of Ashoka topped by an elephant appears in the right corner. Bharhut relief, 1st century BCE.
The rediscovered Vajrasana, or "Enlightenment Throne of the Buddha", at the Mahabodhi Temple in Bodh Gaya. It was built by Ashoka to commemorate the enlightenment of the Buddha, about two hundred years before him.
Ashoka and Monk Moggaliputta-Tissa at the Third Buddhist Council. Nava Jetavana, Shravasti.
A king - most probably Ashoka - with his two queens and three attendants, in a relief at Sanchi. The king's identification with Ashoka is suggested by a similar relief at Kanaganahalli, which bears his name.
Ashoka with his queen, at Kanaganahalli near Sannati, 1st–3rd century CE. The relief bears the inscription "Rāya Asoko" (𑀭𑀸𑀬 𑀅𑀲𑁄𑀓𑁄, "King Ashoka") in Brahmi script. It depicts the king with his queen, two attendants bearing fly-whisks, and one attendant bearing an umbrella.
Emperor Ashoka and his Queen at the Deer Park. Sanchi relief.
The word Upāsaka (𑀉𑀧𑀸𑀲𑀓, "Buddhist lay follower", in the Brahmi script), used by Ashoka in his Minor Rock Edict No.1 to describe his affiliation to Buddhism (circa 258 BCE).
Territories "conquered by the Dhamma" according to Major Rock Edict No.13 of Ashoka (260–218 BCE).
Distribution of the Edicts of Ashoka, and location of the contemporary Greek city of Ai-Khanoum.
The Kandahar Edict of Ashoka, a bilingual inscription (in Greek and Aramaic) by King Ashoka, discovered at Kandahar (National Museum of Afghanistan).
The Minor Rock Edict of Maski mentions the author as "Devanampriya Asoka", definitively linking both names, and confirming Ashoka as the author of the famous Edicts.
A c. 1910 painting by Abanindranath Tagore (1871–1951) depicting Ashoka's queen standing in front of the railings of the Buddhist monument at Sanchi (Raisen district, Madhya Pradesh).
The Ashokan pillar at Lumbini, Nepal, Buddha's birthplace
The Diamond throne at the Mahabodhi Temple, attributed to Ashoka
Front frieze of the Diamond throne
Mauryan ringstone, with standing goddess. Northwest Pakistan. 3rd century BCE. British Museum
Rampurva bull capital, detail of the abacus, with two "flame palmettes" framing a lotus surrounded by small rosette flowers.
Caduceus symbol on a Maurya-era punch-marked coin
A punch-marked coin attributed to Ashoka<ref>{{cite book |last=Mitchiner |first=Michael |date=1978 |title=Oriental Coins & Their Values: The Ancient and Classical World 600 B.C. - A.D. 650 |publisher=Hawkins Publications |page=544 |isbn=978-0-9041731-6-1}}</ref>
A Maurya-era silver coin of 1 karshapana, possibly from Ashoka's period, workshop of Mathura. Obverse: Symbols including a sun and an animal Reverse: Symbol Dimensions: 13.92 x 11.75 mm Weight: 3.4 g.

According to the Sri Lankan tradition, Ashoka visited Vidisha, where he fell in love with a beautiful woman on his way to Ujjain.

13px

Western Satraps

The Western Satraps, or Western Kshatrapas (Brahmi:Gupta ashoka tr.jpg, Mahakṣatrapa, "Great Satraps") were Indo-Scythian (Saka) rulers of the western and central part of India (Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh states), between 35 to 415 CE.

The Western Satraps, or Western Kshatrapas (Brahmi:Gupta ashoka tr.jpg, Mahakṣatrapa, "Great Satraps") were Indo-Scythian (Saka) rulers of the western and central part of India (Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh states), between 35 to 415 CE.

13px
13px
13px
11px
The rulers of the Western Satraps were called (𑀫𑀳𑀸𑀔𑀢𑀧, "Great Satrap") in their Brahmi script inscriptions, as here in a dedicatory inscription by Prime Minister Ayama in the name of his ruler Nahapana, Manmodi Caves, circa 100 CE. Nahapana was also attributed the titles of ("King") and  ("Lord") conjointly.
Coin of Bhumaka (?–119). Obv: Arrow, pellet, and thunderbolt. Kharoshthi inscription Chaharasada Chatrapasa Bhumakasa: "Ksaharata Satrap Bhumaka". Rev: Capital of a pillar with seated lion with upraised paw, and wheel (dharmachakra). Brahmi inscription: Kshaharatasa Kshatrapasa Bhumakasa.
Coin of Nahapana (whose rule is variously dated to 24-70 CE, 66-71 CE, or 119–124 CE), a direct derivation from Indo-Greek coinage. British Museum.
The Greco-Prakrit title "RANNIO KSAHARATA" ("ΡΑΝΝΙ ω ΞΑΗΑΡΑΤΑ(Ϲ)", Prakrit for "King Kshaharata" rendered in corrupted Greek letters) on the obverse of the coinage of Nahapana.
Karla Caves, inscription of Nahapana.
Nasik Cave inscription No.10. of Nahapana, Cave No.10.
One of the pillars built by Ushavadata, viceroy of Nahapana, circa 120 CE, Nasik Caves, cave No10.
Nahapana coin hoard.
The Western Satraps under Nahapana, with their harbour of Barigaza, were among the main actors of the 1st century CE international trade according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.
The "Saka-Yavana-Palhava" (Brahmi script: 𑀲𑀓 𑀬𑀯𑀦 𑀧𑀮𑁆𑀳𑀯) defeated by Gautamiputra Satakarni, mentioned in the Nasik cave 3 inscription of Queen Gotami Balasiri (end of line 5 of the inscription).
Coin of Gautamiputra Yajna Satakarni struck over a drachm of Nahapana. Circa 167-196 CE. Ujjain symbol and three arched mountain symbol struck respectively on the obverse and reverse of a drachm of Nahapana.
Coin of the Western Satrap Chastana (c. 130 CE). Obv: King in profile. The legend typically reads "PANNIΩ IATPAΠAC CIASTANCA" (corrupted Greek script), transliteration of the Prakrit Raño Kshatrapasa Castana: "King and Satrap Castana".
Statue of Chastana, with costume details. The belt displays designs of horsemen and tritons/anguipeds, the coat has a highly ornate hem. Inscription "Shastana" (Middle Brahmi script: Gupta ashoka ss.svg ashoka sta.jpgGupta ashoka n.svg Ṣa-sta-na). Mathura Museum.
Silver coin of Rudradaman I (130–150). Obv: Bust of Rudradaman, with corrupted Greek legend "OVONIΛOOCVΛCHΛNO". Rev: Three-arched hill or Chaitya with river, crescent and sun. Brahmi legend: Rajno Ksatrapasa Jayadamasaputrasa Rajno Mahaksatrapasa Rudradamasa: "King and Great Satrap Rudradaman, son of King and Satrap Jayadaman" 16mm, 2.0 grams.
The Junagadh rock contains inscriptions of Ashoka (fourteen of the Edicts of Ashoka), Rudradaman I (the Junagadh rock inscription of Rudradaman)and Skandagupta.
A coin dated to the beginning of the first reign of Jivadaman, in the year 100 (One hundred in the Brahmi script of the Western Satraps.jpg) of the Saka Era (corresponding to 178 CE).
Brāhmī numerals
Coin of the Western Kshatrapa ruler Rudrasimha I (178–197).
Obv: Bust of Rudrasimha, with corrupted Greek legend "..OHIIOIH.." (Indo-Greek style).
Rev: Three-arched hill or Chaitya, with river, crescent and sun, within Prakrit legend in Brahmi script: Rudrasimha_I,_Brahmi_legend_on_coinage.jpg "King and Great Satrap Rudrasimha, son of King and Great Satrap Rudradaman".
Rudrasena II (256-278 CE). Head right, wearing close-fitting cap / Three-arched hill; group of five pellets to right.
Head of Buddha Shakyamuni, Devnimori, Gujarat (375-400). Derived from the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara, an example of the Western Indian art of the Western Satraps.
Location of the Sasanian coinage of Sindh, circa 400 CE, in relation with the other polities of the time.
Coin of the last Western Satrap ruler Rudrasimha III (388–395).
The victorious Sanchi inscription of Chandragupta II (412-413 CE).
Coin of Damasena. The minting date, here 153 (100-50-3 in [[:File:Brahmi numeral signs.svg|Brahmi script numerals]]) of the Saka era, therefore 232 CE, clearly appears behind the head of the king.
An imitation of Western Satrap coinage: silver coin of king Dahrasena (c. 415–455 CE), of the Traikutaka dynasty.
The inscription of Ushavadata, son-in-law of Nahapana, runs the length of the entrance wall of one of the Nasik caves, over the doors, and is here visible in parts between the pillars. Actual image, and corresponding rubbing. Cave No.10, Nasik Caves.
The Junagadh rock inscription, inscribed by Rudradaman I circa 150 CE, is "the first long inscription recorded entirely in more or less standard Sanskrit".
The Western Satraps (orange) and the Kushan Empire (green), in the 2nd century CE
10px
10px
Genealogical table of the Western Satraps
Hall of the Great Chaitya Cave at Karla (120 CE)
Right row of columns
Chaitya roof
Capitals
Donative inscription by a Yavana ("Indo-Greek") named Vitasamghata.<ref>Epigraphia Indica Vol.18 p.326 Inscription No1</ref>
Front
Veranda
Interior
Chaitya and Umbrellas
Inscription
Coin of Gupta ruler Chandragupta II (r.380–415) in the style of the Western Satraps.
Coin of Gupta ruler Kumaragupta I (r.414–455) (Western territories).
Coin of Gupta ruler Skandagupta (r.455-467), in the style of the Western Satraps.
Coin of Gupta ruler Buddhagupta (r.476–495) in Malwa, derived from the style of the Western Satraps.

Western Satrap Coin of Rudrasimha I .jpg (178-197) was recently found at Setkhedi in Shajapur district, dated to 107 Saka Era, that is 185 CE, confirming the expansion of the Western Satraps to the east at that date. There is also an earlier inscription related to Saka rule in Ujjain, as well as a later one, the Kanakerha inscription, related to Saka rule in the area of Vidisha, Sanchi and Eran in the early 4th century.

Kailash in 2015

Kailash Satyarthi

Indian social reformer who campaigned against child labour in India and advocated the universal right to education.

Indian social reformer who campaigned against child labour in India and advocated the universal right to education.

Kailash in 2015
Kailash Satyarthi
Malala Yousafzai and Kailash Satyarthi. The picture was taken at the press conference the day before they received the Nobel Peace Prize 2014
Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi meets Nobel Laureate Kailash Satyarthi
U.S. President Barack Obama greets a young girl (Payal Jangid) who was the guest of Nobel Peace Prize winner Kailash Satyarthi in New Delhi

family in Vidisha, a small town in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh into a middle class household.

The hand symbolizes Ahiṃsā, the wheel dharmachakra, the resolve to halt saṃsāra (transmigration).

Jainism

Ancient Indian religion.

Ancient Indian religion.

The hand symbolizes Ahiṃsā, the wheel dharmachakra, the resolve to halt saṃsāra (transmigration).
Classification of Saṃsāri Jīvas (transmigrating souls) in Jainism
Lord Neminatha, Akota Bronzes (7th century)
Jain miniature painting of 24 tirthankaras, Jaipur, c. 1850
Jain temple painting explaining Anekantavada with Blind men and an elephant
A Jain monk in meditation, wearing the characteristic white robe and face covering
Nishidhi stone, depicting the vow of sallekhana, 14th century, Karnataka
Praying at the feet of a statue of Bahubali
Jain worship may include ritual offerings and recitals.
Celebrating Das Lakshana (Paryushana), Jain Center of America, New York City
The birth of Mahavira, from the Kalpa Sūtra (c.1375–1400 CE)
Shikharji
Idol of Suparśvanātha
A symbol to represent the Jain community was chosen in 1975 as part of the commemoration of the 2,500th anniversary of Mahavira’s nirvana.
Rishabhdev, believed to have lived over 592.704×1018 years ago, is considered the traditional founder of Jainism.
The ruins of Gori Jain temples in Nagarparkar, Pakistan, a pilgrimage site before 1947.
Ranakpur Jain Temple
Dilwara Temples
Parshvanath Temple in Khajuraho
Girnar Jain temples
Jal Mandir, Pawapuri
Lodhurva Jain temple
Palitana temples
Saavira Kambada Basadi, Moodbidri, Karnataka
Jain temple, Antwerp, Belgium
Brahma Jinalaya, Lakkundi
Hutheesing Jain Temple

Ancient Jain monuments include the Udaigiri Hills near Bhelsa (Vidisha) in Madhya Pradesh, the Ellora in Maharashtra, the Palitana temples in Gujarat, and the Jain temples at Dilwara Temples near Mount Abu, Rajasthan.

Adishwar Temple, one of the Dilwara Temples, Mount Abu.

Tirtha (Jainism)

Used to refer both to pilgrimage sites as well as to the four sections of the sangha.

Used to refer both to pilgrimage sites as well as to the four sections of the sangha.

Adishwar Temple, one of the Dilwara Temples, Mount Abu.
The Gomatheswara at Shravanabelagola 978-993 AD.

Central India: Vidisha, Kundalpur, Sonagiri, Muktagiri