Depiction of Vienna in the Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493
Vienna in 1683
Vienna from Belvedere by Bernardo Bellotto, 1758
Vienna's Ringstraße and the State Opera in around 1870
Color lithograph of Vienna, 1900
Crowds greet Adolf Hitler as he rides in an open car through Vienna in March 1938
Occupation zones in Vienna, 1945–55
Vienna in 1966
Karlskirche, located on the south side of Karlsplatz in the 4th city district
Satellite image of Vienna (2018)
Map of the districts of Vienna with numbers
Albertina Terrace in the Innere Stadt
The Ring Road (Ringstraße) with a historical tram
The Debating Chamber of the former House of Deputies of Austria in the parliament
Interior of Vienna's historical Rathaus, the seat of city mayor
Messe Wien Congress Center
Austria Center Vienna (ACV)
“HoHo Wien” in January 2020
Monument of Johann Strauss II at Stadtpark, Vienna
State Opera (Staatsoper)
Hofburg Palace
Musikverein Vienna
Statue of Mozart during spring in Vienna
Courtyard of the Museumsquartier with Enzi seating furniture
Leopold Museum
Liechtenstein Museum
Hotel Sacher
View of the city from Stephansdom
Statue of Friedrich Schiller in front of the Academy of Fine Arts
The Vienna University of Economics and Business
The University of Vienna's main building
TU Wien
The Schönbrunn gardens in autumn
Ernst-Happel-Stadion in the Prater
Wiener Schnitzel
A typical Heurigen-Restaurant in Grinzing
Demel Café
Stephansplatz metro station
Vienna Airport terminal 3 arrivals lounge
UN complex in Vienna, with the Austria Center Vienna in front, taken from the Danube Tower in the nearby Donaupark before the extensive building work
Many international organizations and offices are located in Donaustadt.
Austrian Parliament Building
Belvedere Palace
Karlskirche at dusk
Kunsthistorisches Museum
Naturhistorisches Museum
Palais Augarten
Schönbrunn Zoo
Spanish Riding School
St. Stephen's Cathedral
Prince Eugene Monument
View of Hofburg
Vienna Secession building
Vienna State Opera
Wiener Riesenrad

National capital, largest city, and one of nine states of Austria.

- Vienna

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Former principal imperial palace of the Habsburg dynasty.

Hofburg Neue Burg section, seen from Heldenplatz. The statue of Archduke Charles is also pictured.
Reconstructive drawing of the appearance of the castle until the 16th century
The Swiss Gate (Schweizertor), original main gate
Austrian Crown Jewels kept in the treasury in the Swiss Wing of the Hofburg
Leopoldine Wing
Imperial Chancellery Wing (Reichskanzleitrakt)
Statue of Emperor Joseph II on Joseph Square, left the Court Library, right the Redoute Wing
Wedding Supper at Redoutensaal by Martin van Meytens- the wedding of Princess Isabella of Parma and Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor
St. Michael's Wing facing the square
Festsaal (Festival Hall Wing)
The Hall of Festivities during a concert of the Vienna Hofburg Orchestra
Imperial Court Chapel
Rose Room in the Leopoldine Wing
Main hall of the Court Library
Statue of Hercules slaying the Lernaean Hydra, exterior façade statuary on St. Michael's Wing
Main staircase of the Neue Burg wing
Prince Eugene of Savoy monument directly in front of the Hofburg

Located in the centre of Vienna, it was built in the 13th century and expanded several times afterwards.

First Austrian Republic

Created after the signing of the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye on 10 September 1919—the settlement after the end of World War I which ended the Habsburg rump state of Republic of German-Austria—and ended with the establishment of the Austrofascist Federal State of Austria based upon a dictatorship of Engelbert Dollfuss and the Fatherland's Front in 1934.

The First Austrian Republic in 1930
Lands claimed by German-Austria in 1918
The First Austrian Republic in 1930
Heimwehr parade, 1928
Social Democrats celebrating 1 May 1932
25 schilling golden coin
One of the many apartment buildings built in Red Vienna
Dollfuss addressing the League of Nations in 1933
Austrian soldiers during the brief civil war of 1934

Vienna, with its population of almost 2 million, was left as an imperial capital without an empire to feed it.

Second Viennese School

Prime, retrograde, inverse, and retrograde-inverse permutations.

The Second Viennese School (Zweite Wiener Schule, Neue Wiener Schule) was the group of composers that comprised Arnold Schoenberg and his pupils, particularly Alban Berg and Anton Webern, and close associates in early 20th-century Vienna.

Siege of Vienna (1529)

Contemporary 1529 engraving of clashes between the Austrians and Ottomans outside Vienna, by Bartel Beham
Portrait of Suleiman the Magnificent by Cristofano dell'Altissimo
Panoramic view of Vienna during the first Turkish siege, by Nikolaus Meldemann, 1530, Wien Museum
St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna, used as the informal headquarters of the Austrian resistance by Niklas Graf Salm, appointed head of the mercenary relief force.
Depiction of German Landsknechts circa 1530, renowned mercenary infantry of the Renaissance period, famous for their pikes, long halberds, and Zweihänder swords.
An Ottoman depiction of the siege from the 16th century, housed in the Istanbul Hachette Art Museum

The siege of Vienna, in 1529, was the first attempt by the Ottoman Empire to capture the city of Vienna, Austria.

World War I

World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, began on 28 July 1914 and ended on 11 November 1918.

Clockwise from the top: The road to Bapaume in the aftermath of the Battle of the Somme, 1916

British Mark V tanks crossing the Hindenburg Line, 1918

 sinking after hitting a mine in the Dardanelles, 1915

A British Vickers machine gun crew wearing gas masks during the Battle of the Somme, 1916

German Albatros D.III biplane fighters near Douai, France, 1917
Rival military coalitions in 1914: Triple Entente in green; Triple Alliance in brown. Only the Triple Alliance was a formal "alliance"; the others listed were informal patterns of support.
, a, Germany's first response to the British Dreadnought
Sarajevo citizens reading a poster with the proclamation of the Austrian annexation in 1908
Traditionally thought to show the arrest of Gavrilo Princip (right), historians now believe this photo depicts an innocent bystander, Ferdinand Behr
Crowds on the streets in the aftermath of the anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo, 29 June 1914
Ethno-linguistic map of Austria-Hungary, 1910. Bosnia-Herzegovina was annexed in 1908.
Cheering crowds in London and Paris on the day war was declared.
Serbian Army Blériot XI "Oluj", 1915
German soldiers on the way to the front in 1914; at this stage, all sides expected the conflict to be a short one.
French bayonet charge during the Battle of the Frontiers; by the end of August, French casualties exceeded 260,000, including 75,000 dead.
World empires and colonies around 1914
The British Indian infantry divisions were withdrawn from France in December 1915, and sent to Mesopotamia.
Trenches of the 11th Cheshire Regiment at Ovillers-la-Boisselle, on the Somme, July 1916
Royal Irish Rifles in a communications trench, first day on the Somme, 1916
Dead German soldiers at Somme 1916
King George V (front left) and a group of officials inspect a British munitions factory in 1917.
Battleships of the Hochseeflotte, 1917
U-155 exhibited near Tower Bridge in London, after the 1918 Armistice
Refugee transport from Serbia in Leibnitz, Styria, 1914
Bulgarian soldiers in a trench, preparing to fire against an incoming aeroplane
Austro-Hungarian troops executing captured Serbians, 1917. Serbia lost about 850,000 people during the war, a quarter of its pre-war population.
Australian troops charging near a Turkish trench during the Gallipoli Campaign
Mehmed V greeting Wilhelm II on his arrival at Constantinople
Kaiser Wilhelm II inspecting Turkish troops of the 15th Corps in East Galicia, Austria-Hungary (now Poland). Prince Leopold of Bavaria, the Supreme Commander of the German Army on the Eastern Front, is second from the left.
Russian forest trench at the Battle of Sarikamish, 1914–1915
Isonzo Offensives 1915-1917
Austro-Hungarian trench at 3,850 metres in the Ortler Alps, one of the most challenging fronts of the war
Romanian troops during the Battle of Mărășești, 1917
Emperor Nicholas II and Commander-in-Chief Nikolai Nikolaevich in the captured Przemysl. The Russian Siege of Przemyśl was the longest siege of the war.
"They shall not pass", a phrase typically associated with the defence of Verdun
President Wilson asking Congress to declare war on Germany, 2 April 1917
The Allied Avenue, 1917 painting by Childe Hassam, that depicts Manhattan's Fifth Avenue decorated with flags from Allied nations
French infantry advance on the Chemin des Dames, April 1917
Canadian Corps troops at the Battle of Vimy Ridge, 1917
10.5 cm Feldhaubitze 98/09 and Ottoman artillerymen at Hareira in 1917 before the Southern Palestine offensive
British artillery battery on Mount Scopus in the Battle of Jerusalem, 1917. Foreground, a battery of 16 heavy guns. Background, conical tents and support vehicles.
Ottoman troops during the Mesopotamian campaign
French soldiers under General Gouraud, with machine guns amongst the ruins of a cathedral near the Marne, 1918
British 55th (West Lancashire) Division soldiers blinded by tear gas during the Battle of Estaires, 10 April 1918
Between April and November 1918, the Allies increased their front-line rifle strength while German strength fell by half.
Aerial view of ruins of Vaux-devant-Damloup, France, 1918
16th Bn (Canadian Scottish), advancing during the Battle of the Canal du Nord, 1918
An American major, piloting an observation balloon near the front, 1918
German Revolution, Kiel, 1918
Italian troops reach Trento during the Battle of Vittorio Veneto, 1918. Italy's victory marked the end of the war on the Italian Front and secured the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Ferdinand Foch, second from right, pictured outside the carriage in Compiègne after agreeing to the armistice that ended the war there. The carriage was later chosen by Nazi Germany as the symbolic setting of Pétain's June 1940 armistice.
The signing of the Treaty of Versailles in the Hall of Mirrors, Versailles, 28 June 1919, by Sir William Orpen
Greek prime minister Eleftherios Venizelos signing the Treaty of Sèvres
Dissolution of Austria-Hungary after war
Map of territorial changes in Europe after World WarI (as of 1923)
Czechoslovak Legion, Vladivostok, 1918
Transporting Ottoman wounded at Sirkeci
Emergency military hospital during the Spanish flu pandemic, which killed about 675,000 people in the United States alone, Camp Funston, Kansas, 1918
Tanks on parade in London at the end of World War I
A Russian armoured car, 1919
38-cm "Lange Max" of Koekelare (Leugenboom),the biggest gun in the world in 1917
A Canadian soldier with mustard gas burns, c. 1917–1918
British Vickers machine gun, 1917
Royal Air Force Sopwith Camel. In April 1917, the average life expectancy of a British pilot on the Western Front was 93 flying hours.
Luftstreitkräfte Fokker Dr.I being inspected by Manfred von Richthofen, also known as the Red Baron.
Mobile radio station in German South West Africa, using a hydrogen balloon to lift the antenna
Austro-Hungarian soldiers executing men and women in Serbia, 1916
HMS Baralong
French soldiers making a gas and flame attack on German trenches in Flanders
Armenians killed during the Armenian Genocide. Image taken from Ambassador Morgenthau's Story, written by Henry Morgenthau Sr. and published in 1918.
German prisoners in a French prison camp during the later part of the war
British prisoners guarded by Ottoman forces after the First Battle of Gaza in 1917
Poster urging women to join the British war effort, published by the Young Women's Christian Association
Bermuda Volunteer Rifle Corps First Contingent in Bermuda, winter 1914–1915, before joining 1 Lincolnshire Regiment in France in June 1915. The dozen remaining after Guedecourt on 25 September 1916, merged with a Second Contingent. The two contingents suffered 75% casualties.
Sackville Street (now O'Connell Street) after the 1916 Easter Rising in Dublin
The Deserter, 1916: Anti-war cartoon depicting Jesus facing a firing squad with soldiers from five European countries
Possible execution at Verdun at the time of the mutinies in 1917. The original French text accompanying this photograph notes, however, that the uniforms are those of 1914–15 and that the execution may be that of a spy at the beginning of the war.
Bolshevik leaders Lenin and Trotsky promised "Peace, Land and Bread" to the impoverished masses
Young men registering for conscription, New York City, 5 June 1917
Military recruitment in Melbourne, Australia, 1914
British volunteer recruits in London, August 1914
1917 political cartoon about the Zimmermann Telegram. The message was intercepted by the British; its publication caused outrage and contributed to the U.S. entry into World War I.
The Italian Redipuglia War Memorial, which contains the remains of 100,187 soldiers
A typical village war memorial to soldiers killed in World War I
A 1919 book for veterans, from the US War Department
Poster showing women workers, 1915
War memorial to soldiers of the 49th Bengalee Regiment (Bangali Platoon) in Kolkata, India, who died in the war.

According to historian Zbyněk Zeman, his reaction was reflected more broadly in Vienna, where "the event almost failed to make any impression whatsoever. On Sunday 28 June and Monday 29th, the crowds listened to music and drank wine, as if nothing had happened."

Adolf Loos

Adolf Franz Karl Viktor Maria Loos

Villa Müller in Prague
Looshaus in Michaelerplatz, Vienna

His essay Ornament and Crime advocated smooth and clear surfaces in contrast to the lavish decorations of the fin de siècle, as well as the more modern aesthetic principles of the Vienna Secession, exemplified in his design of Looshaus, Vienna.

Anton Bruckner

Austrian composer, organist, and music theorist best known for his symphonies, masses, Te Deum and motets.

Anton Bruckner wearing the badge of the Order of Franz Joseph (portrait by Josef Büche)
The house in Ansfelden, Austria, where Anton Bruckner was born. It is now the Anton Bruckner Museum.
St Florian's Priory, where Bruckner lived on many occasions during his life
The "Bruckner Organ" in Sankt Florian
Bruckner, c. 1860
Portrait of Anton Bruckner (1889)
Bruckner with the Order of Franz Joseph, 1886
Copy of the Tilgner bust
"Anton Bruckner arrives in Heaven". Bruckner is greeted by (from left to right): Liszt, Wagner, Schubert, Schumann, Weber, Mozart, Beethoven, Gluck, Haydn, Handel, Bach. (Silhouette drawing by Otto Böhler)

Overall, he was unhappy in Vienna, which was musically dominated by the critic Eduard Hanslick.

Allied-occupied Austria

The Allied occupation of Austria started on 27 April 1945 as a result of the Vienna Offensive and ended with the Austrian State Treaty on 27 July 1955.

Occupation sectors in Austria
Soviet troops in the Schönbrunn Palace gardens, 1945
Occupation sectors in Austria
The four sectors of occupation in Vienna
Molotov (left) meeting Raab (right) in Moscow, April 1955
The four sectors of occupation in Vienna

Vienna was similarly subdivided but the central district was collectively administered by the Allied Control Council.


Set of theories and therapeutic techniques that deal in part with the unconscious mind, and which together form a method of treatment for mental disorders.

Idealised portrayal of the author Homer

The idea of psychoanalysis (psychoanalyse) first began to receive serious attention under Sigmund Freud, who formulated his own theory of psychoanalysis in Vienna in the 1890s.

Vienna State Opera

Construction site of the new building, 1863
Play bill for the opening performance of the new Opernhaus, announcing the opening performance of Don Giovanni on 25 May 1869
Coeval watercolour painting of the opening performance (Kunsthistorisches Museum)
The Hofoper, c. 1898
Play bill of the last performance in the old building: Götterdämmerung, 30 June 1944
Gustav Mahler was artistic director of the Hofoper from 1897 to 1907
Herbert von Karajan, artistic director of the Vienna State Opera from 1957 to 1964
View from the Ring, on the roof the tent for children's performances (demounted in 2015 and now replaced by a special theatre)
View of the orchestra pit and safety curtain The curtain Play as Cast was designed by Tacita Dean, and installed during the season 2004–2005.
Debutants entry at the Vienna Opera Ball
Rear of the opera house, showing the stage wings
A marble staircase between the main entrance and the first floor
One of the lobbies
Emperor's private room.
The auditorium
Central chandelier in the auditorium
Exterior of the building

The Vienna State Opera (Wiener Staatsoper, ) is an opera house and opera company based in Vienna, Austria.