Vietnam War

Vietnamwar in Vietnamwarthe Vietnam WarVietnam veteranSecond Indochina WarVietnam erain VietnamSouth VietnamVietnam-era
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975, with U.S. involvement ending in 1973.wikipedia
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Fall of Saigon

Saigon fellfall of South VietnamSaigon
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975, with U.S. involvement ending in 1973.
The event marked the end of the Vietnam War and the start of a transition period to the formal reunification of Vietnam into the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

Viet Cong

National Liberation FrontViệt CộngVietcong
Most of the funding for the French war effort was provided by the U.S. The Việt Cộng, also known as Front national de libération du Sud-Viêt Nam or NLF (the National Liberation Front), a South Vietnamese communist common front aided by the North, fought a guerrilla war against anti-communist forces in the region, while the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN), also known as the North Vietnamese Army (NVA), engaged in more conventional warfare, and had launched armed struggles from 1959 onward.
The Việt Cộng, also known as the National Liberation Front, was a mass political organization in South Vietnam and Cambodia with its own army – the People's Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam (PLAF) – that fought against the United States and South Vietnamese governments during the Vietnam War, eventually emerging on the winning side.

Gulf of Tonkin incident

Gulf of Tonkin1964 Gulf of Tonkin incidentattacked
By 1964 there were 23,000 U.S. troops in Vietnam, but this escalated further following the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident, in which a U.S. destroyer was alleged to have clashed with North Vietnamese fast attack craft.
The Gulf of Tonkin incident (Sự kiện Vịnh Bắc Bộ), also known as the USS Maddox incident, was an international confrontation that led to the United States engaging more directly in the Vietnam War.

Laotian Civil War

Secret WarLaoscivil war
The war would last approximately 19 years and would also form the Laotian Civil War as well as the Cambodian Civil War, which resulted in all three countries becoming communist states in 1975.
The Kingdom of Laos was a covert theatre for other belligerents during the Vietnam War.

Robert McNamara

Robert S. McNamaraMcNamaraSecretary of Defense McNamara
Every year onward there was significant build-up despite little progress, with Robert McNamara, one of the principal architects of the war, beginning to express doubts of victory by the end of 1966.
He played a major role in escalating the United States' involvement in the Vietnam War.

Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon JohnsonJohnsonPresident Johnson
In response, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave President Lyndon B. Johnson broad authorization to increase U.S. military presence, deploying ground combat units for the first time and increasing troop levels to 184,000.
In foreign policy, Johnson escalated American involvement in the Vietnam War.

Cambodia

🇰🇭KhmerCambodian
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975, with U.S. involvement ending in 1973.
The Vietnam War extended into the country with the US bombing of Cambodia from 1969 until 1973.

Anti-communism

anti-communistanticommunistanti-communists
The North Vietnamese army was supported by the Soviet Union, China, and other communist allies; the South Vietnamese army was supported by the United States, South Korea, the Philippines, Australia, Thailand and other anti-communist allies.
There were numerous military conflicts between Communists and anti-Communists in various parts of the world, including the Chinese Civil War, the Korean War, the Vietnam War and the Soviet–Afghan War.

Vietnam War casualties

aftermathclaimeddisproportionately higher casualty rates
The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities (see Vietnam War casualties).
Estimates of casualties of the Vietnam War vary widely.

Vietnamization

attempted to gradually turn the war over tobolster South Vietnam's militarydraw down its involvement in the war
Gradual withdrawal of U.S. ground forces began as part of "Vietnamization", which aimed to end American involvement in the war while transferring the task of fighting the communists to the South Vietnamese themselves and began the task of modernizing their armed forces.
Vietnamization was a policy of the Richard Nixon administration to end U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War through a program to "expand, equip, and train South Vietnamese forces and assign to them an ever-increasing combat role, at the same time steadily reducing the number of U.S. combat troops."

People's Army of Vietnam

North Vietnamese ArmyNVANorth Vietnamese
Most of the funding for the French war effort was provided by the U.S. The Việt Cộng, also known as Front national de libération du Sud-Viêt Nam or NLF (the National Liberation Front), a South Vietnamese communist common front aided by the North, fought a guerrilla war against anti-communist forces in the region, while the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN), also known as the North Vietnamese Army (NVA), engaged in more conventional warfare, and had launched armed struggles from 1959 onward.
In the context of the Vietnam War (1959–1975), the army was referred to as the North Vietnamese Army (NVA). This allowed writers, the U.S. military, and the general public, to distinguish northern communists from the southern communists, or Viet Cong.

Free World Military Forces

alliesallied
The North Vietnamese army was supported by the Soviet Union, China, and other communist allies; the South Vietnamese army was supported by the United States, South Korea, the Philippines, Australia, Thailand and other anti-communist allies.
Free World Military Forces (FWMF) was a military force composed of a collective group of six nations who sent troops to fight in the Vietnam War under the FWMF banner, assisting the United States and South Vietnam.

North Vietnam

NorthDemocratic Republic of VietnamNorth Vietnam (Democratic Republic of Vietnam)
It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vietnam and the government of South Vietnam. In January 1950, China and the Soviet Union recognized the Viet Minh's Democratic Republic of Vietnam, based in Hanoi, as the legitimate government of Vietnam.
After the failure to reunify Vietnam by elections, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam attempted to unify the country by force in the Vietnam War (1955–75).

Cambodian–Vietnamese War

Vietnamese invasion of CambodiaVietnamese invasionVietnam invaded Cambodia
The Sino-Soviet split re-emerged following the lull during the Vietnam War and ties between the DRV and its Cambodian allies in the Royal Government of the National Union of Kampuchea, the newly-formed Democratic Kampuchea begun almost immediately in a series of border raids by the Khmer Rouge and erupted into the Cambodian–Vietnamese War, with Chinese forces directly intervening in the Sino-Vietnamese War.
During the Vietnam War, Vietnamese and Cambodian communists had formed an alliance to fight U.S.-backed regimes in their respective countries.

Military Assistance Advisory Group

MAAGMilitary Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG)advisers
U.S. involvement escalated in 1960 under President John F. Kennedy, with troop levels gradually surging under the MAAG program from just under a thousand in 1959 to 16,000 in 1963.
Although numerous MAAGs operated around the world throughout the 1940s–1970s, the most famous MAAGs were those active in Southeast Asia before and during the Vietnam War.

Daniel Ellsberg

1973 trial of Daniel Ellsberg for releasing the Pentagon Papersbreak into the office of Dr. Lewis J. FieldingDaniel and Patricia Marx Ellsberg
Daniel Ellsberg contends that U.S. participation in Vietnam had begun in 1945 when it gave support to a French effort to reconquer its colony in Vietnam, a nation which had just declared independence in August 1945.
Daniel Ellsberg (born April 7, 1931) is an American activist and former United States military analyst who, while employed by the RAND Corporation, precipitated a national political controversy in 1971 when he released the Pentagon Papers, a top-secret Pentagon study of the U.S. government decision-making in relation to the Vietnam War, to The New York Times and other newspapers.

Cambodian Civil War

civil warCambodia1970-75 Cambodian Civil War
The war would last approximately 19 years and would also form the Laotian Civil War as well as the Cambodian Civil War, which resulted in all three countries becoming communist states in 1975.
The conflict was part of the Second Indochina War (1955–1975) which also consumed the neighboring Kingdom of Laos, South Vietnam, and North Vietnam individually referred to as the Laotian Civil War and the Vietnam War respectively.

Cold War

the Cold Warcold-warCold War era
The war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war by some US perspectives.
The USSR crushed the 1968 Prague Spring liberalization program in Czechoslovakia, while the US experienced internal turmoil from the civil rights movement and opposition to the Vietnam War (1955–75), which ended with the defeat of the US-backed Republic of Vietnam, prompting further adjustments.

Sino-Vietnamese War

Chinese invasion of VietnamChina invaded VietnamThird Indochina War
The Sino-Soviet split re-emerged following the lull during the Vietnam War and ties between the DRV and its Cambodian allies in the Royal Government of the National Union of Kampuchea, the newly-formed Democratic Kampuchea begun almost immediately in a series of border raids by the Khmer Rouge and erupted into the Cambodian–Vietnamese War, with Chinese forces directly intervening in the Sino-Vietnamese War.
The Sino-Vietnamese War (Chiến tranh biên giới Việt-Trung) is also known as the Third Indochina War, in order to distinguish it from the First Indochina War, and the Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War.

Ho Chi Minh

Hồ Chí MinhNguyễn Ái QuốcHo
The Viet Minh, a Communist-led common front under the leadership of Ho Chi Minh, then initiated an insurgency against French rule.
He was a key figure in the foundation of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945 as well as the People's Army of Vietnam and the Viet Cong during the Vietnam War.

Hanoi

Đông KinhThăng LongHà Nội
In January 1950, China and the Soviet Union recognized the Viet Minh's Democratic Republic of Vietnam, based in Hanoi, as the legitimate government of Vietnam.
From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam, and it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam War.

Search and destroy

search-and-destroyseek and destroysearch and destroy mission
U.S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces, artillery, and airstrikes.
Search and Destroy, Seek and Destroy, or even simply S&D, refers to a military strategy that became a large component of the Malayan Emergency and the Vietnam War.

Sino-Soviet split

Sino-Soviet tensionsSoviet rivalChinese-Soviet border
The Sino-Soviet split re-emerged following the lull during the Vietnam War and ties between the DRV and its Cambodian allies in the Royal Government of the National Union of Kampuchea, the newly-formed Democratic Kampuchea begun almost immediately in a series of border raids by the Khmer Rouge and erupted into the Cambodian–Vietnamese War, with Chinese forces directly intervening in the Sino-Vietnamese War.
In the Western world, the SinoSoviet split transformed the geopolitics of the bi-polar cold war into a tri-polar cold war; as important as the erection of the Berlin Wall (1961), the defusing of the Cuban Missile Crisis (1962), and the end of the Vietnam War (1945–1975), because the rivalry, between Chinese Stalinism and Russian coexistence, facilitated and realised Mao's Sino–American rapprochement, by way of the 1972 Nixon visit to China.

Richard Nixon

NixonPresident NixonRichard M. Nixon
According to U.S. Vice-President Richard Nixon, the plan involved the Joint Chiefs of Staff drawing up plans to use three small tactical nuclear weapons in support of the French.
Nixon ended American involvement in the war in Vietnam in 1973 and brought the American POWs home, and ended the military draft.

Korean War

KoreaKoreanthe Korean War
The outbreak of the Korean War in June 1950 convinced many Washington policymakers that the war in Indochina was an example of communist expansionism directed by the Soviet Union.
It has been referred to in the English-speaking world as "The Forgotten War" or "The Unknown War" because of the lack of public attention it received both during and after the war, and in relation to the global scale of World War II, which preceded it, and the subsequent angst of the Vietnam War, which succeeded it.