Vietnam War

Vietnamwar in VietnamSecond Indochina Warthe Vietnam WarwarViet Nam WarVietnam veteranVietnam eraVietnam ConflictVietnamese War
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.wikipedia
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Fall of Saigon

Saigon fellfall of South VietnamSaigon
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
The event marked the end of the Vietnam War and the start of a transition period to the formal reunification of Vietnam into the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

Laotian Civil War

Secret WarLaoscivil war
The war, considered a Cold War-era proxy war by some, lasted 19 years, with direct U.S. involvement ending in 1973, and included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, which ended with all three countries becoming communist in 1975.
It is associated with the Cambodian Civil War and the Vietnam War, with both sides receiving heavy external support in a proxy war between the global Cold War superpowers.

Viet Cong

VietcongViệt CộngNational Liberation Front
The Việt Cộng, also known as Front national de libération du Sud-Viêt Nam or NLF (the National Liberation Front), a South Vietnamese common front under the direction of North Vietnam, initiated a guerrilla war in the south.
The Việt Cộng, also known as the National Liberation Front, was a mass political organization in South Vietnam and Cambodia with its own army – the People's Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam (PLAF) – that fought against the United States and South Vietnamese governments during the Vietnam War, eventually emerging on the winning side.

Gulf of Tonkin incident

Tonkin Gulf IncidentGulf of Tonkin1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident
In August, the Gulf of Tonkin incident occurred, in which a U.S. destroyer was alleged to have clashed with North Vietnamese fast attack craft.
The Gulf of Tonkin incident (Sự kiện Vịnh Bắc Bộ), also known as the USS Maddox incident, was an international confrontation that led to the United States engaging more directly in the Vietnam War.

Cambodia

Kingdom of CambodiaKampucheaKhmer
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
The Vietnam War extended into the country with the US bombing of Cambodia from 1969 until 1973.

Robert McNamara

Robert S. McNamaraRobert MacNamaraMcNamara
U.S Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, one of the principal architects of the war, began expressing doubts of victory by the end of 1966.
He played a major role in escalating the United States' involvement in the Vietnam War.

South Vietnam

Republic of VietnamSouth VietnameseSouth
It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam.
It had membership in several special committees of the United Nations, but its application for full membership was rejected in 1957 because of a Soviet veto (neither South nor North Vietnam were members of the UN during the Vietnam War, but the united Vietnam became a member state in 1977).

Anti-communism

anti-communistanticommunistanti-communists
North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union, China, and other communist allies; South Vietnam was supported by the United States, South Korea, the Philippines, Australia, Thailand and other anti-communist allies.
There were numerous military conflicts between Communists and anti-Communists in various parts of the world, including the Chinese Civil War, the Korean War, the Malayan Emergency, the Vietnam War, the Soviet–Afghan War and the forces of Operation Condor.

Tet Offensive

Tet CounteroffensiveTết OffensiveTet
The Tet Offensive of 1968 showed the lack of progress with these doctrines.
The Tet Offensive (Sự kiện Tết Mậu Thân 1968), or officially called The General Offensive and Uprising of Tet Mau Than 1968 (Tổng Tiến công và Nổi dậy Tết Mậu Thân 1968) by North Vietnam and the Viet Cong (VC), was one of the largest military campaigns of the Vietnam War, launched on January 30, 1968 by forces of the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) against the forces of the South Vietnamese Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN), the United States Armed Forces and their allies.

Army of the Republic of Vietnam

ARVNSouth Vietnamese ArmySouth Vietnamese
The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) expanded following a period of neglect after Tet and was modeled after U.S doctrine.
It is estimated to have suffered 1,394,000 casualties (killed and wounded) during the Vietnam War.

Free World Military Forces

alliesallied
North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union, China, and other communist allies; South Vietnam was supported by the United States, South Korea, the Philippines, Australia, Thailand and other anti-communist allies.
Free World Military Forces (FWMF) was a military force composed of a collective group of six nations who sent troops to fight in the Vietnam War under the FWMF banner, assisting the United States and South Vietnam.

Vietnamization

VietnamisationAmerican withdrawal after 1972attempted to gradually turn the war over to
In 1969, following the election of U.S President Richard Nixon, a policy of "Vietnamization" began, which saw the conflict fought by an expanded ARVN, with U.S. forces sidelined and increasingly demoralized by domestic opposition and reduced recruitment.
Vietnamization was a policy of the Richard Nixon administration to end U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War through a program to "expand, equip, and train South Vietnamese forces and assign to them an ever-increasing combat role, at the same time steadily reducing the number of U.S. combat troops."

Vietnam War casualties

aftermathcasualtiesclaimed
The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities (see Vietnam War casualties): estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000 to 3.8 million.
Estimates of casualties of the Vietnam War vary widely.

Military Assistance Advisory Group

MAAGMilitary Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG)advisers
U.S. involvement escalated under President John F. Kennedy through the MAAG program from just under a thousand military advisors in 1959 to 16,000 in 1963.
Although numerous MAAGs operated around the world throughout the 1940s–1970s, the most famous MAAGs were those active in Southeast Asia before and during the Vietnam War.

Phoenix Program

Operation PhoenixPHOENIXPhoenix assassination program
The CIA's Phoenix Program further degraded the VC's membership and capabilities.
The Phoenix Program (Chiến dịch Phụng Hoàng) was a program designed and coordinated by the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) during the Vietnam War, involving cooperation between American, South Vietnamese and Australian militaries.

People's Army of Vietnam

North Vietnamese ArmyVietnam People's ArmyNVA
Past this point, the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) (also known as the North Vietnamese Army or NVA) engaged in more conventional warfare with U.S and South Vietnamese forces.
In the context of the Vietnam War (1955–1975), the army was referred to as the North Vietnamese Army (NVA).

Cold War

The Cold WarCold War eraCold-War
The war, considered a Cold War-era proxy war by some, lasted 19 years, with direct U.S. involvement ending in 1973, and included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, which ended with all three countries becoming communist in 1975.
The USSR crushed the 1968 Prague Spring liberalization program in Czechoslovakia, while the US experienced internal turmoil from the civil rights movement and opposition to the Vietnam War (1955–75), which ended with the defeat of the US-backed South Vietnam, prompting further adjustments.

Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon JohnsonJohnsonLyndon Baines Johnson
in response, the U.S Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, giving President Lyndon B. Johnson broad authorization to increase U.S. military presence.
In foreign policy, Johnson escalated American involvement in the Vietnam War.

Easter Offensive

Nguyen Hue Offensive1972 North Vietnamese Easter Offensive1972
The ARVN, buttressed by said U.S. support, stopped the largest and first mechanized PAVN offensive to date during the Easter Offensive of 1972, which had sustained heavy casualties on both sides but failed to recapture all territory, leaving its military situation difficult.
The Easter Offensive, officially known as The 1972 Spring - Summer Offensive (Chiến dịch Xuân Hè 1972) by North Vietnam, or Red fiery summer (Mùa hè đỏ lửa) as romanticized in South Vietnamese literature, was a military campaign conducted by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN, the regular army of North Vietnam) against the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN, the regular army of South Vietnam) and the United States military between 30 March and 22 October 1972, during the Vietnam War.

Paris Peace Accords

Paris Peace TalksParis Peace AccordParis Peace Conference
The Paris Peace Accords saw all U.S forces withdrawn; the Case–Church Amendment, passed by the U.S Congress on 15 August 1973, ended direct U.S military involvement.
The Paris Peace Accords, (Hiệp định Paris về Việt Nam) officially titled the Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Viet Nam (Hiệp định về chấm dứt chiến tranh, lập lại hòa bình ở Việt Nam), was a peace treaty signed on January 27, 1973, to establish peace in Vietnam and end the Vietnam War.

First Indochina War

Indochina WarIndochinaFrench Indochina War
The conflict emerged from the First Indochina War against the communist-led Viet Minh.
The conflict gradually escalated into the Vietnam War (1955-1975).

Cambodian Civil War

Cambodiacivil war1970-75 Cambodian Civil War
The war, considered a Cold War-era proxy war by some, lasted 19 years, with direct U.S. involvement ending in 1973, and included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, which ended with all three countries becoming communist in 1975.
The conflict was part of the Second Indochina War (1955–1975) which also consumed the neighboring Kingdom of Laos, South Vietnam, and North Vietnam individually referred to as the Laotian Civil War and the Vietnam War respectively.

Cambodian–Vietnamese War

Cambodian-Vietnamese WarVietnamese invasion of CambodiaVietnamese invasion
Conflict between North Vietnam and its Cambodian allies in the Royal Government of the National Union of Kampuchea, and the newly-formed Democratic Kampuchea begun almost immediately in a series of border raids by the Khmer Rouge, eventually escalating into the Cambodian–Vietnamese War.
During the Vietnam War, Vietnamese and Cambodian communists had formed an alliance to fight U.S.-backed regimes in their respective countries.

Daniel Ellsberg

1973 trial of Daniel Ellsberg for releasing the Pentagon PapersDan EllsbergDaniel Ellsburg
Daniel Ellsberg contends that U.S. participation in Vietnam had begun in 1945 when it gave support to a French effort to reconquer its colony in Vietnam, a nation which had just declared independence in August 1945.
Daniel Ellsberg (born April 7, 1931) is an American economist, activist and former United States military analyst who, while employed by the RAND Corporation, precipitated a national political controversy in 1971 when he released the Pentagon Papers, a top-secret Pentagon study of the U.S. government decision-making in relation to the Vietnam War, to The New York Times and other newspapers.

Search and destroy

search-and-destroyseek and destroySearch & Destroy
U.S. and South Vietnam forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces, artillery, and airstrikes.
Search and Destroy, Seek and Destroy, or even simply S&D, refers to a military strategy that became a large component of the Malayan Emergency and the Vietnam War.