A report on View camera

Basic view camera terminology
A Sanderson 'Hand' camera dating from circa 1899
Front standard shift
Front standard tilt
Front standard swing (top view)
Viewing through a Sinar F camera

Large-format camera in which the lens forms an inverted image on a ground-glass screen directly at the film plane.

- View camera
Basic view camera terminology

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Example of a photograph taken with a tilt–shift lens. The lens was shifted downwards to avoid perspective distortion: all vertical lines of the skyscrapers run parallel to the edges of the image. Tilting around the vertical axis resulted in a very small region in which objects appear sharp. (The depth of field is actually not reduced but tilted in reference to the image plane.) The picture shows Hong Kong viewed from Victoria Peak.

Tilt–shift photography

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Example of a photograph taken with a tilt–shift lens. The lens was shifted downwards to avoid perspective distortion: all vertical lines of the skyscrapers run parallel to the edges of the image. Tilting around the vertical axis resulted in a very small region in which objects appear sharp. (The depth of field is actually not reduced but tilted in reference to the image plane.) The picture shows Hong Kong viewed from Victoria Peak.
Tilt-lens photo of a model train. Note how the focus plane is along the train, and how the blurring of the background proceeds from left to right.
The 1961 35 mm 3.5 PC-Nikkor lens—the first perspective-control lens for a 35 mm camera
Canon TS-E 24mm 3.5L II
Canon TS-E 17 mm 4L
Nikon 19mm 4 Nikkor PC-E ED tilt–shift lens, introduced October 2016, and mounted on a Nikon D810 camera
Nikon 19mm 4 Nikkor PC-E ED tilt–shift lens, shown shifted 12mm
24mm Nikkor PC-E lens shifted
The Samyang T-S 24 mm f3.5 mounted on a Sony A77
Nikon 24 mm lens, which tilts (as seen here) and also shifts
1980 Nikkor 35 mm lens that shifts
San Xavier del Bac, Tucson, Arizona
Miniature simulation using digital post processing
Olympus 24 mm {{f/}}3.5 Zuiko-Shift. 10 mm maximum shift. Mounted on an Olympus camera.
28 mm {{f/}}3.5 PC-Nikkor. 11 mm maximum shift. Mounted on a Nikon F5.
35 mm {{f/}}2.8 PC-Nikkor. 11 mm maximum shift.
Arax 35 mm f/2.8 TS mounted on a Canon EOS 40D. Fully tilted.
Canon TS-E 24 mm {{f/}}3.5L. 11 mm maximum shift. 8° maximum tilt.
Minolta 35 mm {{f/}}2.8 shift. 11 mm maximum shift.
Schneider 35 mm {{f/}}4 PA-Curtagon. 7 mm maximum shift. Also rebadged by Leica.
Pentax Shift 28 mm {{f/}}2.8 SMC lens.
Pentax Shift 6x7 75 mm {{f/}}4.5. 20 mm maximum shift. Mounted on a Pentax 6×7 medium-format SLR.

Tilt–shift photography is the use of camera movements that change the orientation or position of the lens with respect to the film or image sensor on cameras.

Old studio camera

Large format

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Large format refers to any imaging format of 9 × 12 cm or larger.

Large format refers to any imaging format of 9 × 12 cm or larger.

Old studio camera
Lens and mounting of a large format camera
Comparison of 35 mm, medium format, and large format
Scheimpflug principle
Ansel Adams's large format photograph The Tetons and the Snake River (1942)
Photographer Gregory Crewdson with a large format camera in 2007

Less common formats include quarter-plate (3.25x4.25 inches (8.3x10.8 cm)), 5×7 inches (12.7x17.8 cm), and 8×10 inches (20×25 cm); the size of many old 1920s Kodak cameras (various versions of Kodak 1, 2, and 3 and Master View cameras, to much later Sinar monorail studio cameras) are 11×14 inches (28x36 cm), 16×20 inches (41x51 cm), 20×24 inches (51x61 cm), various panoramic or "banquet" formats (such as 4×10 and 8×20 inches (10x25 and 20x51 cm), and metric formats, including 9×12 cm, 10×13 cm, and 13×18 cm and assorted old and current aerial image formats of 9×9 inches, 9×18 inches (K17, K18, K19, K22 etc.), using roll film of 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, or 10 inches width or, view cameras (including pinhole cameras), reproduction/process cameras, and x-ray film.

Leica Camera (1950s)

Camera

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Optical instrument that captures a visual image.

Optical instrument that captures a visual image.

Leica Camera (1950s)
Hasselblad 500 C/M with Zeiss lens
Basic elements of a modern digital single-lens reflex (SLR) still camera
Different apertures of a lens
A focal-plane shutter. In this shutter, the metal shutter blades travel vertically.
A handheld digital light meter showing an exposure of 1/200th at an aperture of f/11, at ISO 100. The light sensor is on top, under the white diffusing hemisphere.
The distance range in which objects appear clear and sharp, called depth of field, can be adjusted by many cameras. This allows for a photographer to control which objects appear in focus, and which do not.
Nikon D200 digital camera
19th-century studio camera with bellows for focusing
Twin-lens reflex camera
Subminiature spy camera
Kodak box camera
Rangefinder camera, Leica c. 1936
Arri Alexa, a digital movie camera
Sony HDR-HC1E, a HDV camcorder.
Disassembled Digital Camera
Smartphone with built-in camera

View cameras use a ground glass screen which is removed and replaced by either a photographic plate or a reusable holder containing sheet film before exposure.

Sinar

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Viewing through a Sinar F camera.
Sinar P (4×5")
Sinar DCS465
The 33 MP Sinar eVolution 75 medium format digital back
Sinar Hy6

Sinar Photography AG is a Swiss company based in Zurich manufacturing specialized high-resolution view cameras for studio, reproduction, landscape and architecture photography.

Tilt-lens photo of a model train. The lens was swung towards right, in order to keep the plane of focus along the train. The sensor plane, the lens plane and the plane along the train all intersect to the right of the camera.

Scheimpflug principle

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Description of the geometric relationship between the orientation of the plane of focus, the lens plane, and the image plane of an optical system when the lens plane is not parallel to the image plane.

Description of the geometric relationship between the orientation of the plane of focus, the lens plane, and the image plane of an optical system when the lens plane is not parallel to the image plane.

Tilt-lens photo of a model train. The lens was swung towards right, in order to keep the plane of focus along the train. The sensor plane, the lens plane and the plane along the train all intersect to the right of the camera.
A scientific camera with a Scheimpflug adaptor mounted between the lens and the camera, showing in stop-motion the potential movements the adaptor provides in the two axes (tilt and swing).
Figure 1. With a normal camera, when the subject is not parallel to the image plane, only a small region is in focus.
Figure 2. The angles of the Scheimpflug principle, using the example of a photographic lens
Figure 3. Rotation of the plane of focus
Figure 4. Rotation-axis distance and angle of the PoF
Figure 5. Depth of field when the PoF is rotated
James McArdle (1991) Accomplices.
Figure 6. Object plane inclined to the lens plane
Figure 7. Angle of the PoF with the image plane

It is applicable to the use of some camera movements on a view camera.

Sinar eVolution 75 digital camera back sensor, mountable on a select range of medium-format camera brands, 2007, 33 megapixels, price c. undefined €15,000

Digital camera back

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Device that attaches to the back of a camera in place of the traditional negative film holder and contains an electronic image sensor.

Device that attaches to the back of a camera in place of the traditional negative film holder and contains an electronic image sensor.

Sinar eVolution 75 digital camera back sensor, mountable on a select range of medium-format camera brands, 2007, 33 megapixels, price c. undefined €15,000
Traditional negative 120 film camera back, attached to a Mamiya RZ67 Professional medium-format camera
Kodak DCS420 digital camera, consisting of a modified Nikon N90s body (left) and a digital back (right) shown here separated.
Mamiya RZ Professional II(Film camera)and Phase one Digital back

Scanning backs are primarily used in large format view cameras.

Different kinds of camera lenses, including wide angle, telephoto and speciality

Camera lens

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Optical lens or assembly of lenses used in conjunction with a camera body and mechanism to make images of objects either on photographic film or on other media capable of storing an image chemically or electronically.

Optical lens or assembly of lenses used in conjunction with a camera body and mechanism to make images of objects either on photographic film or on other media capable of storing an image chemically or electronically.

Different kinds of camera lenses, including wide angle, telephoto and speciality
The zoom lens assembly of the Canon Elph
Different apertures on the same lens.
How focal length affects photograph composition: adjusting the camera's distance from the main subject while changing focal length, the main subject can remain the same size, while the other at a different distance changes size.
A tilt/shift lens, set to its maximum degree of tilt relative to the camera body.
Collapsible Leica rangefinder lens

Shift lenses and tilt/shift lenses (collectively perspective control lenses) allow special control of perspective on SLR cameras by mimicking view camera movements.

AGFA photographic plates, 1880

Photographic plate

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Photographic plates preceded photographic film as a capture medium in photography, and were still used in some communities up until the late 20th century.

Photographic plates preceded photographic film as a capture medium in photography, and were still used in some communities up until the late 20th century.

AGFA photographic plates, 1880
Mimosa Panchroma-Studio-Antihalo Panchromatic glass plates, 9 x 12cm, Mimosa A.-G. Dresden
Negative plate
Image resulting from a glass plate negative showing Devil's Cascade in 1900.

A view camera nicknamed "The Mammoth" weighing 1400 lb was built by George R. Lawrence in 1899, specifically to photograph "The Alton Limited" train owned by the Chicago & Alton Railway.

Cambo lens board with Copal #1

Lens board

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Cambo lens board with Copal #1
135mm Optar lens mounted on a #0 Speed Graphic lens board
Enlarging lens mounted on a Besseler 45M enlarger

A lens board or lensboard is a photographic part used for securing a lens to the front standard of a large format view camera.

Vageeswari Foldable 8,5×15” Vageeswari Camera

Field camera

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Vageeswari Foldable 8,5×15” Vageeswari Camera
Linhof Technika IV Field camera

A field camera is a view camera that can be folded in a compact size.