Vihuela

vihuelistvihuela de manohistoric Spanish plucked string instrumentvihuelvihuelistas
The vihuela is a 15th-century fretted plucked Spanish string instrument, shaped like a guitar (figure-of-eight form offering strength and portability) but tuned like a lute.wikipedia
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Guitar

guitarslead guitarbass
The vihuela is a 15th-century fretted plucked Spanish string instrument, shaped like a guitar (figure-of-eight form offering strength and portability) but tuned like a lute.
The modern guitar was preceded by the gittern, the vihuela, the four-course Renaissance guitar, and the five-course baroque guitar, all of which contributed to the development of the modern six-string instrument.

Viol

viola da gambabass violgambist
In the second half of the 15th century some vihuela players began using a bow, leading to the development of the viol.
Early ancestors include the Arabic rebab and the medieval European vielle, but later, more direct possible ancestors include the Venetian viole and the 15th- and 16th-century Spanish vihuela, a 6-course plucked instrument tuned like a lute (and also like a present-day viol) that looked like but was quite distinct from (at that time) the 4-course guitar (an earlier chordophone).

Cross-strung harp

chromatic harpArpa de dos ordenescross-strung harps
The vihuela faded away, along with the complex polyphonic music that was its repertoire, in the late 16th century, along with the other primary instrument of the Spanish and Portuguese Renaissance, the cross-strung harp.
The reasons for its decline are complex, including the cultural displacement of Spanish music and musical instruments at court (such as the arpa de dos órdenes and the vihuela) in favor of Italian and French music and instruments (violin, harpsichord, lute, etc.).

Tablature

guitar tablaturetabulatureguitar tab
The notational device used throughout this and other vihuela music books is a numeric tablature (otherwise called "lute tablature"), which is also the model from which modern "guitar tab" was fashioned.
Tablature is common for fretted stringed instruments such as the lute, vihuela, or guitar, as well as many free reed aerophones such as the harmonica.

History of the classical guitar

Renaissance guitarguitarmodern guitar
Unpaired chanterelles were common on all lutes, vihuelas, and (other) early guitars (both Renaissance guitars and Baroque guitars).
The evolution of classical guitars began with the influences of the vihuela and gittern in the sixteenth century and ended with the modern classical guitar in the mid nineteenth century.

Luis de Milán

Luis MilánLuis MilanLuys Milan
The first person to publish a collection of music for the vihuela was the Spanish composer Luis de Milán, with his volume titled Libro de música de vihuela de mano intitulado El maestro of 1536 dedicated to King John III of Portugal.
1500 – c. 1561) was a Spanish Renaissance composer, vihuelist, and writer on music.

Luis de Narváez

Luys de NarváezLuys De NarvaezLuis de Narvaez
Luis de Narváez (fl. 1526–49) was a Spanish composer and vihuelist.

Tiple

tippleGuitarroPuerto Rican Tiples
Today, instruments like the tiple are descendants of vihuelas brought to America in the 16th century.
David Pelham says of the Colombian tiple: "The tiple is a Colombian adaptation of the Renaissance Spanish vihuela brought to the New World in the 16th century by the Spanish conquistadors. At the end of the 19th century, it evolved to its present shape. Its twelve strings are arranged in four groups of three: the first group consists of three steel strings tuned to E, the second, third and fourth groups have a copper string in the middle of two steel strings. The central ones are tuned one octave lower than the surrounding strings of the group. This arrangement produces the set of harmonics that gives the instrument its unique voice. Outside of Colombia the "copper" strings are more often standard brass or bronze wound steel guitar strings.

Enríquez de Valderrábano

Enriquez de Valderrabano
1500 – after 1557) was a Spanish vihuelist and composer.

Lute

lutenistluteslutanist
The vihuela is a 15th-century fretted plucked Spanish string instrument, shaped like a guitar (figure-of-eight form offering strength and portability) but tuned like a lute. Unpaired chanterelles were common on all lutes, vihuelas, and (other) early guitars (both Renaissance guitars and Baroque guitars). Vihuelas were tuned identically to their contemporary Renaissance lute; 4ths and mid-3rd (44344, almost like a modern guitar tuning, with the exception of the third string, which was tuned a semitone lower).
In about the year 1500 many Iberian lutenists adopted vihuela de mano, a viol-shaped instrument tuned like the lute, but both instruments continued in coexistence.

Alonso Mudarra

Alonso de MudarraMudarra
1510 – April 1, 1580) was a Spanish composer of the Renaissance, and also played the vihuela, a guitar-shaped string instrument.

Miguel de Fuenllana

Miguel de Fuenllana (c.1500–1579) was a Spanish vihuelist and composer of the Renaissance.

Diego Pisador

– after 1557) was a Spanish vihuelist and composer of the Renaissance.

Esteban Daza

Estevan DaçaDaza
1537 in Valladolid – between 1591 and 1596 in Valladolid) was a Spanish composer and vihuelist of the Renaissance.

Rob MacKillop

Robert MacKillop
Performers adept with the vihuela include the Scottish composer Robert MacKillop and the American artists Crystal Bright and Hopkinson Smith.
Rob MacKillop (born in 1959 in Dundee) is a Scottish composer and multi-instrumentalist, specializing in lute, theorbo, vihuela, banjo, ukulele and both classical and Russian guitar.

Crystal Bright

Crystal Bright & the Silver Hands
Performers adept with the vihuela include the Scottish composer Robert MacKillop and the American artists Crystal Bright and Hopkinson Smith.
Her "operatic voice teems with ethereal beauty" and she plays many unusual instruments, including a musical saw, accordion, keyboards, concertina, adungu (Ugandan harp), bombo (Argentinian drum), zheng (zither), piano, guitar and vihuela.

Hopkinson Smith

Performers adept with the vihuela include the Scottish composer Robert MacKillop and the American artists Crystal Bright and Hopkinson Smith.
He moved to Europe in 1973 to study lute and vihuela with the renowned Catalan classical guitarist Emilio Pujol, as well as Eugen Mueller-Dombois.

Plucked string instrument

pluckedplucked stringsplucked string

Spain

SpanishESPKingdom of Spain
It was used in 15th- and 16th-century Spain as the equivalent of the lute in Italy and has a large resultant repertory.

Italy

ItalianITAItalia
It was used in 15th- and 16th-century Spain as the equivalent of the lute in Italy and has a large resultant repertory.

Catalan language

CatalanCatalan-languageca
The vihuela, as it was known in Spanish, was called the viola de mà in Catalan, viola da mano in Italian and viola de mão in Portuguese.

Italian language

ItalianItalian-languageit
The vihuela, as it was known in Spanish, was called the viola de mà in Catalan, viola da mano in Italian and viola de mão in Portuguese.

Portuguese language

PortuguesePortuguese-languageBrazilian Portuguese
The vihuela, as it was known in Spanish, was called the viola de mà in Catalan, viola da mano in Italian and viola de mão in Portuguese.

Catgut

gutgut stringgut strings
In its most developed form, the vihuela was a guitar-shaped instrument with six double-strings (paired courses) made of gut.

Perfect fourth

fourthfourthsF
Vihuelas were tuned identically to their contemporary Renaissance lute; 4ths and mid-3rd (44344, almost like a modern guitar tuning, with the exception of the third string, which was tuned a semitone lower).