A report on Vijayamitra

Vijayamitra riding in armour, holding a whip. Like many other Indo-Scythians, Vijayamitra did not issue portraits.
Silver coin of Vijayamitra in the name of Azes. Buddhist triratna symbol in the left field on the reverse.
Apracaraja Vijayamitra.
Apracaraja Vijayamitra.

Indo-Scythian king of the Apracas who ruled in the north-western region of ancient India, located in Bajaur of modern Pakistan.

- Vijayamitra
Vijayamitra riding in armour, holding a whip. Like many other Indo-Scythians, Vijayamitra did not issue portraits.

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Rukhuna reliquary

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The Darunta reliquary from Passani Stupa No.2 is structurally similar to the Rukhuna reliquary, especially with the inside compartments.<ref name="RS">{{cite book |last1=Salomon |first1=Richard |title=A New Inscription dated in the "Yona" (Greek) Era of 186/5 B.C. |date=2005 |publisher=Brepols |isbn=978-2-503-51681-3 |pages=359–400 |url=http://www.brepols.net/Pages/ShowProduct.aspx?prod_id=IS-9782503516813-1}}</ref>
Another similar example: the Bimaran casket. This reliquary is inscribed on the outside, rather than the inside.
Broadly similar stone containers with compartments from Ai-Khanoum, 2nd century BCE.<ref name="HF">{{cite book |last1=Falk |first1=Harry |title=Buddhistische Reliquienbehälter aus der Sammlung Gritli von Mitterwallner |date=2015 |page=135 |url=https://www.academia.edu/20438939 |language=en}}</ref>
Stone vessels (pyxides) from the Temple with niches, Sanctuary of Ai-Khanoum, 3rd-2nd century BCE.

The Rukhuna reliquary, also sometimes Rukhana reliquary, also described as the Bajaur reliquary inscription, is a Scythian reliquary which was dedicated and inscribed in 16 CE by Rukhuna, Queen of Indo-Scythian king Vijayamitra (ruled 12 BCE - 20 CE).

Tetradrachm of Plato. Obv: Diademed bust of Plato. Rev: Sun divinity Helios, riding a four-horse chariot. Greek legend: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΠΛΑΤΩΝΟΣ (BASILEOS EPIPHANOYS PLATONOS) "Of King Plato, Manifestation of God on earth". Coin marked MZ (bottom left of reverse), which possibly is a dating which equals year 47 Yavana era = 138 BCE.

Yavana era

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Computational era used in the Indian subcontinent from the 2nd century BCE for several centuries thereafter, probably starting in 174 BCE.

Computational era used in the Indian subcontinent from the 2nd century BCE for several centuries thereafter, probably starting in 174 BCE.

Tetradrachm of Plato. Obv: Diademed bust of Plato. Rev: Sun divinity Helios, riding a four-horse chariot. Greek legend: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΠΛΑΤΩΝΟΣ (BASILEOS EPIPHANOYS PLATONOS) "Of King Plato, Manifestation of God on earth". Coin marked MZ (bottom left of reverse), which possibly is a dating which equals year 47 Yavana era = 138 BCE.
The Yavanarajya inscription, dated to "year 116 of Yavana hegemony", probably 70 or 69 BCE. Mathura Museum.
close-up pictures

A recently discovered reliquary (published by Salomon in 2005) from Bajaur gives a triple dating which allows to clarify the relationship between several eras: it is dated to the 27th regnal year of Vijayamitra, a king of the Indo-Scythian Apraca, the 73rd years of the Azes era, and the 201st year of the Greeks (Yonanas or Ionians).

Azes era

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Named after the Indo-Scythian king, "King Azes the Great" or Azes I.

Named after the Indo-Scythian king, "King Azes the Great" or Azes I.

However, this was disputed by Robert Bracey following discovery of an inscription of Vijayamitra, which is dated in two eras.

Territories and expansion of the Indo-Scythians at their greatest extent, including territories of the Northern Satraps and Western Satraps.

Indo-Scythians

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Indo-Scythians (also called Indo-Sakas) were a group of nomadic Iranian peoples of Scythian origin who migrated from Central Asia southward into modern day Pakistan and North Western India from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 4th century CE.

Indo-Scythians (also called Indo-Sakas) were a group of nomadic Iranian peoples of Scythian origin who migrated from Central Asia southward into modern day Pakistan and North Western India from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 4th century CE.

Territories and expansion of the Indo-Scythians at their greatest extent, including territories of the Northern Satraps and Western Satraps.
Head of a Saka warrior, as a defeated enemy of the Yuezhi, from Khalchayan, northern Bactria, 1st century BCE.
The treasure of the royal burial Tillya Tepe is attributed to 1st century BC Sakas in Bactria.
Detail of one of the Orlat plaques seemingly representing Scythian soldiers.
Map of Sakastan around 100 BC
Asia in 100 BC, showing the Sakas and their neighbors
Coin of Maues depicting Balarama, 1st century BC. British Museum.
A coin of the Indo-Scythian king Azes
A toilet tray of the type found in the Early Saka layer at Sirkap
A bronze coin of the Indo-Scythian King Azes. Obverse: BASILEWS BASILEWN MEGALOU AZOU, Humped Brahman bull (zebu) walking right, Whitehead symbol 15 (Z in square) above; Reverse: Kharosthi "jha" to right / Kharosthi legend, Lion or leopard standing right, Whitehead symbol 26 above; Reference: Whitehead 259; BMC p. 86, 141.
The Bimaran casket, representing the Buddha surrounded by Brahma (left) and Śakra (right) was found inside a stupa with coins of Azes inside. British Museum.
The Mathura lion capital is an important Indo-Scythian monument dedicated to the Buddhist religion (British Museum).
Silver coin of Vijayamitra in the name of Azes. Buddhist triratna symbol in the left field on the reverse.
Profile of the Indo-Scythian King Azes on one of his coins.
Coin of the Western Kshatrapa ruler Rudrasimha I (c. AD 175 to 197), a descendant of the Indo-Scythians
Silver tetradrachm of the Indo-Scythian king Maues (85–60 BC).
Azilises on horse, wearing a tunic
Scythian devotee, Butkara Stupa
Gandhara stone palette with Scythians playing music.
The Bajaur casket was dedicated by Indravarman, Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Buddhist stupas during the late Indo-Greek/Indo-Scythian period were highly decorated structures with columns, flights of stairs, and decorative Acanthus leaf friezes. Butkara stupa, Swat, 1st century BC.
Possible Scythian devotee couple (extreme left and right, often described as "Scytho-Parthian"), around the Buddha, Brahma and Indra.
"Scythia" appears around the mouth of the river Indus in the Roman period Tabula Peutingeriana.
Coin of Azes, with king seated, holding a drawn sword and a whip.
"Scythian" soldier, Nagarjunakonda.
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One of the Buner reliefs showing Scythian soldiers dancing. Cleveland Museum of Art.
Indo-Scythians pushing along the Greek god Dionysos with Ariadne.<ref>Photographic reference here {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070310211016/http://kunst.zeit.de/uploads/pics/WK_09_06_L__we_400.jpg |date=10 March 2007 }}.</ref>
Hunting scene.
Hunting scene.
Indo-Corinthian capital from Butkara Stupa, dated to 20 BC, during the reign of Azes II. Turin City Museum of Ancient Art.
Dancing Indo-Scythians (top) and hunting scene (bottom). Buddhist relief from Swat, Gandhara.
Butkara doorjamb, with Indo-Scythians dancing and reveling. On the back side is a relief of a standing Buddha<ref>Faccenna, "Sculptures from the sacred area of Butkara I", plate CCCLXXII</ref>
Statue with inscription mentioning "year 318", probably 143 CE.<ref name = "PC">Problems of Chronology in Gandharan Art pp.35-51, 2017</ref> The two devotees on the right side of the pedestal are in Indo-Scythian suit (loose trousers, tunic, and hood).<ref>Greco-Buddhist Art of Gandhara p.491</ref>

Vijayamitra (ruled 12 BCE - 15 CE) personally dedicated in his name a Buddhist reliquary. Some of his coins bear the Buddhist triratna symbol.

Approximate location of the Apracharajas.

Apracharajas

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Indo-Scythian ruling dynasty of present-day western Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan.

Indo-Scythian ruling dynasty of present-day western Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan.

Approximate location of the Apracharajas.
The Bajaur casket was a Buddhist dedication made by Apraca king Indravarman. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Approximate location of the Apracharajas.
Coin of the Apracaraja Aspavarma (reverse), featuring the Greek goddess Athena.

Vijayamitra (ruled 12 BCE - 15 CE) personally dedicated in his name a Buddhist reliquary, the Shinkot casket. Some of his coins bear the Buddhist triratna symbol.

Shinkot casket

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Buddhist reliquary from the Bajaur area in Gandhara, thought to mention the reign of the 2nd century BCE Indo-Greek king Menander I.

Buddhist reliquary from the Bajaur area in Gandhara, thought to mention the reign of the 2nd century BCE Indo-Greek king Menander I.

Shinkot casket inscription segments A, A1 and C, and portion with Minadrasa Maharajasa in Kharoshthi script.
Shinkot casket, inscription segments B and D

The later segments of the inscription were apparently made under the orders of Vijayamitra, king of the Apracarajas (ruled 12 BCE - 15 CE).

Indravasu

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Indo-Scythian king of the Apracas in Bajaur, western Pakistan.

Indo-Scythian king of the Apracas in Bajaur, western Pakistan.

He was the son of king Vijayamitra.