Vikings

VikingNorseDanesDanishNorsemenNorthmenScandinavianNorse invadersThe VikingsVikingar
Vikings were Scandinavians, * who from the late 8th to late 11th centuries, raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of Europe, and explored westwards to Iceland, Greenland, and Vinland.wikipedia
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Vinland

North AmericaVínlandAmerica
* who from the late 8th to late 11th centuries, raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of Europe, and explored westwards to Iceland, Greenland, and Vinland.
Vinland, Vineland or Winland is the area of coastal North America explored by Norse Vikings, where Leif Erikson first landed around the year 1000, approximately five centuries prior to the voyages of Christopher Columbus and John Cabot.

France in the Middle Ages

FranceKingdom of Francemedieval France
This period of Nordic military, mercantile and demographic expansion constitutes an important element in the early medieval history of Scandinavia, Estonia, the British Isles, France, Kievan Rus' and Sicily.
The Kingdom of France in the Middle Ages (roughly, from the 9th century to the middle of the 15th century) was marked by the fragmentation of the Carolingian Empire and West Francia (843–987); the expansion of royal control by the House of Capet (987–1328), including their struggles with the virtually independent principalities (duchies and counties, such as the Norman and Angevin regions) that had developed following the Viking invasions and through the piecemeal dismantling of the Carolingian Empire and the creation and extension of administrative/state control (notably under Philip II Augustus and Louis IX) in the 13th century; and the rise of the House of Valois (1328–1589), including the protracted dynastic crisis of the Hundred Years' War with the Kingdom of England (1337–1453) compounded by the catastrophic Black Death epidemic (1348), which laid the seeds for a more centralized and expanded state in the early modern period and the creation of a sense of French identity.

Longship

Viking longshipDrekarship
Facilitated by advanced sailing and navigational skills, and characterised by the longship, Viking activities at times also extended into the Mediterranean littoral, North Africa, and the Middle East.
Originally invented and used by the Norsemen (commonly known as the Vikings) for commerce, exploration, and warfare during the Viking Age, many of the longship's characteristics were adopted by other cultures, like Anglo-Saxons and continued to influence shipbuilding for centuries.

Greenland

Kalaallit NunaatGreenlandicGL
* who from the late 8th to late 11th centuries, raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of Europe, and explored westwards to Iceland, Greenland, and Vinland.
Norsemen settled the uninhabited southern part of Greenland beginning in the 10th century, having previously settled Iceland.

Viking revival

ScandophileSeptentrionalistembracing
A romanticised picture of Vikings as noble savages began to emerge in the 18th century; this developed and became widely propagated during the 19th-century Viking revival.
The Viking revival was a movement reflecting new interest in, and appreciation for Viking medieval history and culture.

Viking Age

Viking EraVikingViking period
The term is also commonly extended in modern English and other vernaculars to include the inhabitants of Norse home communities during what has become known as the Viking Age, 798–1066 AD.
Viking travellers and colonists were seen at many points in history as brutal raiders.

Kingdom of Sicily

SicilySicilianKing of Sicily
This period of Nordic military, mercantile and demographic expansion constitutes an important element in the early medieval history of Scandinavia, Estonia, the British Isles, France, Kievan Rus' and Sicily.
By the 11th century mainland southern Lombard and Byzantine powers were hiring Norman mercenaries, who were descendants of French and Vikings; it was the Normans under Roger I who conquered Sicily, taking it away from the Arab Muslims.

Russia

Russian FederationRUSRussian
Following extended phases of (primarily sea- or river-borne) exploration, expansion and settlement, Viking (Norse) communities and governments were established in diverse areas of north-western Europe, Belarus, Ukraine and European Russia, the North Atlantic islands and as far as the north-eastern coast of North America.
Primarily they were Vikings of Scandinavian origin, who ventured along the waterways extending from the eastern Baltic to the Black and Caspian Seas.

Germanic peoples

GermanicGermanic tribesGermanic tribe
Linguistically, this theory is better attested, and the term most likely predates the use of the sail by the Germanic peoples of North-Western Europe, because the Old Frisian spelling shows that the word was pronounced with a palatal k and thus in all probability existed in North-Western Germanic before that palatalisation happened, that is, in the 5th century or before (in the western branch). Geographically, a Viking Age may be assigned to not only Scandinavian lands (modern Denmark, Norway and Sweden), but also territories under North Germanic dominance, mainly the Danelaw, including Scandinavian York, the administrative centre of the remains of the Kingdom of Northumbria, parts of Mercia, and East Anglia.
Meanwhile, North Germanic seafarers, commonly referred to as Vikings, embarked on a massive expansion which led to the establishment of the Duchy of Normandy, Kievan Rus' and their settlement of the British Isles and the North Atlantic Ocean as far as North America.

Faroe Islands

FaroeseFaroesFaeroe Islands
During the 20th century, the meaning of the term was expanded to refer to not only seaborne raiders from Scandinavia and other places settled by them (like Iceland and the Faroe Islands), but also any member of the culture that produced said raiders during the period from the late 8th to the mid-11th centuries, or more loosely from about 700 to as late as about 1100.
Scientists from the University of Aberdeen have also found early cereal pollen from domesticated plants, which further suggests people may have lived on the islands before the Vikings arrived.

Rus' people

Rusthe RusNormanist theory
The Slavs, the Arabs and the Byzantines knew them as the Rus' or Rhōs, probably derived from various uses of rōþs-, "related to rowing", or derived from the area of Roslagen in east-central Sweden, where most of the Vikings who visited the Slavic lands came from.
Thus they are often referred to in English-language research as "Viking Rus'".

Normans

NormanNorman timesAnglo-Norman
The Normans were descended from Vikings who were given feudal overlordship of areas in northern France—the Duchy of Normandy—in the 10th century.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Old Norse: Norðmaðr) are an ethnic group that arose in Normandy, a northern region of France, from contact between Viking settlers and indigenous Franks and Gallo-Romans.

Norse–Gaels

Norse-GaelicNorse-GaelNorse-Gaels
Similar terms exist for other areas, such as Hiberno-Norse for Ireland and Scotland.
They emerged in the Viking Age, when Vikings who settled in Ireland and in Scotland adopted Gaelic culture and intermarried with Gaels.

History of the British Isles

British historyBritishhistory of Britain
This period of Nordic military, mercantile and demographic expansion constitutes an important element in the early medieval history of Scandinavia, Estonia, the British Isles, France, Kievan Rus' and Sicily.
In the 9th century, Vikings from Denmark and Norway conquered most of England.

Norway

NorwegianKingdom of NorwayNOR
Various theories have been offered that the word viking may be derived from the name of the historical Norwegian district of Víkin, meaning "a person from Víkin".
From the 8th to the 10th century, the wider Scandinavian region was the source of Vikings.

Duchy of Normandy

NormandyNormancounty of Rouen
The Normans were descended from Vikings who were given feudal overlordship of areas in northern France—the Duchy of Normandy—in the 10th century.
The Duchy of Normandy grew out of the 911 Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between King Charles III of West Francia and Rollo, leader of the Vikings.

Danelaw

DanesAnglo-DanishDanish
Geographically, a Viking Age may be assigned to not only Scandinavian lands (modern Denmark, Norway and Sweden), but also territories under North Germanic dominance, mainly the Danelaw, including Scandinavian York, the administrative centre of the remains of the Kingdom of Northumbria, parts of Mercia, and East Anglia.
The Danelaw originated from the Viking expansion of the 9th century, although the term was not used to describe a geographic area until the 11th century.

Middle English

Late Middle EnglishMiddleEarly Middle English
The word does not occur in any preserved Middle English texts.
The eagerness of Vikings in the Danelaw to communicate with their Anglo-Saxon neighbours resulted in the erosion of inflection in both languages.

British Isles

BritainBritishThe British Isles
Anglo-Scandinavian is an academic term referring to the people, and archaeological and historical periods during the 8th to 13th centuries in which there was migration to—and occupation of—the British Isles by Scandinavian peoples generally known in English as Vikings.
Viking invasions began in the 9th century, followed by more permanent settlements and political change, particularly in England.

Kiev

KyivKiev, UkraineKyiv, Ukraine
The Viking Rurik dynasty took control of territories in Slavic and Finno-Ugric-dominated areas of Eastern Europe; they annexed Kiev in 882 to serve as the capital of the Kievan Rus'.
A Slavic settlement on the great trade route between Scandinavia and Constantinople, Kiev was a tributary of the Khazars, until its capture by the Varangians (Vikings) in the mid-9th century.

Sweden

SwedishSWEKingdom of Sweden
The Slavs, the Arabs and the Byzantines knew them as the Rus' or Rhōs, probably derived from various uses of rōþs-, "related to rowing", or derived from the area of Roslagen in east-central Sweden, where most of the Vikings who visited the Slavic lands came from.
The actions of these Swedish Vikings are commemorated on many runestones in Sweden, such as the Greece runestones and the Varangian runestones.

Varangians

VarangianVolga VikingsVarangian Guard
The Slavs and the Byzantines also called them Varangians (варяги, from vàr- "confidence, vow of fealty", related to Old English wær "agreement, treaty, promise", Old High German wara "faithfulness").
The Varangians (Greek: Βάραγγοι, Várangoi, Βαριάγοι, Variágoi) was the name given by Greeks, Rus' people, and others to Vikings, who between the 9th and 11th centuries ruled the medieval state of Kievan Rus', settled among many territories of modern Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine, and formed the Byzantine Varangian Guard.

Scotland

Scottish🏴󠁧󠁢󠁳󠁣󠁴󠁿Scots
Similar terms exist for other areas, such as Hiberno-Norse for Ireland and Scotland.
The Vikings began to raid Scotland in the eighth century.

Erik the Red

Eric the RedEirik RaudeEiríkur rauði
Vikings under Leif Ericson, heir to Erik the Red, reached North America and set up short-lived settlements in present-day L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland, Canada.
undefined 1003), known as Erik the Red, was a Norse explorer, described in medieval and Icelandic saga sources as having founded the first settlement in Greenland.

Saxons

SaxonSassenachSaxon people
Early on, it was the Saxons, who occupied Old Saxony, located in what is now Northern Germany.
In the late Roman Empire, the name was used to refer to Germanic coastal raiders, and also as a word something like the later "Viking".