Vinaya

monastic disciplineVinaya-pitakaVinaya-piṭakacode of ethical behaviordisciplinary rulesmonastic codemonastic preceptsstrict monastic disciplineVinVinaya Code
The Vinaya (Pali & Sanskrit) is the division of the Buddhist canon (Tripitaka) containing the rules and procedures that govern the Buddhist monastic community, or sangha.wikipedia
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Mahāsāṃghika

MahasamghikaMahasanghikaMahasamghikas
In addition to these Vinaya traditions, Vinaya texts of several extinct schools of Indian Buddhism are preserved in the Tibetan and East Asian canons, including those of the Kāśyapīya, the Mahāsāṃghika, the Mahīśāsaka, and the Sarvāstivāda
Interest in the origins of the Mahāsāṃghika school lies in the fact that their Vinaya recension appears in several ways to represent an older redaction overall.

Dharmaguptaka

DharmaguptaDharmaguptaka VinayaAbhiniṣkramaṇa Sūtra
Three parallel Vinaya traditions remain in use by modern monastic communities: the Theravada (Sri Lanka & Southeast Asia), Mulasarvastivada (Tibetan Buddhism and the Himalayan region) and Dharmaguptaka (East Asian Buddhism).
They are one of three surviving Vinaya lineages, along with that of the Theravāda and the Mūlasarvāstivāda.

Sangha

SamghasanghasSaṅgha
The Vinaya (Pali & Sanskrit) is the division of the Buddhist canon (Tripitaka) containing the rules and procedures that govern the Buddhist monastic community, or sangha. According to an origin story prefaced to the Theravada Bhikkhu Suttavibhanga, in the early years of the Buddha's teaching the sangha lived together in harmony with no vinaya, as there was no need, because all of the Buddha's early disciples were highly realized if not fully enlightened.
The key feature of Buddhist monasticism is the adherence to the vinaya which contains an elaborate set of 227 main rules of conduct (known as Patimokkha in Pāli) including complete chastity, eating only before noon, and not indulging in malicious or salacious talk.

Mahīśāsaka

MahisasakaMahīśasaka
In addition to these Vinaya traditions, Vinaya texts of several extinct schools of Indian Buddhism are preserved in the Tibetan and East Asian canons, including those of the Kāśyapīya, the Mahāsāṃghika, the Mahīśāsaka, and the Sarvāstivāda
Their founder was a monk named Purāṇa, who is venerated at length in the Mahīśāsaka vinaya, which is preserved in the Chinese Buddhist canon.

Pratimokṣa

PrātimokṣaPratimokshaPātimokkha
The core of the Vinaya is a set of rules known as Patimokkha in Pāli and Prātimokṣa in Sanskrit.
The Pratimokṣa (Sanskrit prātimokṣa) is a list of rules (contained within the vinaya) governing the behaviour of Buddhist monastics (monks or bhikṣus and nuns or bhikṣuṇīs).

Eight Garudhammas

The Eight Garudhammasadditional vowsgarudhammas
The majority of rules for monks and nuns are identical, but the bhikkhuni Prātimokṣa and Vibhanga includes additional rules that are specific to nuns, including the Eight Garudhammas.
The authenticity of these rules is highly contested; they were supposedly added to the (bhikkhunis) Vinaya "to allow more acceptance" of a monastic Order for women, during the Buddha's time.

Tibetan Buddhist canon

Tibetan canonFive Treatises of MaitreyaBka'-'gyur
The Kangyur is divided into sections on Vinaya, Perfection of Wisdom Sutras, Avatamsaka, Ratnakuta and other sutras (75% Mahayana, 25% Nikaya/Agama or Hinayana), and tantras.

Tibetan Buddhism

Tibetan BuddhistTibetanTibetan Buddhists
Three parallel Vinaya traditions remain in use by modern monastic communities: the Theravada (Sri Lanka & Southeast Asia), Mulasarvastivada (Tibetan Buddhism and the Himalayan region) and Dharmaguptaka (East Asian Buddhism).
Tibetans today maintain greater or lesser degrees of confidentiality also with information on the vinaya and emptiness specifically.

Theravada

Theravada BuddhismTheravādaTheravada Buddhist
Three parallel Vinaya traditions remain in use by modern monastic communities: the Theravada (Sri Lanka & Southeast Asia), Mulasarvastivada (Tibetan Buddhism and the Himalayan region) and Dharmaguptaka (East Asian Buddhism).
At issue was its adherents' desire to add new Vinaya rules tightening monastic discipline, against the wishes of the majority Mahāsāṃghika.

Chinese Buddhist canon

Buddhist CanonChinese canoncanon
The Chinese Buddhist canon includes Āgama, Vinaya and Abhidharma texts from Early Buddhist schools, as well as the Mahāyāna sūtras and scriptures from Esoteric Buddhism.

Kangyur

KanjurDerge KangyurKahgyur
The Kangyur is divided into sections on Vinaya, Perfection of Wisdom Sutras, other sutras (75% Mahayana, 25% Hinayana), and tantras.

Gautama Buddha

BuddhaSakyamuniShakyamuni
According to an origin story prefaced to the Theravada Bhikkhu Suttavibhanga, in the early years of the Buddha's teaching the sangha lived together in harmony with no vinaya, as there was no need, because all of the Buddha's early disciples were highly realized if not fully enlightened. According to Buddhist tradition, the complete Vinaya Piṭaka was recited by Upāli at the First Council shortly after the Buddha's death.
But he gave women additional rules (Vinaya) to follow.

East Asian Buddhism

East Asian BuddhistEast AsiaBuddhism
Three parallel Vinaya traditions remain in use by modern monastic communities: the Theravada (Sri Lanka & Southeast Asia), Mulasarvastivada (Tibetan Buddhism and the Himalayan region) and Dharmaguptaka (East Asian Buddhism).
One major exception is some schools of Japanese Buddhism where Buddhist clergy sometimes marry, without following the traditional monastic code or Vinaya.

Bhikkhunī

bhikkhuniBuddhist nunnuns
Parallel and independent Prātimokṣa rules and Vibhnagas exist in each tradition for bhikkhus and bhikkhunis. More recently, women have been undergoing upasampada as bhikkhuni, although this is a highly charged topic within Theravadin communities: see ordination of women in Buddhism
Both bhikkhunis and bhikkhus live by the Vinaya, a set of rules.

Upāli

Upali
According to Buddhist tradition, the complete Vinaya Piṭaka was recited by Upāli at the First Council shortly after the Buddha's death.
At the First Buddhist Council, he was asked to recite the Vinaya and monastic code.

Maechi

Mae jimae chimae chee
Such women appears as maechi in Thai Buddhism, dasa sil mata in Sri Lanka, thilashin in Burma and siladharas at Amaravati Buddhist Monastery in England.
The most recent case brought to the Supreme Court of Thailand is that of Phothirak, a former monk who has been ejected from the Thai sangha after being convicted of breaching the vinaya repeatedly.

Amaravati Buddhist Monastery

AmaravatiAmaravati MonasteryAmarāvati
Such women appears as maechi in Thai Buddhism, dasa sil mata in Sri Lanka, thilashin in Burma and siladharas at Amaravati Buddhist Monastery in England.
According to the monastery website, regarding the male monastic community, "Usually, there are between 15 and 25 bhikkhus and samaneras in residence, living a contemplative, celibate, mendicant life according to the Vinaya and Dhamma. [...] The community also consists of anagārikas, or white-robed postulants on the eight precepts, who after a year or two may be given samanera ordination."

Upasampada

ordinationfully ordainedordain as monks
More recently, women have been undergoing upasampada as bhikkhuni, although this is a highly charged topic within Theravadin communities: see ordination of women in Buddhism
According to Buddhist monastic codes (Vinaya), a person must be 20 years old in order to become a monk or nun.

Schools of Buddhism

Buddhist schoolsschool of Buddhismsect
There are three main traditions of monastic law (Vinaya) each corresponding to the categories outlined above:

Bodhisattva Precepts

bodhisattva'' preceptsBrahma Net SutraMahayana precepts
Other Japanese monks follow the Bodhisattva Precepts only, which was excerpted from the Mahāyāna version of Brahmajālasutra .
In East Asian Buddhism, a fully ordained monk or nun ordains under the traditional prātimokṣa precepts first according to the vinaya of the Dharmaguptaka.

Second Buddhist council

Second CouncilSecondThe Second Buddhist Council
After unsuccessfully trying to modify the Vinaya, a small group of "elderly members", i.e. sthaviras, broke away from the majority Mahāsāṃghika during the Second Buddhist council, giving rise to the Sthavira sect.

Je Tsongkhapa

TsongkhapaTsong KhapaTsongkapa
He would go on to be a great student of the vinaya, the doctrine of behaviour, and even later of the Six Yogas of Naropa, the Kalachakra tantra, and the practice of Mahamudra.

Yogacarabhumi-sastra

Yogācārabhūmi-śāstraYogācārabhūmi ŚāstraYogācārabhūmi
The Mahāyāna Bodhisattvabhūmi, part of the Yogācārabhūmi Śāstra, regards it an offense for monastics following the Mahāyāna to reject the traditional rules of the Vinaya: