A report on Vindhya Range

Vindhya range seen from Mandav, Madhya Pradesh
Map of prominent mountain ranges in India, showing Vindhyas in central India
The Vindhyas are seen as the southern boundary of Aryavarta in this map. Note that historically, the term "Vindhyas" covered the Satpura range that lies to the south of Narmada.
A map of the "Vindhyan Series" from Geological Survey of India (1871)

Complex, discontinuous chain of mountain ridges, hill ranges, highlands and plateau escarpments in west-central India.

- Vindhya Range
Vindhya range seen from Mandav, Madhya Pradesh

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Madhya Pradesh

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State in central India.

State in central India.

Physical map of Madhya Pradesh village Tumen Ashoknagar
Matang was completely developed and manufactured by Vehicle Factory Jabalpur
Woman harvesting wheat, Raisen district
Performing Mallakhamba
Holkar Stadium in Indore.
Mesolithic rock painting, Bhimbetka rock shelters, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Kandariya Mahadeva Temple, Khajuraho
Bateshwar temple complex, Padavli, Morena
Chausath Yogini Temple, Mitavli, Morena
Sahastra Bahu Temples, Gwalior Fort
Teli ka Mandir, Gwalior Fort
Shiva Temple in Bhojpur
Lakshmi Temple, Orchha
Brahma statue with various deities at Amarkantak.
Gwalior Fort, Gwalior
Gwalior Fort
Langur monkey (Semnopithecus dussumieri), Orchha
Tigress with cubs in Kanha Tiger Reserve
Tickell's blue flycatcher, Bandhavgarh National Park
Vultures in the nest, Orchha
Male nilgais fighting, Lakeshwari, Gwalior district
Narmada River
Son River, Umaria district, MP, India
The River Narmada flows through a gorge of marble rocks in Bhedaghat, Jabalpur
The Shri Ram Ghat on the Shipra River in Ujjain
Betwa in the Ashoknagar District of Madhya Pradesh
Children in Raisen district, Bhil tribe
Shepherds in Chambal
A young farmer in Umaria district
Young Baiga women
Bagh Print Traditional hand block print craft in Bagh.
A man playing flute in Orchha, with a white tilak on his forehead, and holy saffron-coloured clothes.
Sand sculpture by Sudarshan Pattnaik at Bandrabhan near Hoshangabad
Rajiv Gandhi Technical University's main gate
IIM Indore's aerial panoramic view
St. Aloysius Senior Secondary School, Jabalpur, established in the year 1868 is among the oldest schools in India
Tigress with cubs in Kanha Tiger Reserve

Madhya Pradesh literally means "Central Province", and is located in the geographic heart of India in between the latitude of 21.6°N–26.30°N and longitude of 74°9'E–82°48'E. The state straddles the Narmada River, which runs east and west between the Vindhya and Satpura ranges; these ranges and the Narmada are the traditional boundaries between the north and south of India.

Narmada River

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5th longest river and overall longest west-flowing river in India.

5th longest river and overall longest west-flowing river in India.

Narmada Kund, origin at Amarkantak
Narmada River at Tilwara ghat, Jabalpur
River in Omkareshwar
The River Narmada flows through a gorge of Marble rocks in Bhedaghat
Side view of the Dhuandhar Falls seen during the monsoon season.
Marble rocks alongside Narmada River
Narmada River at full flow during monsoon in Bhedaghat.
Railway Bridge on river Narmada at Bharuch, Gujarat
A scenic view of Maheshwar on the banks of Narmada
Omkareshwar temple on the banks of Narmada river
Forests of Amarkantak
Bark of Lagerstroemia parviflora
Tigress with her two cubs in Kanha National Park
Layout of Water Resources Development Projects in the Narmada Basin in Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh
Indirasagar Dam partially completed in 2008
Tigress with her two cubs in Kanha National Park

It is one of the rivers in India that flows in a rift valley, bordered by the Satpura and Vindhya ranges.

India

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India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), – "Official name: Republic of India.";

India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), – "Official name: Republic of India.";

An illustration from an early-modern manuscript of the Sanskrit epic Ramayana, composed in story-telling fashion c. undefined.
Cave 26 of the rock-cut Ajanta Caves
India has the majority of the world's wild tigers, approximately 3,000 in 2019.
A Chital (Axis axis) stag attempts to browse in the Nagarhole National Park in a region covered by a moderately dense forest.
The last three Asiatic cheetahs (on record) in India were shot dead in Surguja district, Madhya Pradesh, Central India by Maharajah Ramanuj Pratap Singh Deo. The young males, all from the same litter, were sitting together when they were shot at night in 1948.
Children awaiting school lunch in Rayka (also Raika), a village in rural Gujarat. The salutation Jai Bhim written on the blackboard honours the jurist, social reformer, and Dalit leader B. R. Ambedkar.
Indian cricketer Sachin Tendulkar about to score a record 14,000 runs in test cricket while playing against Australia in Bangalore, 2010.
Bhutesvara Yakshis, Buddhist reliefs from Mathura, {{CE|2nd century}}
Gupta terracotta relief, Krishna Killing the Horse Demon Keshi, 5th century
thumb|Elephanta Caves, triple-bust (trimurti) of Shiva, {{convert|18|ft|m}} tall, {{circa|550}}
Chola bronze of Shiva as Nataraja ("Lord of Dance"), Tamil Nadu, 10th or 11th century.
Jahangir Receives Prince Khurram at Ajmer on His Return from the Mewar Campaign, Balchand, {{circa|1635}}
Krishna Fluting to the Milkmaids, Kangra painting, 1775–1785

It extends as far north as the Satpura and Vindhya ranges in central India.

Uttar Pradesh

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State in northern India.

State in northern India.

A part of the Gangetic Plain
Monsoon clouds over Indirapuram
Divisions of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh is the largest subdivion by population in the world. The red area has a smaller population than Uttar Pradesh.
Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha), the lower house of the bicameral legislature.
Logo of Uttar Pradesh Police, the largest police force in the world.
Sown saplings of rice in a paddy; located in the rich fertile Indo-Gangetic Plain, agriculture is the largest employment generator in the state.
IT premise in Noida, which is known for infrastructure and services, as well as high-end housing complexes.
A section of Delhi–Noida Direct Flyway
Indian field hockey legend Major Dhyan Chand
Ekana Cricket Stadium in Lucknow.
JRHU is the world's first school for the handicapped
Central Drug Research Institute, an autonomous multidisciplinary research institute
Kumbh Mela 2013 at Sangam, Allahabad
The battle of Kurukshetra, folio from the Mahabharata
Kathak dancer performing
Devotees inside Krishna temple during Lathmaar Holi
Uttar Pradeshi thali with naan, sultani dal, raita, and shahi paneer
Paan (betel leaves) being served with silver foil
Anandabodhi tree in Jetavana Monastery, Sravasti
A hybrid nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus) showing nectar spur, found mainly in Hardoi district
View of the Terai region
The threatened Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) is a large fish-eating crocodilian found in the Ganges River

The smaller Vindhya Range and plateau region are in the south.

Malwa

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Historical region of west-central India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin.

Historical region of west-central India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin.

Ceramic goblet of the Malwa culture from Navdatoli, Malwa, 1300 BCE.
Coin showing Karttikeya and Lakshmi (Ujjain, circa 150–75 BC)
Rani Roopmati Pavilion at Mandu, built by Miyan Bayezid Baz Bahadur (1555–62)
Sculpture of a Holkar courtier from Fort Ahilya.
Malwa (central India, in yellow), as depicted in the Ostell's New General Atlas, 1814
The Vindhya Range marks the southern boundary of the plateau, and is the source of many rivers of the region.
The Sambhar is one of the most common wild animals found in the region.
A girl from the Gadia Lohars nomadic tribe of Marwar, cooking on the outskirts of a village in Ratlam district
Children in an opium field in Malwa
A Maratha-styled sculpture from Maheshwar
Typical countryside near Mhow during the monsoon season
The Vijay Balla ("Victory Bat") made out of concrete with names of the players of the Indian team who won the test series against England (1971) and West Indies(1972)
Mandu Valley
Maheshwar Fort (exterior)
Maheshwar Fort (interior)

Geologically, the Malwa Plateau generally refers to the volcanic upland north of the Vindhya Range.

Deccan plateau, Hyderabad, India

Deccan Plateau

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Located between the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats, and is loosely defined as the peninsular region between these ranges that is south of the Narmada river.

Located between the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats, and is loosely defined as the peninsular region between these ranges that is south of the Narmada river.

Deccan plateau, Hyderabad, India
The Deccan Plateau is a major part of South India (see inset for north and south Deccan Plateau)
Hogenakal Falls, Tamil Nadu
Tiruvannamalai hill, often regarded as the southern tip of the Deccan plateau, the city of Tiruvannamalai in Tamil Nadu itself considered the gateway to the plateau
Near Hampi, Karnataka
Rock formations at Hyderabad, Telangana Hills of granite boulders are a common feature of the landscape on the Deccan plateau.
Deccan Traps in Maharashtra

To the north, it is bounded by the Satpura and Vindhya Ranges.

Indo-Gangetic Plain

Indo-Gangetic Plain

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172 e6acre fertile plain encompassing northern regions of the Indian subcontinent, including most of northern and eastern India, around half of Pakistan, virtually all of Bangladesh and southern plains of Nepal.

172 e6acre fertile plain encompassing northern regions of the Indian subcontinent, including most of northern and eastern India, around half of Pakistan, virtually all of Bangladesh and southern plains of Nepal.

Indo-Gangetic Plain
Clusters of yellow lights on the Indo-Gangetic Plain reveal numerous cities large and small in this photograph of northern India and northern Pakistan, seen from the northwest. The orange line is the India–Pakistan border.
A part of the Indo-Gangetic Plain over Northern, Central and Eastern India as well as its neighbouring countries

According to Manusmṛti (2.22), 'Aryavarta' is "the tract between the Himalaya and the Vindhya ranges, from the Eastern Sea (Bay of Bengal) to the Western Sea (Arabian Sea)".

Kaimur Range

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Kaimur Range (also spelt Kymore) is the eastern portion of the Vindhya Range, about 483 km long, extending from around Katangi in Jabalpur district of Madhya Pradesh to around Sasaram in Rohtas district of Bihar.

Ganges

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Trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through India and Bangladesh.

Trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through India and Bangladesh.

Bhagirathi River at Gangotri.
Devprayag, confluence of Alaknanda (right) and Bhagirathi (left), and beginning of the Ganges proper.
The Himalayan headwaters of the Ganges River in the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand, India.
The Gandhi Setu Bridge across the Ganges in Patna, Bihar
A sailboat on the main distributory of the Ganges in Bangladesh, the Padma river.
The Ganges delta in a 2020 satellite image.
A 1908 map showing the course of the Ganges and its tributaries.
The River Ganges at Kolkata, with Howrah Bridge in the background
Lower Ganges in Lakshmipur, Bangladesh
Hardinge Bridge, Bangladesh, crosses the Ganges-Padma River. It is one of the key sites for measuring streamflow and discharge on the lower Ganges.
Chromolithograph, Indian woman floating lamps on the Ganges, by William Simpson, 1867
Descent of Ganga, painting by Raja Ravi Varma c. 1910
Preparations for cremations on the banks of the Ganges in Varanasi], 1903. The dead are being bathed, wrapped in cloth, and covered with wood. The photograph has a caption, "Who dies in the waters of the Ganges obtains heaven."]
Women and children at a bathing ghat on the Ganges in Banares (Varanasi), 1885.
Shiva, as Gangadhara, bearing the Descent of the Ganges, as the goddess Parvati, the sage Bhagiratha, and the bull Nandi look on (circa 1740).
A procession of Akharas marching over a makeshift bridge over the Ganges River. Kumbh Mela at Allahabad, 2001.
Head works of the Ganges canal in Haridwar (1860). Photograph by Samuel Bourne.
The Ganges Canal highlighted in red stretching between its headworks off the Ganges River in Haridwar and its confluences with the Jumna (Yamuna) River in Etawah and with the Ganges in Cawnpore (now Kanpur).
A girl selling plastic containers in Haridwar for carrying Ganges water.
Ganges from Space
Lesser florican (Sypheotides indicus)
The catla (Catla catla) is one of the Indian carp species that support major fisheries in the Ganges
The threatened gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) is a large fish-eating crocodilian that is harmless to humans
The Gangetic dolphin in a sketch by Whymper and P. Smit, 1894.
People bathing and washing clothes in the Ganges in Varanasi.
The Ganges at Sultanganj.

The Ganges basin ranges from the Himalaya and the Transhimalaya in the north, to the northern slopes of the Vindhya range in the south, from the eastern slopes of the Aravalli in the west to the Chota Nagpur plateau and the Sunderbans delta in the east.

From top and L-R: Sabarmati Ashram, Gujarati attire, Somnath Temple, Rann of Kutch, Dwarkadhish Temple, Statue of Unity, Laxmi Vilas Palace at Vadodara

Gujarat

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State along the western coast of India.

State along the western coast of India.

From top and L-R: Sabarmati Ashram, Gujarati attire, Somnath Temple, Rann of Kutch, Dwarkadhish Temple, Statue of Unity, Laxmi Vilas Palace at Vadodara
From top and L-R: Sabarmati Ashram, Gujarati attire, Somnath Temple, Rann of Kutch, Dwarkadhish Temple, Statue of Unity, Laxmi Vilas Palace at Vadodara
A modern Zoroastrian Agiary in Western India
Jama Masjid, Ahmedabad
Portrait of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb
Peshwa Baji Rao I riding a horse
Bombay Presidency in 1909, northern portion
Mahatma Gandhi picking salt at Dandi beach, South Gujarat ending the Salt satyagraha on 5 April 1930
Gujarati written in Gujarati script
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Swarnim Sankul 2, Office of Gujarat Government
Mundra Port, Kutch
Tallest building in Gujarat: GIFT One
Shown here is the Tata Nano, the world's least expensive car. Sanand, Gujarat, is home to Tata Nano.
Surat is one of the fastest growing cities in the world.
Alang shipbreaking
Astonfield's 11.5 MW solar plant in Gujarat
Traditional farming
Amul plant at Anand
Hemchandra acharya with his disciple Kumarpal Raja. He is regarded as the father of the Gujarati language.
Depection of Shrimad Rajchandra writing Atmasiddhi in single sitting of 1.5 hrs, one of the longest Gujarati poetry based on Jain philosophy.
Gujarati thali
An Asiatic lion family, which occurs in and around Gir National Park
Greater flamingo, Jamnagar
Striped hyena at the Gir Forest National Park
Indroda Dinosaur and Fossil Park, Gandhinagar
Saputara – a hill station in Gujarat
Statue of Unity facing the Sardar Sarovar Dam on the river Narmada in Kevadiya colony
Tarnetar Fair, Tarnetar
A man in traditional costumes during Tarnetar fair
Kandla Port, Kutch
Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad
The Gujarat National Law University, Gandhinagar
Campus at Dhirubhai Ambani Institute of Information and Communication Technology, Gandhinagar
The clock tower in Gujarat University, Ahmedabad
Kala Bhavan, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda
Rocket model at Science City, Ahmedabad
Mount Karo, Kutch
Cracked earth in the Rann of Kutch
The colourful Rann Utsav Festival is held annually in the Rann of Kutch.
People enjoying Raan Utsav at Dhordo, Kutch
Camel ride in Rann of Kutch
Greater Flamingo at Rann of Kutch
Hathisingh Jain Temple, Ahmedabad
Palitana temples
Modhera Sun Temple built by Bhimdev
Gurudwara Govinddham, Ahmedabad
Magen Abraham Jewish Synagogue
Jama Masjid (Friday Mosque, 15th century), Ahmedabad
Garba during Navaratri in Ahmedabad
Navratri Garba at Ambaji temple
Tourists playing Dandiya Raas
International Kite Festival, Ahmedabad
Statue of Mahatma Gandhi in Sabarmati Ashram, Ahmedabad
Somnath Temple, Veraval
Dwarkadhish Temple, Dwarka
Radha Damodar Temple, Junagadh
Kirti Toran, Vadnagar
Akshardham Gandhinagar
Jama Mosque, Champaner
Lakhota Museum in Jamnagar
Sun Temple, Modhera
Laxmi Vilas Palace, Vadodara
Vijay Vilas Palace, Mandvi, Kutch
Mahabat Maqbara, Junagadh
Vasai Jain Temple, Kutch
Wankaner palace, Wankaner
Mandvi Beach, Kutch
Muhammad ibn Qasim's conquest of Sindh (711-715 CE). 
Desert areas (Registan Desert and Thar Desert)
Zunbils
Kingdom of Sindh (c. 632– 712 CE)
Maitraka Kingdom (c.475–c.776 CE)

The eastern borders have fringes of low mountains of India, the Aravalli, Sahyadri (Western Ghats), Vindhya and Saputara.