Vinegar

A variety of flavored vinegars, for culinary use, on sale in France
Fast aerobic fermentation stainless steel vessels
Raisin vinegar
Persimmon vinegar produced in South Korea
Coconut vinegar from the Philippines
Chinese black vinegar
Sherry vinegar
A beverage made from apple vinegar in China

Aqueous solution of acetic acid and trace compounds that may include flavorings.

- Vinegar
A variety of flavored vinegars, for culinary use, on sale in France

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Acetic acid crystals

Acetic acid

Acidic, colourless liquid and organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH .

Acidic, colourless liquid and organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH .

Acetic acid crystals
Deprotonation equilibrium of acetic acid in water
Cyclic dimer of acetic acid; dashed green lines represent hydrogen bonds
Purification and concentration plant for acetic acid in 1884
Crystallised acetic acid.

Vinegar is at least 4% acetic acid by volume, making acetic acid the main component of vinegar apart from water and other trace elements.

A bottle of Aceto Balsamico di Modena, aged for eight years

Balsamic vinegar

A bottle of Aceto Balsamico di Modena, aged for eight years
The two Italian traditional balsamic vinegars from Reggio Emilia (left) and Modena (right) with Protected Designation of Origin status (Denominazione di Origine Protetta in Italian), in their legally approved shaped bottles.
(Three years) Aged Balsamic Vinegar of Modena
Barrels of balsamic vinegar aging
Three desserts in Modena with tradizionale balsamic vinegar: clockwise from left, zabaione, latte alla portoghese or crème caramel, and panna cotta.

Balsamic vinegar (aceto balsamico) is a very dark, concentrated and intensely flavoured vinegar originating in Italy, made wholly or partially from grape must: freshly crushed grape juice with all the skins, seeds and stems.

Using a mix of acidic vinegar and soap to clean a plastic surface

Cleaning agent

Cleaning agents or hard-surface cleaners are substances (usually liquids, powders, sprays, or granules) used to remove dirt, including dust, stains, bad smells, and clutter on surfaces.

Cleaning agents or hard-surface cleaners are substances (usually liquids, powders, sprays, or granules) used to remove dirt, including dust, stains, bad smells, and clutter on surfaces.

Using a mix of acidic vinegar and soap to clean a plastic surface
Fabuloso multipurpose cleaner and generic surface cleaners

Vinegar can also be used to clean hard surfaces and remove calcium deposits that also helps to maintain our environment bacteria free.

A handful of malted barley, the white sprouts visible

Malt

Germinated cereal grain that has been dried in a process known as "malting".

Germinated cereal grain that has been dried in a process known as "malting".

A handful of malted barley, the white sprouts visible
Beer malt varieties from Bamberg, Germany
Malted grain for beer production
Samanu decorated with pistachio
Barley is spread out on the floor of a malthouse during a traditional malting process.
Homebrewing malt extracts - liquid in a can and spray-dried
Barley malt syrup being slowly added to flour in a bagel recipe
1897 Pabst Malt Extract ad

Malted grain is used to make beer, whisky, malted milk, malt vinegar, confections such as Maltesers and Whoppers, flavored drinks such as Horlicks, Ovaltine, and Milo, and some baked goods, such as malt loaf, bagels, and Rich Tea biscuits.

Coconut

Member of the palm tree family (Arecaceae) and the only living species of the genus Cocos.

Member of the palm tree family (Arecaceae) and the only living species of the genus Cocos.

De-husked coconut fruit showing the characteristic three pores resembling a face
Chronological dispersal of Austronesian peoples across the Indo-Pacific
A wa'a kaulua (double-hulled canoe) from Hawai'i. Catamarans were one of the early technological innovations of Austronesian peoples that allowed them to colonize the islands of the Indo-Pacific and introduce coconuts and other canoe plants along their migration routes.
Fossil "Cocos" zeylanica from the Miocene of New Zealand, approximately the size of a strawberry at 3.5 cm long
Coconut leaves
Coconut palm heavy with fruit
Coconut inflorescence unfurling
Palms tolerate the saline and infertile soils of laterite type in Goa, India
A coconut plantation in Efate, Vanuatu
Coconut trees on a beach in Upolu, Samoa
Coconut germinating on Punaluʻu Beach on the island of Hawaiʻi
The Pacific flying fox (Pteropus tonganus) feeding on nectar and pollen from coconut flowers in Fiji
Worker in the Philippines using a bamboo bridge network to collect sweet coconut sap from cut flower stalks for the production of lambanog, a distilled alcoholic drink
Red nata de coco in syrup from the Philippines
Macapuno preserves sold in the United States
Coconuts being sold on a street in India
Coconut trees line the beaches and corniches of Oman
Immature green coconuts sold in Bangladesh for coconut water and their soft jelly-like flesh
Soft immature coconut meat are usually eaten as is
Coconut milk, a widely used ingredient in the cuisines of regions where coconuts are native
Coconut water drink
Ubod (coconut heart of palm) from the Philippines
Bahalina, a traditional coconut wine (tubâ) from the Philippines fermented from coconut sap and mangrove bark extracts
Extracting coir, the fiber from the coconut husk, in Sri Lanka
Coconut buttons in Dongjiao Town, Hainan, China
A "coconut monkey" from Mexico, a common souvenir item carved from coconut shells
Fish curry being served in coconut shell in Thailand
Pusô, woven pouches of rice in various designs from the Philippines
Coconut trunk
Making a rug from coconut fiber
Palaspas, woven palm fronds during Palm Sunday celebrations in the Philippines
A canang, an offering of flowers, rice, and incense in woven coconut leaves from Bali, Indonesia

Sweet coconut sap can be made into drinks or fermented into palm wine or coconut vinegar.

A jar of pickled cucumbers (front) and a jar of pickled onions (back)

Pickling

A jar of pickled cucumbers (front) and a jar of pickled onions (back)
Historic Indosphere cultural influence zone of Greater India for transmission of elements of Indian culture including food, e.g. pickle / atchaar / atchara / acar,
Indian mixed pickle, containing lotus root, lemon, carrot, green mango, green chilis, and other ingredients.
Dưa cải muối made from cải bẹ xanh
Kimchi is a very common side dish in Korea.
Torshi, traditional pickles in Southeast Europe, Turkey and the South Caucasus
Kosher sauerkraut in Israel
Coriander seeds are one of the spices popularly added to pickled vegetables in Europe.
Jonjoli Georgian pickled flowers of bladdernut
Pickled tomatoes are common in CIS
A dish of giardiniera
Bát Tràng porcelain vessel for pickling
Pickled cucumbers
Pickled herring
Pickled mushrooms
Pickled olives
Pickled vegetables
Fermented homemade pickled cucumber, chili pepper, garlic, and apple in the hot climate of Indonesia

Pickling is the process of preserving or extending the shelf life of food by either anaerobic fermentation in brine or immersion in vinegar.

Jujube

Species in the genus Ziziphus in the buckthorn family Rhamnaceae.

Species in the genus Ziziphus in the buckthorn family Rhamnaceae.

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Jujube seed
Dried jujube fruits
Jujube date attacked by an insect larva
Foliage at Hyderabad, India
Leaf margin
Flowers
Flowers
Bark
Fruit
Fruit cross section

To a lesser extent, jujube fruit is made into juice and jujube vinegar (called 枣 醋 or 红枣 醋 in Chinese).

Grapes

Grape

Fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis.

Fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis.

Grapes
"White" table grapes
Concord is a variety of North American labrusca grape
Top 20 grape producing countries in 2012.
Wine grapes on the vine
Raisins
Grape juice
Grape cross-section
Using grape leaves in cuisine (Dolma)
Flower buds
Flowers
Immature fruit
Grapes in Iran
Wine grapes
Vineyard in the Troodos Mountains
seedless grapes
Grapes in the La Union, Philippines

Grapes can be eaten fresh as table grapes, used for making wine, jam, grape juice, jelly, grape seed extract, vinegar, and grape seed oil, or dried as raisins, currants and sultanas.

Microscopic image of gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria (pink-red rods)

Acetic acid bacteria

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of Gram-negative bacteria which oxidize sugars or ethanol and produce acetic acid during fermentation.

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of Gram-negative bacteria which oxidize sugars or ethanol and produce acetic acid during fermentation.

Microscopic image of gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria (pink-red rods)

Vinegar is produced when acetic acid bacteria act on alcoholic beverages such as wine.

French fries

French fries (North American English), chips (British English), finger chips (Indian English), french-fried potatoes, or simply fries, are batonnet or allumette-cut deep-fried potatoes, disputed origin from Belgium and France.

French fries (North American English), chips (British English), finger chips (Indian English), french-fried potatoes, or simply fries, are batonnet or allumette-cut deep-fried potatoes, disputed origin from Belgium and France.

Pommes frites with a mayonnaise packet
A hamburger with crispy fries
Steak frites in Fontainebleau, France
A Belgian frites shop
Currywurst and fries, Germany
Fish and chips
A popular Québécois dish is poutine, such as this one from La Banquise restaurant in Montreal. It is made with french fries, cheese curds and gravy.
A child holding tornado fries
Oven-baked fries
Fries frying in oil
Air-fried fries
Chili fries
Chili cheese fries
Crinkle-cut fries
Curly fries
Curry chips
Dirty fries
Shoestring fries with blue cheese dressing
Sweet potato fries
Waffle fries
As a snack in a Dutch restaurant

They are often salted and may be served with ketchup, vinegar, mayonnaise, tomato sauce, or other local specialities.