Vinland

North AmericaVínlandAmericafailed colonization attemptNorse discovery of Americaremote islandVinelanderVinland MapVinland regionWinland
Vinland, Vineland or Winland is the area of coastal North America explored by Norse Vikings, where Leif Erikson first landed around the year 1000, approximately five centuries prior to the voyages of Christopher Columbus and John Cabot.wikipedia
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Vikings

VikingNorseDanes
Vinland, Vineland or Winland is the area of coastal North America explored by Norse Vikings, where Leif Erikson first landed around the year 1000, approximately five centuries prior to the voyages of Christopher Columbus and John Cabot.
* who from the late 8th to late 11th centuries, raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of Europe, and explored westwards to Iceland, Greenland, and Vinland.

John Cabot

Giovanni CabotoCabotJohn
Vinland, Vineland or Winland is the area of coastal North America explored by Norse Vikings, where Leif Erikson first landed around the year 1000, approximately five centuries prior to the voyages of Christopher Columbus and John Cabot.
His 1497 discovery of the coast of North America under the commission of Henry VII of England is the earliest known European exploration of coastal North America since the Norse visits to Vinland in the eleventh century.

New Brunswick

NBProvince of New BrunswickNew Brunswick, Canada
Vinland was the name given to North America as far as it was explored by the Norse, presumably including both Newfoundland and the Gulf of Saint Lawrence as far as northeastern New Brunswick (where the eponymous grapevines are found).
New Brunswick may have been part of Vinland during the Norse exploration of North America, and Basque, Breton, and Norman fishermen may have visited the Bay of Fundy in the early 1500s.

Straumfjörð

StraumfjordStraumfjǫrðr
L'Anse aux Meadows may correspond to the camp Straumfjörð mentioned in the Saga of Erik the Red. According to the Saga of Erik the Red, Þorfinnr "Karlsefni" Þórðarson and a company of 160 men, going south from Greenland traversed an open stretch of sea, found Helluland, another stretch of sea, Markland, another stretch of sea, the headland of Kjalarnes, the Wonderstrands, Straumfjörð and at last a place called Hóp, a bountiful place where no snow fell during winter.
Straumfjörð (Icelandic), or Straumfjǫrð (Old Norse) sometimes anglicised to Straumsfjordr, Straumfjordr, Straumsfjord or Straumfjord, is according to the Sagas of Icelanders a fjord in Vinland where Thorfinn Karlsefni set up a temporary settlement.

Newfoundland (island)

Newfoundlandisland of NewfoundlandNewfoundland Island
Vinland was the name given to North America as far as it was explored by the Norse, presumably including both Newfoundland and the Gulf of Saint Lawrence as far as northeastern New Brunswick (where the eponymous grapevines are found).
Long settled by indigenous peoples of the Dorset culture, the island was visited by the Icelandic Viking Leif Eriksson in the 11th century, who called the new land "Vinland".

L'Anse aux Meadows

L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic SiteArcheological remainsattempted to settle
In 1960, archaeological evidence of the only known Norse site in North America (outside Greenland) was found at L'Anse aux Meadows on the northern tip of the island of Newfoundland.
• Promontory of Vinland (the Great Northern Peninsula)]]

Norway

NorwegianKingdom of NorwayNOR
The Hønen Runestone was discovered in Norderhov, Norway, shortly before 1817, but it was subsequently lost.
Norwegian Viking explorers first discovered Iceland by accident in the 9th century when heading for the Faroe Islands, and eventually came across Vinland, known today as Newfoundland, in Canada.

Helluland

little Helluland
According to the Saga of Erik the Red, Þorfinnr "Karlsefni" Þórðarson and a company of 160 men, going south from Greenland traversed an open stretch of sea, found Helluland, another stretch of sea, Markland, another stretch of sea, the headland of Kjalarnes, the Wonderstrands, Straumfjörð and at last a place called Hóp, a bountiful place where no snow fell during winter.
Helluland is the name given to one of the three lands, the others being Vinland and Markland, seen by Bjarni Herjólfsson, encountered by Leif Erikson and further explored by Þorfinnr "Karlsefni" Þórðarson around AD 1000 on the North Atlantic coast of North America.

Leif Erikson

Leif EricsonLeif ErikssonLeif Erickson
Vinland, Vineland or Winland is the area of coastal North America explored by Norse Vikings, where Leif Erikson first landed around the year 1000, approximately five centuries prior to the voyages of Christopher Columbus and John Cabot. Still according to the latter, Leif Ericson led a company of 35, Thorvald Eiriksson a company of 30, and Helgi and Finnbogi had 30 crew members.
According to the Sagas of Icelanders, he established a Norse settlement at Vinland, tentatively identified with the Norse L'Anse aux Meadows on the northern tip of Newfoundland in modern-day Canada.

Thorfinn Karlsefni

Þorfinnr "Karlsefni" ÞórðarsonÞorfinnr KarlsefniÞorfinnur Karlsefni
According to the Saga of Erik the Red, Þorfinnr "Karlsefni" Þórðarson and a company of 160 men, going south from Greenland traversed an open stretch of sea, found Helluland, another stretch of sea, Markland, another stretch of sea, the headland of Kjalarnes, the Wonderstrands, Straumfjörð and at last a place called Hóp, a bountiful place where no snow fell during winter. Thorfinn Karlsefni's crew consisted of 140 or 160 people according to the Saga of Eric the Red, 60 according to the Saga of the Greenlanders.
Around the year 1010 AD, he followed Leif Eriksson's route to Vinland, in a short-lived attempt to establish a permanent settlement there with his wife Guðríður Víðförla Þorbjarnardóttir and their followers.

Saga of Erik the Red

Eiríks saga rauðaSaga of Eric the RedEiríks saga
L'Anse aux Meadows may correspond to the camp Straumfjörð mentioned in the Saga of Erik the Red. Thorfinn Karlsefni's crew consisted of 140 or 160 people according to the Saga of Eric the Red, 60 according to the Saga of the Greenlanders.
The saga also details the events that led to Erik the Red's banishment to Greenland and Leif Erikson's preaching of Christianity as well as his discovery of Vinland after his longship was blown off course.

Markland

According to the Saga of Erik the Red, Þorfinnr "Karlsefni" Þórðarson and a company of 160 men, going south from Greenland traversed an open stretch of sea, found Helluland, another stretch of sea, Markland, another stretch of sea, the headland of Kjalarnes, the Wonderstrands, Straumfjörð and at last a place called Hóp, a bountiful place where no snow fell during winter.
The Saga of Erik the Red indicates that Markland is south of Helluland, north of Vinland off Kjalarnes, north-west of an island called Bjarney, and with a country that Karlsefni thinks may be Hvítramannaland somewhere opposite its coast.

Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum

Adam von BremenDeeds of Bishops of the Hamburg ChurchAdam of Bremen
It was also spelled Winland, as early as Adam of Bremen's Descriptio insularum Aquilonis ("Description of the Northern Islands", ch.
Beyond this, it gives a description of the coast of Scandinavia and of the "northern isles" including Iceland, Greenland and notably (in chapter 39) Vinland (North America), Adam mentions Vinland (Winland) in Chapter 39 of Book IV of his Gesta: From pp.

Freydís Eiríksdóttir

FreydisFreydis EiriksdottirFreydis Eriksdottir
Shortly afterwards, a ship captained by two Icelanders arrives in Greenland, and Freydis, daughter of Eric the Red, persuades them to join her in an expedition to Vinland.
Freydís Eiríksdóttir was said to be born around 970 to Erik the Red (as in her patronym) who was associated with the Norse exploration of North America and the finding of Vinland with his son Leif Erikson.

Thorvald Eiriksson

ThorvaldThorvald ErikssonThorvaldr
Still according to the latter, Leif Ericson led a company of 35, Thorvald Eiriksson a company of 30, and Helgi and Finnbogi had 30 crew members.
Although differing in various detail, according to both sagas Thorvald was part of an expedition for the exploration of Vinland and became the first European to die in North America.

Christopher Columbus

ColumbusCristoforo ColomboColón
Vinland, Vineland or Winland is the area of coastal North America explored by Norse Vikings, where Leif Erikson first landed around the year 1000, approximately five centuries prior to the voyages of Christopher Columbus and John Cabot.
Columbus was not even the first European to reach its shores, having been preceded by Erik the Red in 10th-century Greenland and Leif Erikson in 11th-century Vinland at L'Anse aux Meadows.

Great Ireland

HvítramannalandHvítramannaland or AlbaniaÁri Marsson
Moreover, some sagas establish vague links between Vinland and an island or territory that some sources refer to as Hvítramannaland.
Great Ireland (Old Norse: Írland hið mikla or Írland it mikla), also known as White Men's Land (Hvítramannaland), and in Latin similarly as Hibernia Major and Albania, was a land said by various Norsemen to be located near Vinland.

Leifsbudir

Leifsbúðir
A second expedition, one ship of about 40 men, led by Leif's brother Thorvald, sets out in the autumn after Leif's return and stays over three winters at the new base (Leifsbúðir (-budir), meaning Leif's temporary shelters), exploring the west coast of the new land in the first summer, and the east coast in the second, running aground and losing the ship's keel on a headland they christen Keel Point (Kjalarnes).
Leifsbudir (Old Norse: Leifsbuðir) was a settlement, mentioned in the Greenland Saga, founded by Leif Eriksson in 1000 or 1001 in Vinland.

Herjolfsnes

HerjolfsnessHerjólfsnes
When he does manage to reach Greenland, making land at Herjolfsness, site of his father's farm, he remains there for the rest of his father's life and does not return to Norway until about 1000 CE.
By contrast, in The Greenlanders Saga, Leif is said to have prepared for his voyage to Vinland by purchasing Bjarni's ship, during which he presumably received counsel and directions from Bjarni.

Old Norse

NorseOld IcelandicOld West Norse
The etymology of the Old Norse root, vin- is disputed; while it has usually been assumed to be "wine", some scholars give credence to the homophone vin, meaning "pasture" or "meadow".
In the 11th century, Old Norse was the most widely spoken European language, ranging from Vinland in the West to the Volga River in the East.

Helgi and Finnbogi

Still according to the latter, Leif Ericson led a company of 35, Thorvald Eiriksson a company of 30, and Helgi and Finnbogi had 30 crew members.
There they negotiated a deal with Freydis Eiriksdottir, agreeing to share the profits of a voyage to newly discovered Vinland.

Skræling

SkraelingsSkrælingjarSkrælings
Further south, at a point where Thorvald would like to establish a settlement, the Greenlanders encounter some of the local inhabitants (Skrælings) and kill them, following which they are attacked by a large force in hide boats, and Thorvald dies from an arrow-wound.
In the sagas, it is also used for the peoples of the region known as Vinland whom the Norse encountered during their expeditions there in the early 11th century.

Tyrker

One day an old family servant, Tyrker, goes missing and is found mumbling to himself; he eventually explains that he has found grapes.
This caused Leif to give the country the name of Vinland.

Skálholt

SkalholtSkálholt MapSkálaholt
The Skálholt Map, drawn in 1570 or 1590 but surviving only through later copies, shows Promontorium Winlandiae ("promontory/cape/foreland of Vinland") as a narrow cape with its northern tip at the same latitude as southern Ireland.
In the late 16th century Sigurður Stefánsson, a young teacher from Skálholt and grandson of a Skálholt bishop, used the available documentary evidence to mark the sites of the ancient Norse discoveries in the western Atlantic, including Vinland, on a map.

Kensington Runestone

Kensington Stone
The Kensington Runestone was found in Minnesota, but is generally considered a hoax.
During this period the journey of Leif Ericson to Vinland (North America) was being widely discussed and there was renewed interest in the Vikings throughout Scandinavia, stirred by the National Romanticism movement.