Viola

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The viola (, also, ) is a string instrument that is bowed or played with varying techniques.wikipedia
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Cello

cellistvioloncellocellos
Since the 18th century, it has been the middle or alto voice of the violin family, between the violin (which is tuned a perfect fifth above) and the cello (which is tuned an octave below).
Its four strings are usually tuned in perfect fifths: from low to high, C 2, G 2, D 3 and A 3, an octave lower than the viola.

String instrument

stringsstringstring instruments
The viola (, also, ) is a string instrument that is bowed or played with varying techniques.
Bowed instruments include the string section instruments of the Classical music orchestra (violin, viola, cello and double bass) and a number of other instruments (e.g., viols and gambas used in early music from the Baroque music era and fiddles used in many types of folk music).

Violin family

stringsstringviolin
Since the 18th century, it has been the middle or alto voice of the violin family, between the violin (which is tuned a perfect fifth above) and the cello (which is tuned an octave below).
The standard modern violin family consists of the violin, viola, cello, and double bass.

String quartet

string quartetsquartetstring ensemble
The viola often plays the "inner voices" in string quartets and symphonic writing, and it is more likely than the first violin to play accompaniment parts.
A string quartet refers to a musical ensemble consisting of four string players – two violin players, a viola player and a cellist – or to a musical composition written to be performed by such a group.

Violin

violinsfiddleviolinist
It is slightly larger than a violin and has a lower and deeper sound.
The word "violin" comes from "Italian violino, [a] diminutive of viola".

Lionel Tertis

TertisLionel Tartis
In the earlier part of the 20th century, more composers began to write for the viola, encouraged by the emergence of specialized soloists such as Lionel Tertis and William Primrose.
Lionel Tertis, CBE (29 December 1876 – 22 February 1975) was an English violist, and one of the first viola players to achieve international fame.

Don Quixote (Strauss)

Don QuixoteDon QuichotteDon Quixote'', Op. 35 (Strauss)
Examples include the symphonic poem, "Don Quixote", by Richard Strauss, and the symphony, "Harold en Italie", by Hector Berlioz.
35 is a tone poem by Richard Strauss for cello, viola, and orchestra.

William Primrose

Primrose
In the earlier part of the 20th century, more composers began to write for the viola, encouraged by the emergence of specialized soloists such as Lionel Tertis and William Primrose.
William Primrose CBE (23 August 1904 – 1 May 1982) was a Scottish violist and teacher.

Frank Bridge

BridgeBridge, Frank
English composers Arthur Bliss, York Bowen, Benjamin Dale, Frank Bridge, Benjamin Britten, Rebecca Clarke and Ralph Vaughan Williams all wrote substantial chamber and concert works.
Frank Bridge (26 February 1879 – 10 January 1941) was an English composer, violist and conductor.

Clef

treble clefbass cleftreble
Music for the viola differs from most other instruments in that it primarily uses the alto clef.
The tenor clef is used for the upper register of several instruments that usually use bass clef (including cello, bassoon, and trombone), while the alto is only used by the viola and a few other instruments.

Paul Hindemith

HindemithHindemith, Paul[Paul] Hindemith
Paul Hindemith, who was a violist, wrote a substantial amount of music for viola, including the concerto, "Der Schwanendreher". Paul Hindemith and Vadim Borisovsky made an early attempt at an organization, in 1927, with the Violists' World Union. The concerti by Béla Bartók, Paul Hindemith, Carl Stamitz, Georg Philipp Telemann, and William Walton are considered major works of the viola repertoire.
Paul Hindemith (16 November 1895 – 28 December 1963) was a prolific German composer, violist, violinist, teacher and conductor.

Benjamin Britten

BrittenBritten, BenjaminEdward Benjamin Britten
English composers Arthur Bliss, York Bowen, Benjamin Dale, Frank Bridge, Benjamin Britten, Rebecca Clarke and Ralph Vaughan Williams all wrote substantial chamber and concert works.
He started piano lessons when he was seven years old, and three years later began to play the viola.

Viola da braccio (instrument)

viola da braccio
The Italians often used the term: viola da braccio meaning literally: 'of the arm'.
Both the name of today's viola and its Italian designation viola derive from the original name viola da braccio.

A. E. Smith (violin maker)

A. E. SmithA. E SmithA.E. Smith
One of the most notable makers of violas of the twentieth century was Englishman A. E. Smith, whose violas are sought after and highly valued.
E. Smith''', was an English-born Australian violin and viola maker whose violins and violas are prized for their 'excellence of tone' and 'decorative elements' (e.g. sound holes, scrolls and curves).

Der Schwanendreher

Paul Hindemith, who was a violist, wrote a substantial amount of music for viola, including the concerto, "Der Schwanendreher".
Paul Hindemith's Der Schwanendreher (literally, "The Swan turner") is a concerto for viola and orchestra.

Hermann Ritter

Hermann Ritter's viola alta, which measured about 48 cm, was intended for use in Wagner's operas.
Hermann Ritter (16 September 1849 in Wismar – 25 January 1926 in Würzburg) was a German viola player, composer and music historian.

Tibor Serly

SerlySerly Tibor
William Walton, Bohuslav Martinů, Toru Takemitsu, Tibor Serly, Alfred Schnittke, and Béla Bartók have written well-known viola concertos.
Tibor Serly (Losonc, Kingdom of Hungary, 25 November 1901 – London, 8 October 1978) was a Hungarian violist, violinist and composer.

Vertical viola

Alto violinalto viola
A smaller viola, nearer the size of the violin, was called an alto viola. These include the Otto Erdesz "cutaway" viola, which has one shoulder cut out to make shifting easier; the "Oak Leaf" viola, which has two extra bouts; viol-shaped violas such as Joseph Curtin's "Evia" model, which also uses a moveable neck and maple-veneered carbon fibre back, to reduce weight: violas played in the same manner as cellos (see vertical viola); and the eye-catching "Dalí-esque" shapes of both Bernard Sabatier's violas in fractional sizes—which appear to have melted—and David Rivinus' Pellegrina model violas.
The vertical viola, or alto violin, is a stringed instrument with the range of a viola that is played vertically in the manner of a cello.

Vadim Borisovsky

Paul Hindemith and Vadim Borisovsky made an early attempt at an organization, in 1927, with the Violists' World Union.
Vadim Vasilyevich Borisovsky (Вадим Васильевич Борисовский; January 20, 1900 – July 02, 1972) was a Russian (Soviet) violist.

Primrose International Viola Competition

Primrose Memorial Viola Competition
In addition to the journal, the AVS sponsors the David Dalton Research Competition and the Primrose International Viola Competition.
The Primrose International Viola Competition (PIVC), also referred to as the Primrose Memorial Scholarship Competition (PMSC), is an international music competition for viola players sponsored by the American Viola Society and named for the 20th-century virtuoso William Primrose.

Orchestra

symphony orchestraorchestralchamber orchestra
In early orchestral music, the viola part was usually limited to filling in harmonies, with very little melodic material assigned to it.
An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble typical of Western classical music, which combines instruments from different families, including bowed string instruments such as the violin, viola, cello, and double bass, brass instruments such as the horn, trumpet, trombone and tuba, woodwinds such as the flute, oboe, clarinet and bassoon, and percussion instruments such as the timpani, bass drum, triangle, snare drum, cymbals, and mallet percussion instruments each grouped in sections.

Carl Stamitz

CarlKarl StamitzStamitz
The concerti by Béla Bartók, Paul Hindemith, Carl Stamitz, Georg Philipp Telemann, and William Walton are considered major works of the viola repertoire. There are a few Baroque and Classical concerti, such as those by Georg Philipp Telemann (one of the earliest viola concertos known), Alessandro Rolla, Franz Anton Hoffmeister and Carl Stamitz.
Stamitz wrote symphonies, symphonies concertantes, and concertos for clarinet, cello, flute, oboe, bassoon, basset horn, violin, viola, viola d'amore and different combinations of some of these instruments.

Alessandro Rolla

RollaRolla, Alessandro
There are a few Baroque and Classical concerti, such as those by Georg Philipp Telemann (one of the earliest viola concertos known), Alessandro Rolla, Franz Anton Hoffmeister and Carl Stamitz.
Alessandro Rolla (22 April 1757 – 15 September 1841) was an Italian viola and violin virtuoso, composer, conductor and teacher.

Harold en Italie

Harold in ItalyHarold in Italy'', symphony for viola and orchestra
Examples include the symphonic poem, "Don Quixote", by Richard Strauss, and the symphony, "Harold en Italie", by Hector Berlioz.
Harold en Italie, Symphonie en quatre parties avec un alto principal (English: Harold in Italy, Symphony in Four Parts with Viola Obbligato), Op. 16, H. 68, a symphony with solo viola by Hector Berlioz, written in 1834.

Viol

viola da gambabass violgambist
These include the Otto Erdesz "cutaway" viola, which has one shoulder cut out to make shifting easier; the "Oak Leaf" viola, which has two extra bouts; viol-shaped violas such as Joseph Curtin's "Evia" model, which also uses a moveable neck and maple-veneered carbon fibre back, to reduce weight: violas played in the same manner as cellos (see vertical viola); and the eye-catching "Dalí-esque" shapes of both Bernard Sabatier's violas in fractional sizes—which appear to have melted—and David Rivinus' Pellegrina model violas.
A player of the viol is commonly known as a gambist, violist, or violist da gamba. "Violist" shares the spelling, but not the pronunciation, of the word commonly used since the mid-20th century to refer to a player of the viola.