Viola Desmond

Viola Desmond Pardon
Viola Irene Desmond (July 6, 1914 – February 7, 1965) was a Canadian civil rights activist and businesswoman of Black Nova Scotian descent.wikipedia
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Roseland Theatre (Nova Scotia)

Roseland Theatre
In 1946 she challenged racial segregation at a cinema in New Glasgow, Nova Scotia by refusing to leave a whites-only area of the Roseland Theatre.
Originally built for silent films, it is one of the oldest movie theatre buildings in Nova Scotia but it is best known as the location of a human rights case involving Viola Desmond, who challenged racial segregation in 1946.

Canadian ten-dollar note

$10 billCanadian ten-dollar bill$10
In late 2018 Desmond became the first Canadian woman to appear alone on a Canadian bank note—a $10 bill which was unveiled by Finance Minister Bill Morneau and Bank of Canada governor Stephen Poloz during a ceremony at the Halifax Central Library on March 8, 2018.
The current $10 note is purple, and the obverse features a portrait of Viola Desmond, a Black Nova Scotian businesswoman who challenged racial segregation at a film theatre in New Glasgow, Nova Scotia, in 1946.

New Glasgow, Nova Scotia

New GlasgowPriestvilleNew Glasgow, NS
In 1946 she challenged racial segregation at a cinema in New Glasgow, Nova Scotia by refusing to leave a whites-only area of the Roseland Theatre.
In 1946, New Glasgow was the setting for an important civil rights case when Viola Desmond challenged racial segregation of New Glasgow's Roseland Theatre.

Persons of National Historic Significance

Person of National Historic SignificanceNational Historic PersonNational Historic Persons
Desmond was also named a National Historic Person in 2018.

William Lorimer Hall

W.L. Hall
When dismissing the case, Justice William Lorimer Hall said:
He presided over Viola Desmond's appeal.

Frederick William Bissett

With the help of her church and the Nova Scotia Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NSAACP), Desmond hired a lawyer, Frederick William Bissett, who represented her in the criminal trials and attempted, unsuccessfully, to file a lawsuit against the Roseland Theatre.
He is mostly known as Viola Desmond's lawyer.

Carrie Best

Carrie M. Best
Following the decision to fight the charge, Carrie Best broke the story of Desmond in the first edition of The Clarion, the first black-owned and published Nova Scotia newspaper.
In the first edition of The Clarion she broke the story of Viola Desmond who also challenged racial segregation at the Roseland Theatre and whose story became a milestone human rights case in Canada.

Black Nova Scotians

Black Nova ScotianAfrican Nova ScotianBlack
Viola Irene Desmond (July 6, 1914 – February 7, 1965) was a Canadian civil rights activist and businesswoman of Black Nova Scotian descent. Her proposal was to include the existing Edward Cornwallis statue among three other statues of Acadian Noël Doiron, Black Nova Scotian Viola Desmond and Mi'kmaw Chief John Denny Jr. The four statutes would be positioned as if in a conversation with each other, discussing their accomplishments and struggles.
In the 21st century, the government and grassroots groups have initiated actions in Nova Scotia to address past harm done to Black Nova Scotians, such as the Africville Apology, the Viola Desmond Pardon, and the restorative justice initiative for the Nova Scotia Home for Colored Children.

William Pearly Oliver

However, she then sought advice from the leaders of her church, the Cornwallis Street Baptist Church, where the Minister William Pearly Oliver and his wife Pearline encouraged her to take action.
He was instrumental in supporting the case of Viola Desmond.

New Horizons Baptist Church

Cornwallis Street Baptist ChurchAfrican Baptist Church
However, she then sought advice from the leaders of her church, the Cornwallis Street Baptist Church, where the Minister William Pearly Oliver and his wife Pearline encouraged her to take action.
The Church was instrumental in supporting the case of Viola Desmond through the courts in the first year Oliver was the minister.

Heritage Minutes

Heritage MinuteHeritage MomentHistorica Minutes
On February 2, 2016, Historica Canada featured Desmond in a Heritage Minute, filmed in High River, Alberta, in June 2015.
February 2016 saw the release of a "Minute" on Viola Desmond, a trailblazing black female entrepreneur from Halifax who spoke out against racial discrimination in Nova Scotia.

Kandyse McClure

The video features Kandyse McClure as Viola Desmond.
On 2 February 2016 Heritage Canada featured Viola Desmond in the 82nd Heritage Minute, to mark the beginning of Black History Month.

Edward Cornwallis

EdwardCornwallisGeneral Cornwallis
Her proposal was to include the existing Edward Cornwallis statue among three other statues of Acadian Noël Doiron, Black Nova Scotian Viola Desmond and Mi'kmaw Chief John Denny Jr. The four statutes would be positioned as if in a conversation with each other, discussing their accomplishments and struggles.
Her proposal was to include the Cornwallis statue among three other statues of Acadian Noël Doiron, Black Nova Scotian Viola Desmond and Mi'kmaw Chief John Denny Jr..

Noël Doiron

Noel Doiron
Her proposal was to include the existing Edward Cornwallis statue among three other statues of Acadian Noël Doiron, Black Nova Scotian Viola Desmond and Mi'kmaw Chief John Denny Jr. The four statutes would be positioned as if in a conversation with each other, discussing their accomplishments and struggles.
Her proposal was to include the existing Edward Cornwallis statue among three other statues of Acadian Noel Doiron, Black Nova Scotian Viola Desmond and Mi'kmaw Chief John Denny Jr. The four statutes would be positioned as if in a conversation with each other, discussing their accomplishments and struggles.

John Denny Jr.

Her proposal was to include the existing Edward Cornwallis statue among three other statues of Acadian Noël Doiron, Black Nova Scotian Viola Desmond and Mi'kmaw Chief John Denny Jr. The four statutes would be positioned as if in a conversation with each other, discussing their accomplishments and struggles.
Her proposal was to include the existing Edward Cornwallis statue among three other statues of Acadian Noel Doiron, Black Nova Scotian Viola Desmond and Mi'kmaw Chief John Denny Jr.

Family Day (Canada)

Family DayNova Scotia Heritage DayYukon Heritage Day
The provincial government declared the first Nova Scotia Heritage Day in her honour in February 2015.
Each year it will honour a different person, the first was Viola Desmond.

Racial segregation

segregationsegregatedsegregationist
In 1946 she challenged racial segregation at a cinema in New Glasgow, Nova Scotia by refusing to leave a whites-only area of the Roseland Theatre.

Nova Scotia

NSNova Scotia, CanadaNova Scotian
In 1946 she challenged racial segregation at a cinema in New Glasgow, Nova Scotia by refusing to leave a whites-only area of the Roseland Theatre.

Racial discrimination

discriminationraceracial
Desmond's case is one of the most publicized incidents of racial discrimination in Canadian history and helped start the modern civil rights movement in Canada.

List of awards

posthumouslyposthumousList of prizes, medals and awards
In 2010, Desmond was granted a posthumous pardon, the first to be granted in Canada.

Pardon

clemencypresidential pardonpardoned
In 2010, Desmond was granted a posthumous pardon, the first to be granted in Canada.

Bank of Canada

central bankCanadaCanada's Currency Museum
In 2016, the Bank of Canada announced that Desmond would be the first Canadian woman to be featured on the front of a Canadian banknote, but that honour went to Agnes Macphail, who appeared along with three men on a small print run commemorative note issued in 2017 to mark the 150th anniversary of Confederation.

Agnes Macphail

Agnes Campbell MacphailAgnes McPhailAgnes Campbell McPhail
In 2016, the Bank of Canada announced that Desmond would be the first Canadian woman to be featured on the front of a Canadian banknote, but that honour went to Agnes Macphail, who appeared along with three men on a small print run commemorative note issued in 2017 to mark the 150th anniversary of Confederation.