Violence

violentviolent behaviorphysical violenceinterpersonal violencebrutalitycollective violencephysicalviolence preventionforcebloodshed
[[File:Violence world map - DALY - WHO2004.svg|thumb|upright=1.2|Estimates of disability-adjusted life years from physical violence, per 100,000 inhabitants in 2002.wikipedia
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Economic violence

Collective violence is subdivided into structural violence and economic violence.
Economic violence is a type of violence committed by individuals or groups preying on economically disadvantaged individuals.

Domestic violence

domestic abusespousal abuseabusive
Many of the risk factors for sexual violence are the same as for domestic violence.
Domestic violence (also named domestic abuse or family violence) is violence or other abuse by one person against another in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or cohabitation.

School shooting

school shootingsschool shootings in the United Statesschool massacre
Several rare but painful episodes of assassination, attempted assassination and school shootings at elementary, middle, high schools, as well as colleges and universities in the United States, led to a considerable body of research on ascertainable behaviors of persons who have planned or carried out such attacks.
According to Raine (2002), immaturity is one of many identified factors increasing the likelihood of an individual committing criminal acts of violence and outbursts of aggression.

Psychological abuse

emotional abusepsychologicalemotional
This type of violence constitutes a violation of human rights and includes physical, sexual, psychological, emotional; financial and material abuse; abandonment; neglect; and serious loss of dignity and respect.
It also may be perpetrated by persons conducting torture, other violence, acute or prolonged human rights abuse, particularly without legal redress such as detention without trial, false accusations, false convictions and extreme defamation such as where perpetrated by state and media.

War

warfarearmed conflictconflict
Of the deaths in 2013, roughly 842,000 were attributed to self-harm (suicide), 405,000 to interpersonal violence, and 31,000 to collective violence (war) and legal intervention.
It is generally characterized by extreme violence, aggression, destruction, and mortality, using regular or irregular military forces.

Physical abuse

physicalphysicallyphysically abusive
This type of violence constitutes a violation of human rights and includes physical, sexual, psychological, emotional; financial and material abuse; abandonment; neglect; and serious loss of dignity and respect.
Alternative terms sometimes used include physical assault or physical violence, and may also include sexual abuse.

Rape

rapingrapistraped
The latter includes youth violence, random acts of violence, rape or sexual assault by strangers, and violence in institutional settings such as schools, workplaces, prisons and nursing homes.
In more violent cases, the victim may need to have gunshot wounds or stab wounds treated.

Substance abuse

drug abusedrug useabuse
The first level identifies biological and personal factors that influence how individuals behave and increase their likelihood of becoming a victim or perpetrator of violence: demographic characteristics (age, education, income), genetics, brain lesions, personality disorders, substance abuse, and a history of experiencing, witnessing, or engaging in violent behaviour.
Depending on the actual compound, drug abuse including alcohol may lead to health problems, social problems, morbidity, injuries, unprotected sex, violence, deaths, motor vehicle accidents, homicides, suicides, physical dependence or psychological addiction.

Dating violence

Dating abuseabusedabusive
The effectiveness of interventions addressing dating violence and sexual abuse among teenagers and young adults by challenging social and cultural norms related to gender is supported by some evidence.
Dating abuse or dating violence is the perpetration or threat of an act of violence by at least one member of an unmarried couple on the other member in the context of dating or courtship.

Police brutality

excessive forcepolice violencebrutality
In the 20th century in acts of democide governments may have killed more than 260 million of their own people through police brutality, execution, massacre, slave labour camps, and sometimes through intentional famine.
Police brutality is one of several forms of police misconduct which involves undue violence by police members.

Brain lesion theory

brain dysfunctionbrain lesions
The first level identifies biological and personal factors that influence how individuals behave and increase their likelihood of becoming a victim or perpetrator of violence: demographic characteristics (age, education, income), genetics, brain lesions, personality disorders, substance abuse, and a history of experiencing, witnessing, or engaging in violent behaviour.
Brain lesion theory generally refers to the theory that brain tumors and seizures are associated with aggressive and/or violent behavior.

Corporal punishment in the home

corporal punishmentsmackingspanking
In the United States, domestic corporal punishment has been linked to later violent acts against family members and spouses.
Researchers have found that while the use of corporal punishment predicts variation in children's aggression less strongly in countries where there is more social acceptance of it, cultures in which corporal punishment is more accepted have higher overall levels of societal violence.

Violent crime

violent crimesviolentcrime of violence
Violent acts that are not carried out by the military or police and that are not in self-defense are usually classified as crimes, although not all crimes are violent crimes.
This entails both crimes in which the violent act is the objective, such as murder or rape, as well as crimes in which violence is used as a form coercion.

Sexual jealousy

Sexual jealousy in humansjealous and possessive
Evolutionary psychology offers several explanations for human violence in various contexts, such as sexual jealousy in humans, child abuse, and homicide.
It can take several forms in behaviour: aggression and violence, and possessiveness or controlling behaviour towards their mate.

Personality disorder

personality disorderspersonalitycluster A
The first level identifies biological and personal factors that influence how individuals behave and increase their likelihood of becoming a victim or perpetrator of violence: demographic characteristics (age, education, income), genetics, brain lesions, personality disorders, substance abuse, and a history of experiencing, witnessing, or engaging in violent behaviour.
The extremes are worse still: at one extreme lie self-harm and self-neglect, while at another extreme some individuals may commit violence and crime.

Property damage

criminal damagedestruction of propertyproperty destruction
Damage to property is classified as violent crime in some jurisdictions but not in all.
Intentional property damage may be considered a form of violence, albeit one usually (but not always) less reprehensible than violence which does bodily harm other living beings.

Gender equality

gender equityequalitywomen's equality
Evaluation studies are beginning to support community interventions that aim to prevent violence against women by promoting gender equality.
Traditional gender stereotypes that keep men in the role of breadwinner and systematic discrimination preventing women from equally contributing to their households and participating in the workforce can put additional stress on men, increasing their risk of health issues and men bolstered by cultural norms, tend to take more risks and engage in interpersonal violence more often than women, which could result in fatal injuries.

The Better Angels of Our Nature

The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has DeclinedBetter Angels of Our NatureThe Better Angels of our Nature: A History of Violence and Humanity
Steven Pinker's 2011 book, The Better Angels of Our Nature, roused both acclaim and controversy by asserting that modern society is less violent than in periods of the past, whether on the short scale of decades or long scale of centuries or millennia.
The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined is a 2011 book by Steven Pinker, in which the author argues that violence in the world has declined both in the long run and in the short run and suggests explanations as to why this has occurred.

Police power (United States constitutional law)

police powerpolice powerspolice power of the state
Civil societies authorize some amount of violence, exercised through the police power, to maintain the status quo and enforce laws.
Methods of enforcement can include legal sanctions, physical means, and other forms of coercion and inducement.

Bioarchaeology

bioarchaeologicalosteoarchaeologistbioarchaeologist
It has been discussed at length by researchers in sociology, medical anthropology, psychology, philosophy, and bioarchaeology.
An area of increasing interest among bioarchaeologists interested in understanding inequality is the study of violence.

Nonviolence

nonviolentnon-violencenon-violent
Throughout history, most religions and individuals like Mahatma Gandhi have preached that humans are capable of eliminating individual violence and organizing societies through purely nonviolent means.
Thus, for example, the Tolstoy and Gandhian non violence is a philosophy and strategy for social change that rejects the use of violence, but at the same time sees nonviolent action (also called civil resistance) as an alternative to passive acceptance of oppression or armed struggle against it.

Legislative violence

a scuffleoccur at the meetingspunching, kicking and gouging each other
Legislative violence broadly refers to any violent clashes between members of a legislature, often physically, inside the legislature and triggered by divisive issues and tight votes.

Aggression

aggressiveaggressivenessaggressive behavior
Research on violence from a range of disciplines lend some support to a distinction between affective and predatory aggression.

Witchcraft

witchwitchessorcery
Ideologues often falsely accuse others of violence, such as the ancient blood libel against Jews, the medieval accusations of casting witchcraft spells against women, and modern accusations of satanic ritual abuse against day care center owners and others.
Belief in witchcraft continues to be present today in some societies and accusations of witchcraft are the trigger for serious forms of violence, including murder.

World Health Organization

WHOWorld Health OrganisationWorld Health Organization (WHO)
Less conventional definitions are also used, such as the World Health Organization's definition of violence as "the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation."