Violet (color)

The line of purples circled on the CIE chromaticity diagram. The bottom left of the curved edge is violet. Points near and along the circled edge are purple.
Five presidents in the oval office. The two more recent presidents, George W. Bush and Barack Obama, are wearing violet ties.
A Japanese woman in the kimono style popular in the Heian period (794–1185) with a violet head covering.
The Susan B. Anthony stamp (1936), was the reddish tone of purple sometimes known as red-violet since violet was a color that represented the Women's Suffrage movement.
In amethyst, the violet color arises from an impurity of iron in the quartz.
Chemical structure of pigment violet 29. Violet pigments typically have several rings.
Manganese violet, a popular inorganic pigment.
The marine hatchetfish (here eating a small crustacean) lives in extreme depths.
The purple sea urchin.
The violet carpenter bee (Xylocopa violacea) is one of the largest bees in Europe.
The violet-backed starling is found in Sub-Saharan Africa.
The violet sabrewing is found in Central America.
The imperial amazon parrot is featured on the national flag of Dominica, making it the only national flag in the world with a violet color.
Crocus flowers.
Lilac flowers
Pansy flowers.
Sweet violet flowers.
The iris flower takes its name from the Greek word for rainbow.
Lavender fields in the Vaucluse, in Provence, France
alt=Wisteria blooms are a light violet color.|Wisteria blooms are a light violet color.
An eggplant.
The Wilton Diptych (1395), painted for King Richard II.
A violet-clad angel from the Resurrection of Christ by Raphael (1483–1520).
Charles de Bourbon, the future King Carlos III of Spain (1725).
In England, pre-Raphaelite painters like Arthur Hughes were particularly enchanted by purple and violet. This is April Love (1856).
Nocturne: Trafalgar Square Chelsea Snow (1876) by James McNeill Whistler, used violet to create a wintery mood.
The Starry Night, by Vincent van Gogh (1889), Museum of Modern Art.

Color of light at the short wavelength end of the visible spectrum, between blue and invisible ultraviolet.

- Violet (color)

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All colors on this color wheel should appear to have the same lightness and the same saturation, differing only by hue
Hue in the HSB/HSL encodings of RGB
An image with the hues cyclically shifted in HSL space
The hues in this image of a painted bunting are cyclically rotated over time in HSL.
HSV color space as a conical object
An illustration of the relationship between the "hue" of colors with maximal saturation in HSV and HSL with their corresponding RGB coordinates
hue 24 color
Although the variance in luminance is easy to notice for HSL/HSV, the variation in hue is less perceivable. This graph maps 12 points on the HSV color wheel to CIELAB's color plane, displaying the lack of uniformity in hue and saturation.

In color theory, hue is one of the main properties (called color appearance parameters) of a color, defined technically in the CIECAM02 model as "the degree to which a stimulus can be described as similar to or different from stimuli that are described as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet," which certain theories of color vision call unique hues.


Any of a variety of colors with hue between red and blue.

This CIE chromaticity diagram highlights the line of purples at its base, running from the violet corner near the left to the red corner at the right.
Byzantine Emperor Justinian I clad in Tyrian purple, 6th-century mosaic at Basilica of San Vitale
Purple was a central motif in the career of the musician Prince. His 1984 film and album Purple Rain is one of his best-known works. The title track is Prince's signature song and was nearly always played in concert. Prince encouraged his fans to wear purple to his concerts.
Cadbury logo as displayed at Cadbury World in Bournville, England
Emblem of King Alfonso IX of León (1180-1230) displayed in the 12th century Tumbo A manuscript in the Santiago de Compostela Cathedral, Galicia.
An Egyptian bowl colored with Egyptian blue, with motifs painted in dark manganese purple. (between 1550 and 1450 BC)
Painting of a man wearing an all-purple toga picta, from an Etruscan tomb (about 350 BC).
Roman men wearing togae praetextae with reddish-purple stripes during a religious procession (1st century BC).
Different purple hues obtained from three types of sea snails
Dye bath of Tyrian purple
Cloth dyed with Tyrian purple. The color could vary from crimson to deep purple, depending upon the type of murex sea-snail and how it was made.
The Empress Theodora, the wife of the Emperor Justinian I, dressed in Tyrian purple. (6th century).
11th-century Byzantine robe, dyed Tyrian purple with murex dye. Creatures are griffins
A medieval depiction of the coronation of the Emperor Charlemagne in 800. The bishops and cardinals wear purple, and the Pope wears white.
A fragment of the shroud in which the Emperor Charlemagne was buried in 814. It was made of gold and Tyrian purple from Constantinople.
A 12th-century painting of Saint Peter consecrating Hermagoras, wearing purple, as a bishop.
In the Ghent Altarpiece (1422) by Jan van Eyck, the popes and bishops are wearing purple robes.
A purple-clad angel from the Resurrection of Christ by Raphael (1483–1520)
Portrait of Empress Catherine the Great of Russia, by Fyodor Rokotov. (State Hermitage Museum).
In England, pre-Raphaelite painters like Arthur Hughes were particularly enchanted by purple and/or violet. This is April Love (1856).
Order of Leopold founded in 1830.
Gustav Klimt portrait of woman with a purple hat (1912).
George VI (1895–1952) wore purple in his official portrait.
The coronation portrait of Elizabeth II and Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (1953) has three different shades of purple in the train, curtains and crown.
Program from the Woman Suffrage Procession, a 1913 Women's Suffrage march.
A pennant from the Women's Suffrage movement in the state of Indiana.
Symbol of the Feminist movement in the United States (1970s). The purple color was chosen as a tribute to the Suffragette movement a half-century earlier.
On a computer or television screen, purple colors are created by mixing red and blue light. This is called the RGB color model.
The CIE xy chromaticity diagram
Manganese pigments were used in the neolithic paintings in the Lascaux cave, France.
Hematite was often used as the red-purple color in the cave paintings of Neolithic artists.
A sample of purpurite, or manganese phosphate, from the Packrat Mine in Southern California.
A swatch of cobalt violet, popular among the French impressionists.
Manganese violet is a synthetic pigment invented in the mid-19th century.
Quinacridone violet, a synthetic organic pigment sold under many different names.
Blackberries were sometimes used to make purple dye in the Middle Ages.
This lichen, growing on a tree in Scotland, was used in the 18th century to make a common purple dye called Cudbear.
A sample of silk dyed with the original mauveine dye.
A sample of fuchsine dye
The male violet-backed starling sports a very bright, iridescent purple plumage.
The purple frog is a species of amphibian found in India.
Pseudanthias pascalus or purple queenfish.
The purple sea urchin from Mexico.
A purple heron in flight (South Africa).
A purple finch (North America).
The Lorius domicella, or purple-naped lory, from Indonesia.
The purple colors of this cauliflower, grapes, fruits, vegetables and flowers comes from natural pigments called anthocyanins.
Anthocyanins range in color from red to purple to green, blue and yellow, depending upon the level of their pH.
Anthocyanins also account for the purple color in these copper beech trees, and in purple autumn leaves.
Anthocyanins produce the purple color in blood oranges.
alt=Purple pansy|A purple pansy.
alt="Blue" hydrangea is often actually purple.|"Blue" hydrangea is often actually purple.
An artichoke flower in blossom in Dalat, Vietnam
Iris germanica flowers
Syringa vulgaris, or lilac blossoms
Medicago sativa, known as alfalfa in the U.S. and lucerne in the U.K.
The Aster alpinus, or alpine aster, is native to the European mountains, including the Alps, while a subspecies is found in Canada and the United States.
Lavender flowers.
A purple rose.
alt=Wisteria is a pale purple color.|Wisteria is a pale purple color.
Purple Mountain near Killarney, Ireland.
Purple Mountain in Yellowstone National Park.
Purple Mountain, Nanjing.
The more distant mountains are, the lighter and more blue they are. This is called atmospheric perspective or aerial perspective.
Sunset at Auke Bay, Alaska. Thanks to Rayleigh scattering, the mountains appear purple.
A purple postage stamp honored Queen Elizabeth II in 1958
Queen Margrethe II of Denmark in 2010.
In the Roman Catholic Church, cardinals now wear scarlet and bishops wear amaranth.
Katharine Jefferts Schori, Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church of the United States
Han purple and Han blue were synthetic colors made by artisans in China during the Han dynasty (206 BC to 220 AD) or even earlier.
A Japanese woman in a kimono.
Emperor Komyo of Japan. (1322–1380). Purple was the color of the aristocracy in Japan and China.
Flag of Dominica, features a purple sisserou parrot.
Flag of Nicaragua, although at this size the purple band of the rainbow is nearly indistinguishable.
Flag of the second Spanish republic (1931–39), known in Spanish as {{lang|es|la tricolor}}, still widely used by left-wing political organizations.

Purple is closely associated with violet.

Viola (plant)

Genus of flowering plants in the violet family Violaceae.

Opened seed capsule of Viola arvensis (field pansy, Melanium), showing the seeds
Linnaeus' original description (1753)
Viola Cazorlensis
Viola banksii
Viola stipularis
Viola tricolor
Viola pedata
Viola abyssinica
Viola epipsila
Viola tridentata
Viola sororia
Viola decumbens
Viola cultivar showing the large round flowers and the novel coloration that has been achieved through breeding.
Selection of cultivated violas at the Gardeners' World Live show, in June 2011.

The corolla ranges from white to yellow, orange or various shades of blue and violet or multicolored, often blue and yellow, with or without a yellow throat.

Visible spectrum

Portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.

White light is dispersed by a prism into the colors of the visible spectrum.
Laser beams with visible spectrum
Newton's color circle, from Opticks of 1704, showing the colors he associated with musical notes. The spectral colors from red to violet are divided by the notes of the musical scale, starting at D. The circle completes a full octave, from D to D. Newton's circle places red, at one end of the spectrum, next to violet, at the other. This reflects the fact that non-spectral purple colors are observed when red and violet light are mixed.
Newton's observation of prismatic colors (David Brewster 1855)
How visible light interacts with objects to make them colorful
Approximation of spectral colors on a display results in somewhat distorted chromaticity
Earth's atmosphere partially or totally blocks some wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, but in visible light it is mostly transparent

Newton originally divided the spectrum into six named colors: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet.

Spectral color

Color that is evoked in a typical human by a single wavelength of light in the visible spectrum, or by a relatively narrow band of wavelengths, also known as monochromatic light.

CIE xy chromaticity diagram 
The spectrum colors are the colors on the horseshoe-shaped curve on the outside of the diagram. All other colors are not spectral: the bottom line is the line of purples, whilst within the interior of the diagram are unsaturated colors that are various mixtures of a spectral color or a purple color with white, a grayscale color. White is in the central part of the interior of the diagram, since when all colors of light are mixed together, they produce white.
This metrically accurate diagram shows that the spectral locus is almost flat on the red – bright green segment, is strongly curved around the green, and becomes less curved between green/cyan and blue
Red, green, and blue laser beams

Traditional colors in English include: red, orange, yellow, green, cyan (sky-blue), blue ("true" blue), and violet.


One of the three primary colours in the RYB colour model , as well as in the RGB (additive) colour model.

Blue is between violet and green in the spectrum of visible light
Blue eyes actually contain no blue pigment. The colour is caused by an effect called Tyndall scattering.
Close-up of the blue, lapis lazuli inlays used for the irises in the Statue of Ebih-Il, dating to the twenty-fifth century BC, discovered in the temple of Ishtar at Mari
Johannes Vermeer used natural ultramarine in his paintings, as in his Girl with a Pearl Earring. The expense was probably borne by his wealthy patron Pieter van Ruijven.
This lavatory sign on an All Nippon Airways Boeing 767-300 uses blue for the male gender
Pure blue, also known as high blue, is not mixed with any other colours
Navy blue, here worn by Admiral Horatio Nelson, is the darkest shade of pure blue
Sky blue or pale azure, mid-way on the RBG colour wheel between blue and cyan
Egyptian blue goblet from Mesopotamia, 1500–1300 BC. This was the first synthetic blue, first made in about 2500 BC.
Indigo dye originally isolated from the true indigo, Indigofera tinctoria, a plant common in Asia and Africa but little known in Europe until the 15th century. Its importation into Europe revolutionised the colour of clothing. It also became the colour used in blue denim and jeans. Nearly all indigo dye produced today is synthetic.
A block of lapis lazuli, originally used to make ultramarine
The Wilton Diptych, made for King Richard II of England, made lavish use of ultramarine. (About 1400)
Detail of the windows at Sainte-Chapelle (1250).
Elector Frederic William of Brandenburg gave his soldiers blue uniforms (engraving from 1698). When Brandenburg became the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701, blue became the uniform colour of the Prussian Army.
Medium blue, a shade of blue in between darker and lighter shades of blue.
Additive colour mixing. The projection of primary colour lights on a screen shows secondary colours where two overlap; the combination red, green, and blue each in full intensity makes white.
Blue and orange pixels on an LCD television screen. Closeup of the red, green and blue sub-pixels on left.
Lapis lazuli, mined in Afghanistan for more than three thousand years, was used for jewellery and ornaments, and later was crushed and powdered and used as a pigment. The more it was ground, the lighter the blue colour became.
Azurite, a common mineral, was used as a pigment from ancient times, although it degrades readily and is thus inferior.
Natural ultramarine, made by grinding and purifying lapis lazuli, was the finest available blue pigment in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. It was extremely expensive, and in Italian Renaissance art, it was often reserved for the robes of the Virgin Mary.
Egyptian blue, the first artificial pigment, produced in the third millennium BC in Ancient Egypt by grinding sand, copper and natron, and then heating them. It was often used in tomb paintings and funereal objects to protect the dead in their afterlife.
Ground azurite was often in Renaissance used as a substitute for the much more expensive lapis lazuli. It made a rich blue but was unstable and could turn dark green over time.
Cerulean, produced by combining copper and cobalt oxide, is used to make a sky-blue colour. Like azurite, it is not a long-lived pigment.
Cobalt blue. Cobalt is used to make the deep blue stained glass windows, such as those in Gothic cathedrals. It is used in Chinese porcelain beginning in the T'ang Dynasty. In 1799 a French chemist, Louis Jacques Thénard, made a synthetic cobalt blue pigment which became immensely popular with painters.
Chemical structure of indigo dye, a widely produced blue dye. Blue jeans consist of 1–3% by weight of this organic compound.
Synthetic ultramarine pigment, invented in 1826, has the same chemical composition as natural ultramarine but is more vivid.
First produced in the 1930s, the intensely blue copper phthalocyanine is widely used for making blue ink, dye, and pigment.
Prussian blue, Fe{{su|p=III|b=4}}[Fe{{su|p=II}}(CN){{su|b=6}}]{{su|b=3}}, is the blue of blueprints.
Blue light is scattered more than other wavelengths by the gases in the atmosphere, giving the Earth a blue halo when seen from space.
An example of aerial, or atmospheric perspective. Objects become more blue and lighter in colour the farther they are from the viewer, because of Rayleigh scattering.
Under the sea, red and other light with longer wavelengths is absorbed, so white objects appear blue. The deeper the observer goes, the darker the blue becomes. In the open sea, only about one per cent of light penetrates to a depth of 200 metres. (See underwater and euphotic depth)
Lapis lazuli pendant from Mesopotamia ({{circa|2900 BC}}).
A lapis lazuli bowl from Iran (end of 3rd, beginning 2nd millennium BC)
A hippopotamus decorated with aquatic plants, made of faience with a blue glaze, made to resemble lapis lazuli. (2033–1710 BC)
Egyptian blue colour in a tomb painting ({{circa|1500 BC}})
Egyptian faience bowl ({{circa|1550 and 1450 BC}})
a decorated cobalt glass vessel from Ancient Egypt (1450–1350 BC)
Figure of a servant from the tomb of King Seth I (1244–1279 BC). The figure is made of faience with a blue glaze, designed to resemble turquoise.
A lion against a blue background from the Ishtar Gate of ancient Babylon. (575 BC)
A Roman wall painting of Venus and her son Eros, from Pompeii (about 30 BC)
Mural in the bedroom of the villa of Fannius Synestor in Boscoreale, (50–40 BC) in the Metropolitan Museum.
A painted pottery pot coloured with Han blue from the Han Dynasty in China (206 BC to 220 AD).
A tomb painting from the eastern Han Dynasty (25–220 AD) in Henan Province, China.
Blue Byzantine mosaic ceiling representing the night sky in the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia in Ravenna, Italy (5th century).
Blue mosaic in the cloak of Christ in the Hagia Sophia church in Istanbul (13th century).
Glazed stone-paste bowl from Persia (14th century).
Blue tile on the facade of the Friday Mosque in Herat, Afghanistan (15th century).
Persian miniature from the 16th century.
Blue domes of the Church dedicated to St. Spirou in Firostefani, Santorini island (Thira), Greece.
Flower-pattern tile from Iznik, Turkey, from the second half of the 16th century.
Stained glass windows of the Basilica of Saint Denis (1141–1144).
Notre Dame de la Belle Verrière window, Chartres Cathedral. (1180–1225).
The Maesta by Duccio (1308) showed the Virgin Mary in a robe painted with ultramarine. Blue became the colour of holiness, virtue and humility.
In the 12th century blue became part of the royal coat of arms of France.
The Coronation of King Louis VIII of France in 1223 showed that blue had become the royal colour. (painted in 1450).
Giotto was one of the first Italian Renaissance painters to use ultramarine, here in the murals of the Arena Chapel in Padua ({{circa|1305}}).
Throughout the 14th and 15th centuries, the robes of the Virgin Mary were painted with ultramarine. This is The Virgin of Humility by Fra Angelico (about 1430). Blue fills the picture.
In the Madonna of the Meadow (1506), Raphael used white to soften the ultramarine blue of Virgin Mary's robes to balance the red and blue, and to harmonise with the rest of the picture.
Titian used an ultramarine sky and robes to give depth and brilliance to his Bacchus and Ariadne (1520–1523)
In this painting of The Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints an early work by Raphael in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the blue cloak of the Virgin Mary has turned a green-black. It was painted with less-expensive azurite.
Glazed Terracotta of The Virgin Adoring the Christ Child, from the workshop of Andrea della Robbia (1483)
The Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry was the most important illuminated manuscript of the 15th century. The blue was the extravagantly expensive ultramarine.
Chinese blue and white porcelain from about 1335, made in Jingdezhen, the porcelain centre of China. Exported to Europe, this porcelain launched the style of Chinoiserie.
A soft-paste porcelain vase made in Rouen, France, at the end of the 17th century, imitating Chinese blue and white.
18th century blue and white pottery from Delft, in the Netherlands.
Russian porcelain of the cobalt net pattern, made with cobalt blue pigment. The Imperial Porcelain Factory in Saint Petersburg was founded in 1744. This pattern, first produced in 1949, was copied after a design made for Catherine the Great.
Isatis tinctoria, or woad, was the main source of blue dye in Europe from ancient times until the arrival of indigo from Asia and America. It was processed into a paste called pastel.
A woad mill in Thuringia, in Germany, in 1752. The woad industry was already on its way to extinction, unable to compete with indigo blue.
A Dutch tapestry from 1495 to 1505. The blue colour comes from woad.
Indigofera tinctoria, a tropical shrub, is the main source of indigo dye. The chemical composition of indigo dye is the same as that of woad, but the colour is more intense.
Cakes of indigo. The leaf has been soaked in water, fermented, mixed with lye or another base, then pressed into cakes and dried, ready for export.
Uniform of a lieutenant in the Royal Navy (1777). Marine blue became the official colour of the Royal Navy uniform coat in 1748.
George Washington chose blue and buff as the colours of the Continental Army uniform. They were the colours of the English Whig Party, which Washington admired.
The Marquis de Lafayette in the uniform of the Garde Nationale during the French Revolution (1790).
The cadets of the Ecole Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr, the French military academy, still wear the blue and red uniform of the French army before 1915.
Metropolitan Police officers in Soho, London (2007).
New York City police officers on Times Square (2010)
Thomas Gainsborough's The Blue Boy includes "the lavish lapis lazuli, the darker indigo pigment and the paler cobalt."<ref>{{cite web|url =|title = Eight blue moments in art history|publisher = The Tate|access-date = 2018-10-16|archive-url =|archive-date = 2018-10-16|url-status = dead}}</ref>
The 19th-century Japanese woodblock artist Hokusai used Prussian blue, a synthetic colour imported from Europe, in his wave paintings, such as in The Great Wave off Kanagawa.
A synthetic indigo dye factory in Germany in 1890. The manufacture of this dye ended the trade in indigo from America and India that had begun in the 15th century.
Claude Monet used several recently invented colours in his Gare Saint-Lazare (1877). He used cobalt blue, invented in 1807, cerulean blue invented in 1860, and French ultramarine, first made in 1828.
The Umbrellas, by Pierre Auguste-Renoir. (1881 and 1885). Renoir used cobalt blue for right side of the picture, but used the new synthetic ultramarine introduced in the 1870s, when he added two figures to left of the picture a few years later.
In Vincent van Gogh's Irises, the blue irises are placed against their complementary colour, yellow-orange.
Van Gogh's Starry Night Over the Rhône (1888). Blue used to create a mood or atmosphere. A cobalt blue sky, and cobalt or ultramarine water.
Wheatfield Under Thunderclouds (July 1890), one of the last paintings by Vincent van Gogh. He wrote of cobalt blue, "there is nothing so beautiful for putting atmosphere around things."
King Louis IX of France (on the right, with Pope Innocent) was the first European king to wear blue. It quickly became the colour of the nobles and wealthy.
Joseph Leeson, later 1st Earl of Milltown, in the typical dress of the English country gentleman in the 1730s.
Charles James Fox, a leader of the Whig Party in England, wore a blue suit in Parliament in support of George Washington and the American Revolution. Portrait by Joshua Reynolds (1782).
Beau Brummel introduced the ancestor of the modern blue suit, shaped to the body. (1805).
Man's suit, 1826. Dark blue suits were still rare; this one is blue-green or teal.
Man's blue suit in the 1870s, Paris. Painting by Caillebotte.
President John F. Kennedy popularised the blue two-button business suit, less formal than the suits of his predecessors. (1961)
In the 21st century, the dark blue business suit is among the most common style worn by world leaders
During his Blue Period, Pablo Picasso used blue as the colour of melancholy, as in The Old Guitarist.
The Blue Rider (1903), by Wassily Kandinsky, For Kandinsky, blue was the colour of spirituality: the darker the blue, the more it awakened human desire for the eternal.
The Russian avant-garde painter Pavel Kuznetsov and his group, the Blue Rose, used blue to symbolise fantasy and exoticism. This is In the Steppe – Mirage (1911).
Blue jeans, made of denim coloured with indigo dye, patented by Levi Strauss in 1873, became an essential part of the wardrobe of young people beginning in the 1950s.
Vivid blues can be created by chemical reactions, called chemiluminescence. This is luminol, a chemical used in crime scene investigations. Luminol glows blue when it contacts even a tiny trace of blood.
Blue neon lighting, first used in commercial advertising, is now used in works of art. This is Zwei Pferde für Münster (Two horses for Münster), a neon sculpture by Stephan Huber (2002), in Munster, Germany.
The Story Bridge in Brisbane, Australia illuminated in blue light for ovarian cancer awareness.
A man of the Tuareg people of North Africa wears a tagelmust or turban dyed with indigo. The indigo stains their skin blue; they were known by early visitors as "the blue men" of the desert.
A painting by William Hogarth from 1854 shows a polling station with the blue flag of the Tory party and the orange flag of the Whigs.
The blue necktie of former British Prime Minister David Cameron represented his Conservative Party.
A map of the US showing the blue states, which voted for the Democratic candidate in all the last four Presidential elections, and the red states, which voted for the Republican.
Blue stripes on a traditional Jewish tallit. The blue stripes are also featured in the flag of Israel.
Vishnu, the supreme god of Hinduism, is often portrayed as being blue, or more precisely having skin the colour of rain-filled clouds.
In Catholicism, blue became the traditional colour of the robes of the Virgin Mary in the 13th century.
The Bhaisajyaguru, or "Medicine Master of Lapis Lazuli Light", is the Buddha of healing and medicine in Mahayana Buddhism. He traditionally holds a lapis lazuli jar of medicine.
In the Islamic World, blue and turquoise tile traditionally decorates the facades and exteriors of mosques and other religious buildings. This mosque is in Isfahan, Iran.
Madame Pompadour, the mistress of King Louis XV of France, wore blue myosotis, or forget-me-not flowers in her hair and on her gowns as a symbol of faithfulness to the king.
The Italian national football team wear blue in honour of the royal House of Savoy which unified the country.
Blue Delphinium flower
Sikh Nishan Sahib in blue, at Akali Phoola Singh di Burj in Amritsar

It lies between violet and cyan on the spectrum of visible light.


Deep color close to the color wheel blue , as well as to some variants of ultramarine, based on the ancient dye of the same name.

A piece of indigo plant dye from India,
about 2.5 in square
Extract of natural indigo applied to paper
Indigo is one of the colors on Newton's color wheel.
Newton's observation of prismatic colors: Comparing this to a color image of the visible light spectrum shows that "blue" corresponds to cyan, while "indigo" corresponds to blue.
Traditional seven colors of the rainbow
Indigo bunting
An upturned Lactarius indigo mushroom
Eastern indigo snake
Indigo is created in potholes carved in pumice "tufgrond" in Karoland, Sumatra

It is traditionally regarded as a color in the visible spectrum, as well as one of the seven colors of the rainbow: the color between blue and violet; however, sources differ as to its actual position in the electromagnetic spectrum.


Color that is variously defined as purplish-red, reddish-purple or mauvish-crimson.

Magenta is not part of the visible spectrum of light.
Cone and rod response curves. Note that a purple response is elicited in the brain by stimulating H and L (through its secondary sensitivity) cones but little to no M stimulus.
An 1864 map showing the Duchy of Bouillon in magenta
In the RGB color wheel of additive colours, magenta is midway between blue and red.
In the RGB colour model, used to make colors on computer and television displays, magenta is created by the combination of equal amounts of blue and red light.
In the CMYK colour model, used in color printing, cyan, magenta, and yellow combined make black. In practice, since the inks are not perfect, some black ink is added.
Visible spectrum wrapped to join violet and red in an additive mixture of magenta. In reality, violet and red are at opposite ends of the spectrum and have very different wavelengths.
The flower of the Fuchsia plant was the original inspiration for the dye, which was later renamed magenta dye.
{{anchor|coaltardye}}Magenta took its name in 1860 from this aniline dye that was originally called "fuchsine", after the fuchsia flower.
Magenta has been used in color printing since the late nineteenth century. Images are printed in three colors; magenta, cyan, and yellow, which when combined can make all colors. This image from 1902 is using the alternative RYB colour model instead.
Color printers today use magenta, cyan, and yellow ink to produce the full range of colors.
Magenta is the complementary colour of green. The two colors combined in the RGB model form white. Side-by-side, they provide the highest possible contrast and reinforce each other's brightness.
The Indonesian Marine Corps beret color is magenta purple.
Magenta, along with mauve, made with the newly discovered aniline dyes, became a popular fashion color in the second half of the nineteenth century. It appeared in art in this 1890 work, Psyche, by Bouguereau.
Paul Gauguin, Portrait of Marie Lagadu (1890).
Henri Matisse, Les toits de Collioure (1905). Henri Matisse and the other painters of the Fauvist movement were the first to make a major use of magenta to surprise and make an impact on the emotions of the viewer.
In the 1960s, magenta was a popular color in psychedelic art, such as this concert poster for the Avalon Ballroom in San Francisco (1967).
Artist's vision of a spectral class T brown dwarf
Coral from the Persian Gulf
An Andean flamingo, (Phoenicopterus andinus)
A dragonfly, or Anisoptera Ana Cotta
Pseudanthias tuka, a reef fish from the Indian Ocean
Orchid Phalaenopsis
Clematis "Sunset"
Geranium sanguineum
Dahlia "Hillcrest Royal"
Rambler rose
Syringa "Paul Deschanel"
Lily "Malinoviy Zvon"
Polemoniaceae, or phlox
A cactus flower
Achillea "Staroe Burgundskoe"
Mirabilis jalapa "Four O'Clock Flower"
Indian 2000 rupee note, obverse
Indian 2000 rupee note, reverse
Cantabrian Labarum, Cantabria, Spain.
Canting arms of the commune of Magenta, France.
Flag of the municipality of Cartago, Colombia.

On the, magenta is the color between rose and violet, and halfway between red and blue.


Visual perceptual property deriving from the spectrum of light interacting with the photoreceptor cells of the eyes.

Pencils shown in various colors
Continuous optical spectrum rendered into the sRGB color space.
The upper disk and the lower disk have exactly the same objective color, and are in identical gray surroundings; based on context differences, humans perceive the squares as having different reflectances, and may interpret the colors as different color categories; see checker shadow illusion.
Normalized typical human cone cell responses (S, M, and L types) to monochromatic spectral stimuli
The visual dorsal stream (green) and ventral stream (purple) are shown. The ventral stream is responsible for color perception.
This picture contains one million pixels, each one a different color
The CIE 1931 color space xy chromaticity diagram with the visual locus plotted using the CIE (2006) physiologically-relevant LMS fundamental color matching functions transformed into the CIE 1931 xy color space and converted into Adobe RGB. The triangle shows the gamut of Adobe RGB. The Planckian locus is shown with color temperatures labeled in Kelvins. The outer curved boundary is the spectral (or monochromatic) locus, with wavelengths shown in nanometers. Note that the colors in this file are being specified using Adobe RGB. Areas outside the triangle cannot be accurately rendered since they are outside the gamut of Adobe RGB, therefore they have been interpreted. Note that the colors depicted depend on the gamut and color accuracy of your display.
Additive color mixing: combining red and green yields yellow; combining all three primary colors together yields white.
Subtractive color mixing: combining yellow and magenta yields red; combining all three primary colors together yields black
Twelve main pigment colors

Colors vary in several different ways, including hue (shades of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet), saturation, brightness, and gloss.

Color wheel

Abstract illustrative organization of color hues around a circle, which shows the relationships between primary colors, secondary colors, tertiary colors etc.

Seven-color and twelve-color color circles from 1708, attributed to Claude Boutet
Wilhelm von Bezold's 1874 Farbentafel
A 1908 color wheel with red, green, and violet "plus colors" and magenta, yellow, and cyan blue "minus colors".
A color wheel based on HSV, labeled with HTML color keywords.
A 1917 four-way color circle related to the color opponent process.
Ignaz Schiffermüller, Versuch eines Farbensystems (Vienna, 1772), plate I. Color wheels can be used to create pleasing color schemes.
Moses Harris, in his book The Natural System of Colours (1776), presented this color palette.

A color circle based on spectral wavelengths appears with red at one end of the spectrum and is 100% mixable violet at the other.