Violin

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The violin, sometimes known as a fiddle, is a wooden string instrument in the violin family.wikipedia
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Fiddle

fiddlerfiddlingfiddles
The violin, sometimes known as a fiddle, is a wooden string instrument in the violin family.
A fiddle is a bowed string musical instrument, most often a violin.

Orchestra

symphony orchestraorchestralchamber orchestra
They are most prominent in the Western classical tradition, both in ensembles (from chamber music to orchestras) and as solo instruments and in many varieties of folk music, including country music, bluegrass music and in jazz.
An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble typical of Western classical music, which combines instruments from different families, including bowed string instruments such as the violin, viola, cello, and double bass, brass instruments such as the horn, trumpet, trombone and tuba, woodwinds such as the flute, oboe, clarinet and bassoon, and percussion instruments such as the timpani, bass drum, triangle, snare drum, cymbals, and mallet percussion instruments each grouped in sections.

Violin family

stringsstringviolin
The violin, sometimes known as a fiddle, is a wooden string instrument in the violin family.
The standard modern violin family consists of the violin, viola, cello, and double bass.

Bow (music)

bowbowedbows
The violin typically has four strings, usually tuned in perfect fifths with notes G3, D4, A4, E5, and is most commonly played by drawing a bow across its strings, though it can also be played by plucking the strings with the fingers (pizzicato) and by striking the strings with the wooden side of the bow (col legno). Two-stringed, bowed instruments, played upright and strung and bowed with horsehair, may have originated in the nomadic equestrian cultures of Central Asia, in forms closely resembling the modern-day Mongolian Morin huur and the Kazakh Kobyz.
The vast majority of bows are used with string instruments, such as the violin, although some bows are used with musical saws and other bowed idiophones.

Kit violin

pochettekitpochettes
Smaller violin-type instruments exist, including the violino piccolo and the kit violin, but these are virtually unused.
It is essentially a very small violin designed to fit in a pocket—hence its other common name, the pochette (French for small pocket).

Viola

violistviolaselectric viola
The word "violin" comes from "Italian violino, [a] diminutive of viola".
It is slightly larger than a violin and has a lower and deeper sound.

Chamber music

chamberchamber ensemblechamber works
They are most prominent in the Western classical tradition, both in ensembles (from chamber music to orchestras) and as solo instruments and in many varieties of folk music, including country music, bluegrass music and in jazz.
At the beginning of the 19th century, luthiers developed new methods of constructing the violin, viola and cello that gave these instruments a richer tone, more volume, and more carrying power.

Bow maker

archetierBowmakerbow makers
One who makes or repairs bows is called an archetier or bowmaker.
These include violins, violas, cellos, double basses, viola d'amore, viola da gamba, etc.

Violino piccolo

Piccolo violinoVlp
Smaller violin-type instruments exist, including the violino piccolo and the kit violin, but these are virtually unused.
Most examples are similar to a child's size violin in size, and are tuned a minor third (B 3 –F 4 –C 5 –G 5 ) or a fourth higher (C 4 –G 4 –D 5 –A 5 ).

Rebec

medieval violinrebeckthe bowed ''rabeca
The direct ancestor of all European bowed instruments is the Arabic rebab, which developed into the Byzantine lyra by the 9th century and later the European rebec.
Played on the arm or under the chin, the technique and tuning may have influenced the development of the violin.

Antonio Stradivari

StradivariAntonio StradivariusStradivarius
Violinists and collectors particularly prize the fine historical instruments made by the Stradivari, Guarneri, Guadagnini and Amati families from the 16th to the 18th century in Brescia and Cremona (Italy) and by Jacob Stainer in Austria. "The Messiah" or "Le Messie" (also known as the "Salabue") made by Antonio Stradivari in 1716 remains pristine.
Antonio Stradivari (, also, ; 1644 – 18 December 1737) was an Italian luthier and a crafter of string instruments such as violins, cellos, guitars, violas, and harps.

Messiah Stradivarius

The MessiahLe MessieMessiah
"The Messiah" or "Le Messie" (also known as the "Salabue") made by Antonio Stradivari in 1716 remains pristine.
The Messiah - Salabue Stradivarius of 1716 is a violin made by the Italian luthier Antonio Stradivari of Cremona.

Gasparo da Salò

Gasparo da SaloDa Salòda Salò-di Bertolotti
The finest Renaissance carved and decorated violin in the world is the Gasparo da Salò (c.
Around 80 of his instruments are still in existence: violins (small and large), alto and tenor violas, viols, violones and double basses, violas with only a pair of corners, ceteras.

Kobyz

Kyl kyyakkyl kiakQobyz
Two-stringed, bowed instruments, played upright and strung and bowed with horsehair, may have originated in the nomadic equestrian cultures of Central Asia, in forms closely resembling the modern-day Mongolian Morin huur and the Kazakh Kobyz.
It now had four metallic strings and thus became closer to a violin.

Vielle

fiddlefiddlesFiedel
These included the vielle (also known as the fidel or viuola) and the lira da braccio.
The vielle is a European bowed stringed instrument used in the Medieval period, similar to a modern violin but with a somewhat longer and deeper body, three to five gut strings, and a leaf-shaped pegbox with frontal tuning pegs, sometimes with a figure-8 shaped body.

Chinrest

chinchin rest
A violin generally consists of a spruce top (the soundboard, also known as the top plate, table, or belly), maple ribs and back, two endblocks, a neck, a bridge, a soundpost, four strings, and various fittings, optionally including a chinrest, which may attach directly over, or to the left of, the tailpiece.
A chinrest is a shaped piece of wood (or plastic) attached to the body of a violin or a viola to aid in the positioning of the player's jaw or chin on the instrument.

Domenico Montagnana

Montagnana
He is regarded as one of the finest violin and cello makers of his time.

Perfect fifth

fifthfifthsopen fifth
The violin typically has four strings, usually tuned in perfect fifths with notes G3, D4, A4, E5, and is most commonly played by drawing a bow across its strings, though it can also be played by plucking the strings with the fingers (pizzicato) and by striking the strings with the wooden side of the bow (col legno).
The just perfect fifth can be heard when a violin is tuned: if adjacent strings are adjusted to the exact ratio of 3:2, the result is a smooth and consonant sound, and the violin sounds in tune.

Lyre

bowl lyrelyrabell lyre
The earliest stringed instruments were mostly plucked (for example, the Greek lyre).
The deepest note was that farthest from the player's body; since the strings did not differ much in length, more weight may have been gained for the deeper notes by thicker strings, as in the violin and similar modern instruments, or they were tuned by having a slacker tension.

Arabic music

ArabicArab musicArab
The direct ancestor of all European bowed instruments is the Arabic rebab, which developed into the Byzantine lyra by the 9th century and later the European rebec.
They include the lute, derived from the oud; rebec (an ancestor of the violin) from rebab, guitar from qitara, naker from naqareh, adufe from al-duff, alboka from al-buq, anafil from al-nafir, exabeba (a type of flute) from al-shabbaba, atabal (a type of bass drum) from al-tabl, atambal from al-tinbal, the balaban, castanet from kasatan, and sonajas de azófar from sunuj al-sufr.

Catgut

gutgut stringgut strings
Violins can be strung with gut, Perlon or other synthetic, or steel strings.
For a long time, catgut was the most common material for the strings of harps, lutes, violins, violas, cellos, and double basses, acoustic guitars and other stringed musical instruments, as well as older marching snare drums.

Purfling

The purfling running around the edge of the spruce top provides some protection against cracks originating at the edge.
The earliest known example of purfling is on a violin made by Andrea Amati in 1564, now on display in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford University.

Scordatura

alternatealternative tuningsalternate guitar tunings
Other tunings are occasionally employed; the G string, for example, can be tuned up to A. The use of nonstandard tunings in classical music is known as scordatura; in some folk styles, it is called cross tuning.
Scordatura was much used by composers for viola d'amore, violin and cello, including J.S. Bach, Biber, Vivaldi, Ariosti, Vilsmayr, and others in compositions for violin during the early 18th century.

Historically informed performance

performance practicehistorically informed musical performanceauthentic performance
Gut strings are not as common as they once were, but many performers use them to achieve a specific sound especially in historically informed performance of Baroque music.
For example, prior to the emergence of the modern violin, other bowed stringed instruments such as the rebec or the viol were in common use.

Rebab

rababrabābrabat
The direct ancestor of all European bowed instruments is the Arabic rebab, which developed into the Byzantine lyra by the 9th century and later the European rebec.
The bow is usually more curved than that of the violin.