Virtual reality

virtualVRvirtual-realityvirtual reality (VR)virtual spacevirtual environmentsvirtualityvirtual environmentvirtual realitiesvirtual reality game
Virtual reality (VR) is an interactive computer-generated experience taking place within a simulated environment.wikipedia
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Augmented reality

ARaugmentedaugmented reality (AR)
Augmented reality systems may also be considered a form of VR that layers virtual information over a live camera feed into a headset or through a smartphone or tablet device giving the user the ability to view three-dimensional images.
In this way, augmented reality alters one's ongoing perception of a real-world environment, whereas virtual reality completely replaces the user's real-world environment with a simulated one.

Virtual reality headset

headsetvirtual reality headsetsvirtual reality
Current VR technology most commonly uses virtual reality headsets or multi-projected environments, sometimes in combination with physical environments or props, to generate realistic images, sounds and other sensations that simulate a user's physical presence in a virtual or imaginary environment.
A virtual reality headset is a head-mounted device that provides virtual reality for the wearer.

Damien Broderick

Broderick, Damien
The term "virtual reality" was first used in a science fiction context in The Judas Mandala, a 1982 novel by Damien Broderick.
His science fiction novel The Dreaming Dragons (1980) introduced the trope of the generation time machine, his The Judas Mandala (1982) contains the first appearance of the term "virtual reality" in science fiction, and his 1997 popular science book The Spike was the first to investigate the technological singularity in detail.

Myron W. Krueger

Myron Krueger
The term "artificial reality", coined by Myron Krueger, has been in use since the 1970s.
He is also considered to be one of the first generation virtual reality and augmented reality researchers.

Game controller

controllercontrollersvideo game controller
VR systems that include transmission of vibrations and other sensations to the user through a game controller or other devices are known as haptic systems.
A variation of this concept surfaced in 2016 when a startup called VirZoom debuted a set of sensors that can be installed in the pedal and handlebars, turning a physical bike into one controller for games on the HTC Vive and Oculus Rift virtual reality (VR) platforms.

Cyberspace

cybercyber spacecybernaut
A "cyberspace" is a networked virtual reality.
Although the present-day, loose use of the term "cyberspace" no longer implies or suggests immersion in a virtual reality, current technology allows the integration of a number of capabilities (sensors, signals, connections, transmissions, processors, and controllers) sufficient to generate a virtual interactive experience that is accessible regardless of a geographic location.

Smartphone

smartphonessmart phonesmart phones
Augmented reality systems may also be considered a form of VR that layers virtual information over a live camera feed into a headset or through a smartphone or tablet device giving the user the ability to view three-dimensional images.
Other major technologies began to trend in 2016, including a focus on virtual reality and augmented reality experiences catered towards smartphones, the newly introduced USB-C connector, and improving LTE technologies.

VR photography

360 interactive photography360-degree interactive photography360-degree panorama photo
Independent production of VR images and video has increased by the development of omnidirectional cameras, also known as 360-degree cameras or VR cameras, that have the ability to record 360 interactive photography, although at low-resolutions or in highly compressed formats for online streaming of 360 video.
Normally created by stitching together a number of photographs taken in a multi-row 360-degree rotation or using an omnidirectional camera, the complete virtual reality image can also be a totally computer-generated effect, or a composite of photography and computer generated objects.

The Sword of Damocles (virtual reality)

The Sword of Damoclesfirst VR head-mounted display
The formidable appearance of the device inspired its name, The Sword of Damocles.
The Sword of Damocles is widely considered to be the first virtual reality (VR) head-mounted display (HMD) system.

Morton Heilig

Morton Heilig wrote in the 1950s of an "Experience Theatre" that could encompass all the senses in an effective manner, thus drawing the viewer into the onscreen activity.
Morton Leonard Heilig (December 22, 1926 – May 14, 1997) was a pioneer in Virtual Reality (VR) technology and filmmaker.

User interface

UIinterfaceweb interface
It was primitive both in terms of user interface and realism, and the HMD to be worn by the user was so heavy that it had to be suspended from the ceiling.
When the CUI blocks out the real world to create a virtual reality, the CUI is virtual and uses a virtual reality interface.

Artificial Reality

artificial
The term "artificial reality", coined by Myron Krueger, has been in use since the 1970s.
Artificial reality is a book series by Myron W. Krueger about interactive immersive environments (or virtual realities), based on video recognition techniques, that put a user in full, unencumbered contact with the digital world.

Jaron Lanier

However, its hired employees, such as Tom Zimmerman, Scott Fisher, Jaron Lanier, Michael Naimark, and Brenda Laurel, kept their research and development on VR-related technologies.
Considered a founding father of the field of virtual reality, Lanier and Thomas G. Zimmerman left Atari in 1985 to found VPL Research, Inc., the first company to sell VR goggles and gloves.

Eric Howlett

In 1979 Eric Howlett developed the Large Expanse, Extra Perspective (LEEP) optical system.
Eric Mayorga Howlett (December 27, 1926 – December 11, 2011) was the inventor of the LEEP (Large Expanse Extra Perspective), extreme wide-angle stereoscopic optics used in photographic and virtual reality systems.

Michael Naimark

However, its hired employees, such as Tom Zimmerman, Scott Fisher, Jaron Lanier, Michael Naimark, and Brenda Laurel, kept their research and development on VR-related technologies.
Michael Naimark is an artist, inventor, and scholar in the fields of virtual reality and new media art.

Brenda Laurel

However, its hired employees, such as Tom Zimmerman, Scott Fisher, Jaron Lanier, Michael Naimark, and Brenda Laurel, kept their research and development on VR-related technologies.
She is an advocate for diversity and inclusiveness in video games, a "pioneer in developing virtual reality", a public speaker and an academic.

Scott Fisher (technologist)

Scott Fisher
However, its hired employees, such as Tom Zimmerman, Scott Fisher, Jaron Lanier, Michael Naimark, and Brenda Laurel, kept their research and development on VR-related technologies. The original LEEP system was redesigned for the NASA Ames Research Center in 1985 for their first virtual reality installation, the VIEW (Virtual Interactive Environment Workstation) by Scott Fisher.
He is an artist and technologist who has worked extensively on virtual reality, including pioneering work at NASA, Atari Research Labs, MIT's Architecture Machine Group (now the MIT Media Lab) and Keio University.

Holodeck

holosuiteholonovelholosuites
Developed as Cruz-Neira's PhD thesis, it involved a multi-projected environment, similar to the holodeck, allowing people to see their own bodies in relation to others in the room.
It is presented as a staging environment in which participants may engage with different virtual reality environments.

Head-mounted display

head mounted displayhead-mounted displaysHMD
The effect is commonly created by VR headsets consisting of a head-mounted display with a small screen in front of the eyes, but can also be created through specially designed rooms with multiple large screens. In 1968, Ivan Sutherland, with the help of many students including Bob Sproull, created what was widely considered to be the first head-mounted display (HMD) system for use in immersive simulation applications.
The Oculus Rift is a virtual reality (VR) head-mounted display created by Palmer Luckey that the company Oculus VR is developing for virtual reality simulations and video games.

Aspen, Colorado

AspenAspen, COCity of Aspen
The program was a crude virtual simulation of Aspen, Colorado in which users could wander the streets in one of the three modes: summer, winter, and polygons.
The Movie Map is one of the earliest examples of virtual reality software.

Nicole Stenger

Between 1989-1992, Nicole Stenger created Angels, the first real-time interactive immersive movie.
Nicole Stenger is a French-born American artist, pioneer in Virtual Reality and Internet movies.

VPL Research

Lanier had founded the company VPL Research in 1985.
VPL Research was one of the first companies that developed and sold virtual reality products.

Bob Sproull

Robert F. SproullRobert Sproull
In 1968, Ivan Sutherland, with the help of many students including Bob Sproull, created what was widely considered to be the first head-mounted display (HMD) system for use in immersive simulation applications.
Together, they worked on head-mounted displays, which led the way for 3-dimensional virtual reality.

Carolina Cruz-Neira

Cruz-Neira, Caroline
In 1991, Carolina Cruz-Neira, Daniel J. Sandin and Thomas A. DeFanti from the Electronic Visualization Laboratory created the first cubic immersive room, The Cave.
Carolina Cruz-Neira is a Spanish-Venezuelan-American computer engineer, researcher, designer, educator, and a pioneer of virtual reality (VR) research and technology.

Cave automatic virtual environment

CAVEThe CAVECave automatic virtual environment(CAVE)
In 1991, Carolina Cruz-Neira, Daniel J. Sandin and Thomas A. DeFanti from the Electronic Visualization Laboratory created the first cubic immersive room, The Cave.
A cave automatic virtual environment (better known by the recursive acronym CAVE) is an immersive virtual reality environment where projectors are directed to between three and six of the walls of a room-sized cube.