Visigoths

VisigothicVisigothGothicGothVisigothic KingdomGothsKings of the VisigothsVisgothicVisigothiVisigothic Kingdom of Toulouse
The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Westgoten Visigoti Visigots Visigodos Visigodos) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.wikipedia
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Sack of Rome (410)

Sack of Romesacked Romesack Rome
The Visigoths invaded Italy under Alaric I and sacked Rome in 410.
The city was attacked by the Visigoths led by King Alaric.

Alaric I

AlaricAlaric I king of the VisigothsAlaric the Great
The Visigoths invaded Italy under Alaric I and sacked Rome in 410. This conclusion is supported by Jordanes, who identified the Visigoth (Vesi) kings from Alaric I to Alaric II as the heirs of the 4th century Tervingian king Athanaric, and the Ostrogoth kings from Theoderic the Great to Theodahad as the heirs of the Greuthungi king Ermanaric.
Alaric I (*Alareiks, "ruler of all"; Alaricus; 370 (or 375)410 AD) was the first King of the Visigoths from 395–410, son (or paternal grandson) of chieftain Rothestes.

Visigothic Kingdom

VisigothsVisigothicKing
After the Visigoths sacked Rome, they began settling down, first in southern Gaul and eventually in Hispania, where they founded the Visigothic Kingdom and maintained a presence from the 5th to the 8th centuries AD.
One of the Germanic successor states to the Western Roman Empire, it was originally created by the settlement of the Visigoths under King Wallia in the province of Aquitaine in southwest France by the Roman government and then extended by conquest over all of the Iberian Peninsula.

Late antiquity

late antiqueancientlate
These tribes flourished and spread throughout the late Roman Empire in Late Antiquity, or what is known as the Migration Period.
Concurrently, some migrating Germanic tribes such as the Ostrogoths and Visigoths saw themselves as perpetuating the "Roman" tradition.

Roman Empire

RomanRomansEmpire
These tribes flourished and spread throughout the late Roman Empire in Late Antiquity, or what is known as the Migration Period.
During the 6th century, Justinian I reconquered the Italian peninsula from the Ostrogoths, North Africa from the Vandals, and southern Spain from the Visigoths.

Migration Period

barbarian invasionsGreat MigrationsGreat Migration
These tribes flourished and spread throughout the late Roman Empire in Late Antiquity, or what is known as the Migration Period.
The first migrations of peoples were made by Germanic tribes such as the Goths (including the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths), the Vandals, the Anglo-Saxons, the Lombards, the Suebi, the Frisii, the Jutes, the Burgundians, the Alemanni, the Scirii and the Franks; they were later pushed westward by the Huns, the Avars, the Slavs and the Bulgars.

Septimania

GothiaMarch of GothiaGothic March
After that, the Visigoth kingdom was limited to Hispania, and they never again held territory north of the Pyrenees other than Septimania.
It referred to the western part of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis that passed to the control of the Visigoths in 462, when Septimania was ceded to their king, Theodoric II.

Kingdom of the Suebi

SuebiSuebic KingdomGalicia
A small, elite group of Visigoths came to dominate the governance of that region at the expense of those who had previously ruled there, particularly in the Byzantine province of Spania and the Kingdom of the Suebi.
It maintained its independence until 585, when it was annexed by the Visigoths, and was turned into the sixth province of the Visigothic Kingdom in Hispania.

Vandals

VandalVandalicVandal Kingdom
They next extended their authority into Hispania at the expense of the Suebi and Vandals.
After the Visigoths invaded Iberia in 418, the Iranian Alans and Silingi Vandals voluntarily subjected themselves to the rule of Hasdingian leader Gunderic, who was pushed from Gallaecia to Baetica by a Roman-Suebi coalition in 419.

Reccared I

ReccaredRecared
In or around 589, the Visigoths under Reccared I converted from Arianism to Nicene Christianity, gradually adopting the culture of their Hispano-Roman subjects.
undefined 559 – 31 May 601 AD; reigned 586–601) was Visigothic King of Hispania and Septimania.

Clovis I

ClovisKing ClovisChlodovech
In 507, however, their rule in Gaul was ended by the Franks under Clovis I, who defeated them in the Battle of Vouillé.
In what is now northern France, then northern Gaul, he took control of a rump state of the Western Roman Empire controlled by Syagrius at the Battle of Soissons (486), and by the time of his death in either 511 or 513, he had also conquered smaller Frankish kingdoms towards the northeast, the Alemanni to the east, and Visigothic kingdom of Aquitania to the south.

Battle of Guadalete

Christian fallconquered at Guadaletedefeated King Roderic
(Little else is known about the Visigoths' history during the 7th century, since records are relatively sparse.) In 711 or 712, a force of invading North African Moors defeated the Visigoths in the Battle of Guadalete.
The Battle of Guadalete was fought in 711 or 712 at an unidentified location between the Christian Visigoths of Hispania under their king, Roderic, and the invading forces of the Muslim Umayyad Caliphate, composed of Arabs and Berbers under the commander Ṭāriq ibn Ziyad.

Roderic

RodrigoKing RodericKing Roderick
Their king and many members of their governing elite were killed, and their kingdom rapidly collapsed.
Ruderic (also spelled Roderic, Roderik, Roderich, or Roderick; Spanish and Rodrigo, لذريق; died 711 or 712) was the Visigothic King of Hispania for a brief period between 710 and 712.

Spania

southern SpainSpanishByzantine conquest of Visigothic Baetica
A small, elite group of Visigoths came to dominate the governance of that region at the expense of those who had previously ruled there, particularly in the Byzantine province of Spania and the Kingdom of the Suebi.
The Visigoths, vassals of the Roman Empire who had settled in Aquitaine by imperial invitation (416), increasingly filled the vacuum left as the Vandals moved into Africa.

Pelagius of Asturias

PelayoPelagiusDon Pelayo
Gothic identity survived, however, especially in Marca Hispanica and the Kingdom of Asturias, which had been founded by the Visigothic nobleman Pelagius of Asturias after his victory over the Moors at the Battle of Covadonga.
685 – 737) was a Visigothic nobleman who founded the Kingdom of Asturias, ruling it from 718 until his death.

Visigothic art and architecture

VisigothicVisigothic artbuilt several churches
During their governance of the Kingdom of Hispania, the Visigoths built several churches that survive.
The Visigoths entered Hispania (modern Spain and Portugal) in 415, and they rose to be the dominant people there until the Moorish invasion of 711 brought their kingdom to an end.

Foederati

foedusfederatesfoederatus
The Visigoths first settled in southern Gaul as foederati to the Romans – a relationship established in 418.
Later, the sense of the term foederati and its usage and meaning was extended by the Roman practice of subsidizing entire barbarian tribes — which included the Franks, Vandals, Alans, Huns and, best known, the Visigoths — in exchange for providing warriors to fight in the Roman armies.

Byzantine Empire

ByzantineByzantinesEastern Roman Empire
A small, elite group of Visigoths came to dominate the governance of that region at the expense of those who had previously ruled there, particularly in the Byzantine province of Spania and the Kingdom of the Suebi.
In 551, Athanagild, a noble from Visigothic Hispania, sought Justinian's help in a rebellion against the king, and the emperor dispatched a force under Liberius, a successful military commander.

Kingdom of Asturias

AsturiasAsturianAsturians
Gothic identity survived, however, especially in Marca Hispanica and the Kingdom of Asturias, which had been founded by the Visigothic nobleman Pelagius of Asturias after his victory over the Moors at the Battle of Covadonga.
The situation started to change during the Late Roman Empire and the early Middle Ages, when an Asturian identity gradually started to develop: the centuries-old fight between Visigothic and Suebian nobles may have helped to forge a distinct identity among the peoples of the Cantabrian districts.

List of Portuguese words of Germanic origin

List of Portuguese words of Franconian originPortuguese
Many Visigothic names are still in use in modern Spanish and Portuguese.
Many of these words entered the language during the late antiquity, either as words introduced into Vulgar Latin elsewhere, or as words brought along by the Suebi who settled in Gallaecia (Northern Portugal and Galicia) in the 5th century, and also by the Visigoths who annexed the Suebic Kingdom in 585.

Ostrogoths

OstrogothicOstrogothGothic
Contemporaneous references to the Gothic tribes use the terms "Vesi" (Latin for Visigoths), "Ostrogothi", "Thervingi", and "Greuthungi".
The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were the eastern branch of the older Goths (the other major branch being the Visigoths).

Hispania

SpainRomanRomans
After the Visigoths sacked Rome, they began settling down, first in southern Gaul and eventually in Hispania, where they founded the Visigothic Kingdom and maintained a presence from the 5th to the 8th centuries AD. After that, the Visigoth kingdom was limited to Hispania, and they never again held territory north of the Pyrenees other than Septimania. They next extended their authority into Hispania at the expense of the Suebi and Vandals. During their governance of the Kingdom of Hispania, the Visigoths built several churches that survive.
Even after the fall of Rome and the invasion of the Germanic Visigoths and Suebi, Latin was spoken by nearly all of the population, but in its common form known as Vulgar Latin, and the regional changes which led to the modern Iberian Romance languages had already begun.

Battle of Vouillé

battle of Campus Vogladensisconqueredconquest by the Franks
In 507, however, their rule in Gaul was ended by the Franks under Clovis I, who defeated them in the Battle of Vouillé.
The Battle of Vouillé — or Vouglé (from Latin Campus Vogladensis) — was fought in the northern marches of Visigothic territory, at Vouillé near Poitiers (Gaul), in the spring of 507 between the Franks commanded by Clovis and the Visigoths commanded by Alaric II.

Votive crown

crownsgolden crown as a gift
The Treasure of Guarrazar of votive crowns and crosses is the most spectacular.
The largest number of surviving examples of the Christian Early Medieval suspended type come from 7th century Visigothic Hispania, especially the Treasure of Guarrazar, from near Toledo, which includes no fewer than twenty-six examples in gold, probably hidden as the Muslim invasion drew near.

Alaric II

AlaricAlaric II, King of the Visigoths
This conclusion is supported by Jordanes, who identified the Visigoth (Vesi) kings from Alaric I to Alaric II as the heirs of the 4th century Tervingian king Athanaric, and the Ostrogoth kings from Theoderic the Great to Theodahad as the heirs of the Greuthungi king Ermanaric.
458/466August 507), also known as Alarik, Alarich, and Alarico in Spanish and Portuguese or Alaricus in Latin — succeeded his father Euric as king of the Visigoths in Toulouse on December 28, 484; he was the great-grandson of the more famous Alaric I, who sacked Rome in 410.