Visual communication

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Use of visual elements to convey ideas and information which include but are not limited to, signs, typography, drawing, graphic design, illustration, industrial design, advertising, animation, and electronic resources.

- Visual communication

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Communication design

Mixed discipline between design and information-development which is concerned with how media communicate with people.

Cutlery designed by architect and designer Zaha Hadid (2007). The slightly oblique end part of the fork and the spoons, as well as the knife handle, are examples of a design that cares for both form and function.

The term communication design is often used interchangeably with visual communication, but has an alternative broader meaning that includes auditory, vocal, touch and smell.

Graphic design

Due to its interdisciplinary nature, graphic design can be performed in different areas of application: branding, technical and artistic drawing, signage, photography, image and video editing, 3D modeling, animation, programming, among other fields.
Cover of the Thanksgiving 1895 issue of The Chap-Book, designed by Will H. Bradley
A Boeing 747 aircraft with livery designating it as Air Force One. The cyan forms, the US flag, presidential seal and the Caslon lettering, were all designed at different times, by different designers, for different purposes, and combined by designer Raymond Loewy in this one single aircraft exterior design.
Golden section in book design
The pencil is one of the most basic graphic design tools.
Graphic symbols are often functionalist and anonymous, as these pictographs from the US National Park Service illustrate.

Graphic design is the profession and academic discipline whose activity consists in projecting visual communications intended to transmit specific messages to social groups, with specific objectives.


Calligraphic design that has several interpretations as written.

Sator square (word square and palindrome) with the letters S and N reversed.
Rotational ambigram Puzzle / The end by Peter Newell designed in 1893.
Mirror ambigram ΝΙΨΟΝ ΑΝΟΜΗΜΑΤΑ ΜΗ ΜΟΝΑΝ ΟΨΙΝ (Wash your sins, not only your face, in Ancient Greek) in the church Hagia Sophia (Turkey).
Ambigrams published in The Strand Magazine, June 1908.
The distress signal SOS is a natural rotating ambigram.
OHIO, a "quarter-turn" natural ambigram.
The number 619 constitutes a natural ambigram (but not the word "western").
Three words ambigram: a changing combination "India / Nepal" associated with the invariant conjunction "and".
180° rotational ambigram saying "Upside Down".
Vertical axis reflection ambigram "Love you", with the letter I added over like in a totem ambigram.
"Perfect", vertical axis mirror ambigram.
"Bird", vertical axis reflection, with a flying dot shaped like a bird.
Historical Maoam logo (candy), vertical axis mirror ambigram, between 1900 and 1931.
"Motel" on the facade of a building is mirroring in the water of a pond to give "Water", self-referential concept using a lake reflection.
Horizontal axis mirror ambigram "Body / Yoga".
Figure-ground ambigram Michel Onfray, revealing the surname in the negative space formed by the letters of the given name.
Figure-ground ambigram "Wow / Mom"" (and incidentally also a tessellation and a 180° rotational ambigram).
Ambigram tessellation "Future", 180° rotational symmetry. Upside-down, the light-color letters "future" occupy the negative space between the dark color letters. Two tints, blue and black, separate each block.
This chain ambigram "nouvel an" (new year, in French) reads upside down.
Perceptual shift ambigram, Wave and Particle, by Douglas Hofstadter.
Ambiguous letter that can be interpreted as a H or as an A.
"Ignore Wrong!", also "Wrong! / Ignore", 90° rotational symmetry.
90° rotational ambigram "Jude / Muslim" (Jew / Muslim in German) (and incidentally also a chain ambigram).
This historical Maria monogram is close to a totem ambigram, almost symmetrical over the vertical axis.
The 3D ambigram "GEB" (for Gödel, Escher, Bach) on the cover of Hofstadter's book.
Three-dimensional ambigram, ABC.
Mirror ambigram depicting the phrase علي ولي الله (Ali is the vicegerent of God, in Arabic), Ottoman panel, between 1720 and 1730.
Mirror and rotational ambigram of an arithmetic operation illustrating the commutative property in addition.
Palindrome with musical notes, here the centre part of Alban Berg's opera Lulu.
Ambigram Love Song published in a typography book (Typism).
Ambigram "Biden USA Harris" by Douglas Hofstadter conveying a political message during the 2020 United States presidential election against Trump.
The movie Anna by Luc Besson (2019) reveals on its poster a mirror ambigram with a vertical axis.
Ambigrams in comics by Gustave Verbeek in 1904.
Ambigram painting Me / We, horizontal axis mirror type (2007).
Ambigram OUI / NON (Yes / No, in French), by sculptor Markus Raetz, installed at the top of a pole on the Place du Rhöne in Geneva, Switzerland, observed from two angles.
Famous palindrome sentence "Dogma I am God" turned into a mirror ambigram. The capital D at the left was changed into a lowercase d, and the typographic spaces adjusted.
Georges Perec's "vertical palindrome" (rotational ambigram), in French.
Calligram "Good ambigrams" representing a face and mirror self-referential ambigram.
Bilingual mirror ambigram playing on the translation of the word "Lapin" (rabbit, in French).
Self-referential composition "here / away" displayed in a spiral to express distance, thus enhancing the meaning.
Ambigram of a reversible arithmetic operation.
"Two in one", half-turn ambigram.
"Ambiguity", 180° rotational ambigram.
"Real world / Prank Fake", ambigram expressing illusion.
Ambigram "Bounce", printed inside an Adidas pink shoe.
"Cognac / Danger", front and back, on a set of two shot glasses. Humorous warning related to alcohol consumption.
Ambigram and tessellation "Escher", handmade design.
Douglas Hofstadter's mirror ambigrams featuring the names of the seven rainbow colors, followed by his signature "Doug".
Ambigram "Wikipedia", drawn by French artist Jean-Claude Pertuzé, 180° rotational symmetry.
"Candy", 180° symmetrical ambigram.
"Cloud", vertical axis mirror ambigram with a cloud occupying negative space in the letter O.
"Doug", hypocorism for Douglas Hofstadter, the "father" of the ambigram concept.
"Ambigram / Wikipedia", hetero- type.
"True flag", self-referential flag, horizontal axis mirror hetero- type.
Two words ambigram "Stay Here".
Two words ambigram "Real / Fake" showing alternatively one version of the pair.
Rotating ambigram "Say Yes", half-turn type with 8 occurrences of the same pattern.
Point reflection ambigram merci.
"Home / Away", 180° rotational hetero-ambigram.
"Lift", half-turn ambigram logo.
Tessellation build with the natural ambigram "Yeah".
3-directional ambigram "Serie" (series, in French), tessellation using a 120° rotational symmetry. Created from a hexagon.
Ambigram tessellation "Fuck", 90° rotational symmetry. Created from an isosceles right triangle.
Spinonym "neun 9" (German for nine), five times the same glyph repeated in different orientations.
"Fun" spinonym, the same glyph in different orientations shapes the three letters of the word.
The logo Oxo (food) has a 4-fold dihedral symmetry (mirror and 180° rotational ambigram).
The famous DJ Étienne de Crécy has a complex ambigram logo "EDC", mirroring through a horizontal axis, and figure-ground type with a power plug pictogram inserted in the negative space.
4-fold dihedral symmetrical ambigram (mirror and rotational) "Dig hole, Die".
Ambigram meme "Penelope / benevole" with a political message.
Half-turn traffic sign using a directional arrow symbol to display alternatively "Station / Toilets".
Visual pun "Avoid the plane" to attract attention towards the environmental impact of aviation.
A practical application of mirror ambigrams in a banner reading "Idaplatz fest" front and back (Zurich, 2008).
Rotational and reflective ambigram "Ideal", printed on a T-shirt.
"Zen Yes" embroidered on a blue T-shirt with a meditation symmetrical pictogram.

Because they are visual puns, ambigrams generally attract attention, and thus can be used in visual communication to broadcast a marketing or political message.

Technical drawing

Technical drawing of a die tool produced by CAD (in Russian).
Drafter at work
Copying technical drawings in 1973
Sketch for a government building
A drafting table
Old-fashioned technical drawing instruments
Stencils for lettering technical drawings to DIN standards
An example of a drawing drafted in AutoCAD
View of a CAD model of a four-cylinder inline crankshaft with pistons
To plan a renovation, this architect takes measurements which he will later enter into his computer-aided design system.
Engineering drawing of a machine tool part
Illustration of a drum set
Cutaway drawing of the Nash 600, an American car of the 1940s
Exploded-view drawing of a gear pump
The Wright brothers' patent drawings for their aeroplane (1908)
ISO "A series" paper sizes used in most countries of the world
ANSI paper sizes used in North America

Technical drawing, drafting or drawing, is the act and discipline of composing drawings that visually communicate how something functions or is constructed.

Print culture

The transition of communication technology: oral culture, manuscript culture, print culture, and Information Age
The intricate frontispiece of the Diamond Sutra from Tang Dynasty China, 868 AD (British Museum)

Print culture embodies all forms of printed text and other printed forms of visual communication.

Andreas Gursky

German photographer and professor at the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf, Germany.

Gursky in 2013 at the K21 Museum of Contemporary Art in Düsseldorf

From 1978 to 1981, he attended the Universität Gesamthochschule Essen, where he studied visual communication, led by photographers Otto Steinert and Michael Schmidt.

Study Tech

Teaching method developed by L. Ron Hubbard, founder of the Church of Scientology.


Harley, Gail M. and Kieffer, John in 2009 stated that what they knew was Study Tech materials claim that "absence of mass" is the idea that abstractions must be illustrated physically before they can be fully understood: learning about trains is accelerated if the student can see a train or a representation of one.


Tortoises are reptiles of the family Testudinidae of the order Testudines (Latin: tortoise).

Tile with two rabbits, two snakes, and a tortoise, illustration for Zakariya al-Qazwini's book ʿAjāʾib al-makhlūqāt, Iran, 19th century.
Adult male leopard tortoise, South Africa
Young African sulcata tortoise
Baby tortoise feeding on lettuce
Tortoise feeding on a cactus
Skeleton of a tortoise
A skeleton of Aldabra giant tortoise found in Cousin Island (Seychelles).
Fossil of the extinct Ergilemys insolitus
Bas-relief from Angkor Wat, Cambodia, shows Samudra manthan-Vishnu in the centre, his turtle Avatar Kurma below, asuras and devas to left and right
Baby Testudo marginata emerges from its egg
Baby tortoise, less than a day old
Young, 20-year-old Tanzanian leopard tortoise feeding on grass
Aldabra giant tortoise, Geochelone gigantea
22-year-old leopard tortoise
African spurred tortoise from the Oakland Zoo
Pair of African spurred tortoises mate in a zoo
Boy rides a tortoise at a zoo
Young Testudo hermanni

Because they are restricted by their shell and short limbs, visual communication is not a strong form of communication in tortoises.

Service design

Activity of planning and arranging people, infrastructure, communication and material components of a service in order to improve its quality, and the interaction between the service provider and its users.

Demonstrating need to ensure outsourcing gains are realised and losses avoided at a summit in London in 2009

Visual Communication

Art director

Title for a variety of similar job functions in theater, advertising, marketing, publishing, fashion, film and television, the Internet, and video games.

Greek theatre in Taormina, Sicily, Italy

In particular, they are in charge of its overall visual appearance and how it communicates visually, stimulates moods, contrasts features, and psychologically appeals to a target audience.