Vitamin

vitaminsfat-soluble vitaminsfat-soluble vitaminfat soluble vitaminswater-soluble vitaminsfat soluble vitaminvitaminevitamins and mineralsB-Vitaminsfat-soluble
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) that is an essential micronutrient that an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism.wikipedia
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Mineral (nutrient)

mineralsdietary mineralsdietary mineral
The term vitamin does not include the three other groups of essential nutrients: minerals, essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids.
As a group, minerals are one of the four groups of essential nutrients, the others of which are vitamins, essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids.

Vitamer

formsvitamers
Most vitamins are not single molecules, but groups of related molecules called vitamers.
A vitamer of a particular vitamin is any of a number of chemical compounds, generally having a similar molecular structure, each of which shows vitamin activity in a vitamin-deficient biological system.

Diet (nutrition)

dietdietarydiets
Essential nutrients cannot be synthesized in the organism, either at all or not in sufficient quantities, and therefore must be obtained through the diet.
Complete nutrition requires ingestion and absorption of vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids from protein and essential fatty acids from fat-containing food, also food energy in the form of carbohydrate, protein, and fat.

Retinol

vitamin Aretinol metabolismA
The thirteen vitamins required by human metabolism are: vitamin A (as all-trans-retinol, all-trans-retinyl-esters, as well as all-trans-beta-carotene and other provitamin A carotenoids), vitamin B 1 (thiamine), vitamin B 2 (riboflavin), vitamin B 3 (niacin), vitamin B 5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B 6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B 7 (biotin), vitamin B 9 (folic acid or folate), vitamin B 12 (cobalamins), vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin D (calciferols), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), and vitamin K (quinones).
Retinol, also known as Vitamin A 1, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.

Tocopherol

tocopherolsvitamin Eα-tocopherol
The thirteen vitamins required by human metabolism are: vitamin A (as all-trans-retinol, all-trans-retinyl-esters, as well as all-trans-beta-carotene and other provitamin A carotenoids), vitamin B 1 (thiamine), vitamin B 2 (riboflavin), vitamin B 3 (niacin), vitamin B 5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B 6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B 7 (biotin), vitamin B 9 (folic acid or folate), vitamin B 12 (cobalamins), vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin D (calciferols), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), and vitamin K (quinones). For example, vitamin E consists of four tocopherols and four tocotrienols.
Because the vitamin activity was first identified in 1936 from a dietary fertility factor in rats, it was given the name "tocopherol" using the Greek words "τόκος" [tókos, birth], and "φέρειν", [phérein, to bear or carry] meaning in sum "to carry a pregnancy," with the ending "-ol" signifying its status as a chemical alcohol.

Vitamin B12

vitamin B 12 cobalaminB12
The thirteen vitamins required by human metabolism are: vitamin A (as all-trans-retinol, all-trans-retinyl-esters, as well as all-trans-beta-carotene and other provitamin A carotenoids), vitamin B 1 (thiamine), vitamin B 2 (riboflavin), vitamin B 3 (niacin), vitamin B 5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B 6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B 7 (biotin), vitamin B 9 (folic acid or folate), vitamin B 12 (cobalamins), vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin D (calciferols), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), and vitamin K (quinones).
Vitamin B 12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body: it is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.

Vitamin C

ascorbic acidascorbateC
The thirteen vitamins required by human metabolism are: vitamin A (as all-trans-retinol, all-trans-retinyl-esters, as well as all-trans-beta-carotene and other provitamin A carotenoids), vitamin B 1 (thiamine), vitamin B 2 (riboflavin), vitamin B 3 (niacin), vitamin B 5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B 6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B 7 (biotin), vitamin B 9 (folic acid or folate), vitamin B 12 (cobalamins), vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin D (calciferols), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), and vitamin K (quinones). Vitamin C can be synthesized by some species but not by others; it is not a vitamin in the first instance but is in the second.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and ascorbate, is a vitamin found in various foods and sold as a dietary supplement.

Nutrient

nutrientsessential nutrientmacronutrient
The term vitamin does not include the three other groups of essential nutrients: minerals, essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids. A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) that is an essential micronutrient that an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism.
Essential nutrients for animals are the energy sources, some of the amino acids that are combined to create proteins, a subset of fatty acids, vitamins and certain minerals.

Pantothenic acid

vitamin B 5 calcium pantothenateVitamin B5
The thirteen vitamins required by human metabolism are: vitamin A (as all-trans-retinol, all-trans-retinyl-esters, as well as all-trans-beta-carotene and other provitamin A carotenoids), vitamin B 1 (thiamine), vitamin B 2 (riboflavin), vitamin B 3 (niacin), vitamin B 5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B 6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B 7 (biotin), vitamin B 9 (folic acid or folate), vitamin B 12 (cobalamins), vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin D (calciferols), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), and vitamin K (quinones).
Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B 5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin.

Essential fatty acid

essential fatty acidsessentialEssential fatty acid deficiency
The term vitamin does not include the three other groups of essential nutrients: minerals, essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids.
When the two EFAs were discovered in 1923, they were designated "vitamin F", but in 1929, research on rats showed that the two EFAs are better classified as fats rather than vitamins.

Vitamin D

DCalciferol1,25 Dihydroxy vitamin D
The thirteen vitamins required by human metabolism are: vitamin A (as all-trans-retinol, all-trans-retinyl-esters, as well as all-trans-beta-carotene and other provitamin A carotenoids), vitamin B 1 (thiamine), vitamin B 2 (riboflavin), vitamin B 3 (niacin), vitamin B 5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B 6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B 7 (biotin), vitamin B 9 (folic acid or folate), vitamin B 12 (cobalamins), vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin D (calciferols), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), and vitamin K (quinones).
As vitamin D can be synthesized in adequate amounts by most mammals exposed to sufficient sunlight, it is not an essential dietary factor, although not technically a vitamin.

Vitamin E

EHypervitaminosis EVitamins E
For example, vitamin E consists of four tocopherols and four tocotrienols.
Vitamin E may have various roles as a vitamin.

Multivitamin

vitamin supplementmultivitaminsvitamin supplements
This was followed in the 1950s by the mass production and marketing of vitamin supplements, including multivitamins, to prevent vitamin deficiencies in the general population.
A multivitamin is a preparation intended to serve as a dietary supplement with vitamins, dietary minerals, and other nutritional elements.

Cofactor (biochemistry)

cofactorcofactorscoenzyme
The B complex vitamins function as enzyme cofactors (coenzymes) or the precursors for them.
Coenzymes are mostly derived from vitamins and other organic essential nutrients in small amounts.

Metabolism

metabolicmetabolizedmetabolic pathways
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) that is an essential micronutrient that an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism.
A vitamin is an organic compound needed in small quantities that cannot be made in cells.

Antioxidant

antioxidantsanti-oxidantantioxidative
Vitamins C and E function as antioxidants.
Although certain levels of antioxidant vitamins in the diet are required for good health, there is still considerable debate on whether antioxidant-rich foods or supplements have anti-disease activity.

Casimir Funk

Kazimierz FunkFunk, Casimir
The term vitamin is derived from the word vitamine, coined in 1912 by Polish biochemist Casimir Funk, who isolated a complex of micronutrients essential to life, all of which he presumed to be amines.
Kazimierz Funk (February 23, 1884 – November 19, 1967 ), commonly anglicized as Casimir Funk, was a Polish biochemist, generally credited with being among the first to formulate (in 1912) the concept of vitamins, which he called "vital amines" or "vitamines".

Hydroxocobalamin

CyanokitAlpharedisolhydroxycobalamin
Hydroxocobalamin, also known as vitamin B 12a and hydroxycobalamin, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.

Vitamin K

KMenaquinoneVitamin K 1
In 1943, Edward Adelbert Doisy and Henrik Dam were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery of vitamin K and its chemical structure.
Vitamin K is a group of structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamins found in foods and in dietary supplements.

Phytomenadione

phylloquinonevitamin K 1 vitamin K1
Phytomenadione, also known as vitamin K 1 or phylloquinone, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.

Lipid

lipidsglycerolipidfat
Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed through the intestinal tract with the help of lipids (fats).
Non-polar solvents are typically hydrocarbons used to dissolve other naturally occurring hydrocarbon lipid molecules that do not (or do not easily) dissolve in water, including fatty acids, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids.

Angular cheilitis

angular stomatitischeilosisAngular chelitis
Several different nutritional deficiency states of vitamins or minerals have been linked to AC.

Cystic fibrosis

CFCystic fibrosis of the pancreasdisease
Fat-soluble vitamin deficiency due to malabsorption is of particular significance in cystic fibrosis.
Pancreatic enzyme replacement and fat-soluble vitamin supplementation are important, especially in the young.

Hypervitaminosis

Vitamin poisoning
Vitamins A and D can accumulate in the body, which can result in dangerous hypervitaminosis.
Hypervitaminosis is a condition of abnormally high storage levels of vitamins, which can lead to toxic symptoms.

Organic compound

syntheticorganicorganic compounds
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) that is an essential micronutrient that an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism.
Further compounds of prime importance in biochemistry are antigens, carbohydrates, enzymes, hormones, lipids and fatty acids, neurotransmitters, nucleic acids, proteins, peptides and amino acids, lectins, vitamins, and fats and oils.