Vitamin

A bottle of B-complex vitamin pills
Calcium combined with vitamin D (as calciferol) supplement tablets with fillers.
Jack Drummond's single-paragraph article in 1920 which provided structure and nomenclature used today for vitamins

Organic molecule that is an essential micronutrient which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism.

- Vitamin
A bottle of B-complex vitamin pills

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Idealized representation of a molecule of a typical triglyceride, the main type of fat. Note the three fatty acid chains attached to the central glycerol portion of the molecule.

Fat

In nutrition, biology, and chemistry, fat usually means any ester of fatty acids, or a mixture of such compounds, most commonly those that occur in living beings or in food.

In nutrition, biology, and chemistry, fat usually means any ester of fatty acids, or a mixture of such compounds, most commonly those that occur in living beings or in food.

Idealized representation of a molecule of a typical triglyceride, the main type of fat. Note the three fatty acid chains attached to the central glycerol portion of the molecule.
Composition of fats from various foods, as percentage of their total fat
The obese mouse on the left has large stores of adipose tissue. For comparison, a mouse with a normal amount of adipose tissue is shown on the right.
Amounts of fat types in selected foods
Schematic diagram of a triglyceride with a saturated fatty acid (top), a monounsaturated one (middle) and a polyunsaturated one (bottom).
Margarine, a common product that can contain trans fatty acids
Cover of original Crisco cookbook, 1912. Crisco was made by hydrogenating cottonseed oil. The formula was revised in the 2000s and now has only a small amount of trans fat.
Wilhelm Normann patented the hydrogenation of liquid oils in 1902
Conversion of cis to trans fatty acids in partial hydrogenation
Reference ranges for blood tests, showing usual ranges for triglycerides (increasing with age) in orange at right.

Dietary fats are also the carriers of some flavor and aroma ingredients and vitamins that are not water-soluble.

A bottle of B-complex vitamin pills

Provitamin

A bottle of B-complex vitamin pills

A provitamin is a substance that may be converted within the body to a vitamin.

Manufacturers once proposed selling fortified junk food and beer, but USFDA policies of the time forbade it

Food fortification

Process of adding micronutrients to food.

Process of adding micronutrients to food.

Manufacturers once proposed selling fortified junk food and beer, but USFDA policies of the time forbade it

Since Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin, it cannot be added to a wide variety of foods.

The Berthold-Weiss Factory, one of the first large canned food factories in Csepel, Budapest (1885)

Canning

Method of food preservation in which food is processed and sealed in an airtight container .

Method of food preservation in which food is processed and sealed in an airtight container .

The Berthold-Weiss Factory, one of the first large canned food factories in Csepel, Budapest (1885)
How canned food was made, picture from Albert Seigneurie's Grocery Encyclopedia (1898). Retorts can be seen.
Appert canning jar
Nicolas Appert, developer of the canning process
A Dixie Can Sealer for home use. Now in Thinktank, Birmingham Science Museum.
1914 magazine advertisement for cookware with instructions for home canning
Opened can
Women working in a cannery
Canned meat on the shelves of Elanto's store in Helsinki, Finland in 1962.
Harker & Badia canned tomatoes. Valencia, 1920s.

A 1997 study found that canned fruits and vegetables are as rich with dietary fiber and vitamins as the same corresponding fresh or frozen foods, and in some cases the canned products are richer than their fresh or frozen counterparts.

Female (left) and male (right) adult human bodies photographed in ventral (above) and dorsal (below) perspectives. Naturally-occurring pubic, body, and facial hair has been deliberately removed to show anatomy

Human body

Structure of a human being.

Structure of a human being.

Female (left) and male (right) adult human bodies photographed in ventral (above) and dorsal (below) perspectives. Naturally-occurring pubic, body, and facial hair has been deliberately removed to show anatomy
Diagram of the human heart
Digestive system
Skin
Nervous system
Internal gross anatomy of the male reproductive system
External female reproductive system with mons pubis highlighted
Internal gross anatomy of the female reproductive system
Female urinary system
Cavities of human body
Baby being carried
Anatomical study by Leonardo da Vinci
Figure drawing by Lovis Corinth (before 1925)
Two facing pages of text with woodcuts of naked male and female figures, in the Epitome by Andreas Vesalius, 1543

These molecules take the form of proteins (which are broken down into amino acids), fats, vitamins and minerals (the last of which are mainly ionic rather than molecular).

The different forms of emulsifier lecithin – powder, two different concentration liquids, granular and powder lecithin

Food additive

Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance taste, appearance, or other sensory qualities.

Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance taste, appearance, or other sensory qualities.

The different forms of emulsifier lecithin – powder, two different concentration liquids, granular and powder lecithin

Fortifying agents: Vitamins, minerals, and dietary supplements to increase the nutritional value

Casimir Funk

Kazimierz Funk (February 23, 1884 – November 19, 1967), commonly anglicized as Casimir Funk, was a Polish-American biochemist generally credited with being among the first to formulate (in 1912) the concept of vitamins, which he called "vital amines" or "vitamines".

The orange ring surrounding Grand Prismatic Spring is due to carotenoid molecules, produced by mats of cyanobacteria and other bacteria.

Carotenoid

Carotenoids, also called tetraterpenoids, are yellow, orange, and red organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria, and fungi.

Carotenoids, also called tetraterpenoids, are yellow, orange, and red organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria, and fungi.

The orange ring surrounding Grand Prismatic Spring is due to carotenoid molecules, produced by mats of cyanobacteria and other bacteria.
Macular pigments of the human eye
Pathway of carotenoid synthesis
The conversion of phytoene to lycopene in plants and cyanobacteria (left) differs compared to bacteria and fungi (right).
General structure of a carotenoid: polyene tail with double bonds, possible terminal rings
Gac fruit, rich in lycopene
Ingesting carotenoid-rich foods affects the plumage of flamingos.
Yellow and orange leaf colors in autumn are due to carotenoids, which are visible after chlorophyll degrades for the season.
Apricots, rich in carotenoids

The physiological absorption of these fat-soluble vitamins in humans and other organisms depends directly on the presence of fats and bile salts.

Amygdalin

Naturally occurring chemical compound found in many plants, most notably in the seeds (kernels) of apricots, bitter almonds, apples, peaches, cherries, and plums.

Naturally occurring chemical compound found in many plants, most notably in the seeds (kernels) of apricots, bitter almonds, apples, peaches, cherries, and plums.

Since the early 1950s, both amygdalin and a chemical derivative named Laetrile have been promoted as alternative cancer treatments, often under the misnomer vitamin B17 (neither amygdalin nor Laetrile is a vitamin).

Frederick Gowland Hopkins

Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins (20 June 1861 – 16 May 1947) was an English biochemist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1929, with Christiaan Eijkman, for the discovery of vitamins, even though Casimir Funk, a Polish biochemist, is widely credited with discovering vitamins.