Vitamin

A bottle of B-complex vitamin pills
Calcium combined with vitamin D (as calciferol) supplement tablets with fillers.
Jack Drummond's single-paragraph article in 1920 which provided structure and nomenclature used today for vitamins

Organic molecule that is an essential micronutrient which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism.

- Vitamin
A bottle of B-complex vitamin pills

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Umetaro Suzuki

Japanese scientist, born in what is now part of Makinohara, Shizuoka, Japan.

Japanese scientist, born in what is now part of Makinohara, Shizuoka, Japan.

His research was among the earliest of modern vitamin research.

Charles Glen King

Charles Glen King

American biochemist who was a pioneer in the field of nutrition research and who isolated vitamin C at the same time as Albert Szent-Györgyi.

American biochemist who was a pioneer in the field of nutrition research and who isolated vitamin C at the same time as Albert Szent-Györgyi.

Charles Glen King

From the outset of his graduate studies, the nascent field of vitamins interested him.

Gerty Cori and Carl Cori jointly won the Nobel Prize in 1947 for their discovery of the Cori cycle at RPMI.

Maximilian Nierenstein

Professor of biochemistry at the University of Bristol.

Professor of biochemistry at the University of Bristol.

Gerty Cori and Carl Cori jointly won the Nobel Prize in 1947 for their discovery of the Cori cycle at RPMI.

In 1912, Polish biochemist Casimir Funk isolated a complex of micronutrients and proposed the complex be named "vitamine" (a portmanteau of "vital amine"), a name reportedly suggested by friend Max Nierenstein.

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Brown rice

Whole grain rice with the inedible outer hull removed.

Whole grain rice with the inedible outer hull removed.

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Several vitamins and dietary minerals are lost in this removal and the subsequent polishing process.

A stovetop pressure cooker

Pressure cooking

Process of cooking food under high pressure steam, employing water or a water-based cooking liquid, in a sealed vessel known as a pressure cooker.

Process of cooking food under high pressure steam, employing water or a water-based cooking liquid, in a sealed vessel known as a pressure cooker.

A stovetop pressure cooker
A six-quart pressure cooker manufactured by Archibald Kenrick & Sons in England, circa 1890
Super cocotte décor SEB, 1973. Aluminium body, polyamide lacquered with an embossed aluminium lid and a stainless steel stirrup. On display at the Musée gallo-romain de Fourvière, Lyon. 18/10.
Second generation stove top pressure cooker with battery operated timer
Instant Pot DUO pressure cooker is an example of a third generation pressure cooker and has digital control of the cooking time and heat
The approximate vapor pressure of water as a function of temperature, or when viewed sideways, the boiling point of water as a function of pressure.
The regulator in this pressure cooker is a weight on a nozzle next to the handle on the lid.

Because of this, vitamins and minerals are not leached (dissolved) away by water, as they would be if food were boiled in large amounts of water.

Red cherries with stems

Cherry

"Cherry tree" and "cherry wood" redirect here.

"Cherry tree" and "cherry wood" redirect here.

Red cherries with stems
Prunus avium, sweet cherry (a true cherry species)
Prunus cerasus, sour cherry (a true cherry species)
Prunus tomentosa, Nanking cherry (a bush cherry species)
Prunus ilicifolia, hollyleaf cherry (a cherry laurel species)
Prunus serotina, black cherry (a bird cherry species)
The Cherry Seller, by Sara Troost (18th Century Netherlands)
Salvatore Postiglione Cherry time
Cherries with Monilinia laxa
Rainier cherries from the state of Washington, USA
Ripe sweet cherries in Tehran
Fresh Michigan cherries in a basket
Cherrywood desk of drawers
Germersdorfer variety cherry tree in blossom

As raw fruit, sweet cherries provide little nutrient content per 100 g serving, as only dietary fiber and vitamin C are present in moderate content, while other vitamins and dietary minerals each supply less than 10% of the Daily Value (DV) per serving, respectively (table).

Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, the metabolically active form of vitamin B6

Vitamin B6

One of the B vitamins, and thus an essential nutrient.

One of the B vitamins, and thus an essential nutrient.

Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, the metabolically active form of vitamin B6
Pyridoxine (PN)
Pyridoxamine (PM)
Pyridoxal (PL)
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Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin, one of the B vitamins.

Ginger section

Ginger

Flowering plant whose rhizome, ginger root or ginger, is widely used as a spice and a folk medicine.

Flowering plant whose rhizome, ginger root or ginger, is widely used as a spice and a folk medicine.

Ginger section
Ginger flower
Ginger field
Fresh ginger rhizome
Freshly washed ginger
Two varieties of ginger
Ginger plant with flower
Ginger flower about to bloom
Ginger flower stamen
Ginger crop, Myanmar
Chopped ginger
Gari, a type of pickled ginger
German ginger-flavored wine (grape-based) with stem ginger decoration

Numerous monoterpenes, amino acids, dietary fiber, protein, phytosterols, vitamins, and dietary minerals are other constituents.

Three different kinds of wheat and rye flour. From left to right: wheat flour Type 550 (all purpose flour), wheat flour Type 1050 (first clear flour), rye flour Type 1150

Flour

Powder made by grinding raw grains, roots, beans, nuts, or seeds.

Powder made by grinding raw grains, roots, beans, nuts, or seeds.

Three different kinds of wheat and rye flour. From left to right: wheat flour Type 550 (all purpose flour), wheat flour Type 1050 (first clear flour), rye flour Type 1150
All-purpose flour
Cassava flour (left) and corn flour (right) in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. These flours are basic ingredients for the cuisine of Central Africa.
Kinako
A field of unripe wheat
A Walz set of roller mills.
Flour being stored in large cloth sacks
A variety of types of flour and cereals sold at a bazaar in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan

As vitamins, micronutrients and amino acids were completely or relatively unknown in the late 19th century, removing the germ was an effective solution.

Starving Russian girl during the Russian famine of 1921–1922

Famine relief

Organized effort to reduce starvation in a region in which there is famine.

Organized effort to reduce starvation in a region in which there is famine.

Starving Russian girl during the Russian famine of 1921–1922

Plumpy'nut, Plumpy'doz, eeZeePaste RUTF: various ready-to-eat mixtures of peanut paste, milk powder, sugar, fats, minerals and vitamins, to be used as an alternative to F-100. The products come in ready-to-eat packets that require no water or mixing. They put parents or guardians in charge of feeding their own malnourished children in their own communities, rather than forcing them to always bring their malnourished children to hospitals or therapeutic feeding centers for assistance. The Wall Street Journal noted: "Nutritionists for the first time can take treatment beyond crowded emergency feeding centers and hospitals settings, where disease can spread rapidly, and into communities where malnourished children live."