Vitamin B3

A bottle of B-complex vitamin pills

Vitamin family that includes three forms or vitamers: nicotinamide , niacin (nicotinic acid), and nicotinamide riboside.

- Vitamin B3

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NAD+, the oxidized form of NADH, contains the nicotinamide moiety (highlighted in red)
The active Nicotinamide group on the molecule NAD+ undergoes oxidation in many metabolic pathways.

Niacinamide or Nicotinamide (NAM) is a form of vitamin B3 found in food and used as a dietary supplement and medication.


A man with pellagra, which is caused by a chronic lack of vitamin B3 in the diet
Niacin, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), and melatonin biosynthesis from tryptophan
Inositol hexanicotinate
Space-filling model of niacin

Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.

Nicotinamide riboside

Internal bond angles and bond distances (pm) for pyridine.

Nicotinamide riboside (NR, SR647) is a pyridine-nucleoside similar to vitamin B3, functioning as a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or NAD+.

Polyestradiol phosphate

Estrogen medication which is used primarily in the treatment of prostate cancer in men.

Estradiol, the active form of PEP.
SHBG levels with 1) i.m. injection of 320 mg PEP every 4 weeks; 2) i.m. injection of 320 mg PEP every 4 weeks plus 150 µg/day oral ethinylestradiol; 3) orchiectomy.
Availability of polyestradiol phosphate in countries throughout the world as of March 2018. Blue is currently marketed, green is formerly marketed.

PEP is provided in the form of powder or an aqueous solution in vials and ampoules alone or in combination with mepivacaine and/or nicotinamide (vitamin B3) for administration via intramuscular injection.

Angular cheilitis

Inflammation of one or both corners of the mouth.

Bilateral angular cheilitis in an elderly individual with false teeth, iron deficiency anemia and dry mouth
Angular cheilitis – a fissure running in the corner of the mouth with reddened, irritated facial skin adjacent.
A fairly mild case of angular cheilitis extending onto the facial skin in a young person (affected area is within the black oval).
A famous sketch by Leonardo da Vinci in preparation to depict the face of Judas Iscariot in The Last Supper. The subject shows overclosure of the jaws and loss of facial support around the mouth.
Pronounced skin folds extending from the corner of the mouth.
Patch test
Photographic Comparison of: 1) a Canker Sore - inside the mouth, 2) Herpes, 3) Angular Cheilitis and 4) Chapped Lips.

Vitamin B3 deficiency (pellagra) is another possible cause, and in which other association conditions such as dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia and glossitis can occur.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor

In the field of molecular biology, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a group of nuclear receptor proteins that function as transcription factors regulating the expression of genes.

PPAR -alpha and -gamma pathways.

Endogenous ligands for the PPARs include free fatty acids, eicosanoids and Vitamin B3.

White rice

Milled rice that has had its husk, bran, and germ removed.

Cooked white rice

Missing nutrients, such as vitamins B1 and B3, and iron, are sometimes added back into the white rice, a process called enrichment.


Preparation intended to serve as a dietary supplement with vitamins, dietary minerals, and other nutritional elements.

Multivitamins contain multiple micro-nutrients, such as vitamins and dietary minerals.
Centrum multivitamins produced by Pfizer, which were used in Physicians' Health Study II

Many multivitamin formulas contain vitamin C, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, B12, A, E, D2 (or D3), K, potassium, iodine, selenium, borate, zinc, calcium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, beta carotene, and/or iron.


Medication used to treat abnormal blood lipid levels.

Hypertriglyceridemia (Type IV): Gemfibrozil, though not as effective as niacin (nicotinic acid, a form of Vitamin B3), is better tolerated.

Cleavage (breasts)

Narrow depression or hollow between the breasts of a woman.

A woman's cleavage
Jane Russell in The Outlaw (1943). Director Howard Hughes' overemphasizing of her cleavage prompted the MPAA to take actions against the film and make the first use of the term cleavage in association with breasts. Hughes and Russell are considered pioneers of exaggerated cleavage in movies. For the film, Hughes designed a prototype for an underwire bra to give Russell "five and one-quarter inches" long cleavage.
women of Mali do not consider breasts to be sexual
Muslim women are required to cover their bosoms.
Fertility ratings as a function of breast size and intermammary cleft distance
Swelling of the posterior is a sign of mating-readiness in most ape species. Among humans the upright posture reduces visibility of the buttocks, while the breasts are significantly enlarged. This evolution may have shifted the signs mating-readiness and attractiveness, from swagging buttocks (sometimes including color) to pendulous breasts.
Courtiers in China during Tang dynasty (circa 706), when the décolletage was quite liberal. 2014 Chinese TV series The Empress of China was briefly pulled off-air for showing the abundance of cleavage in Tang courts.
Rajput painting of Chitrashala Dancer from Bundi (circa 1640s) showing exposed underboob, which remained banned by laws and policies as late as 2020 in many places from the U.S. to Thailand
Portrait of Hughes, with breast exposed, c. 1670 by Peter Lely
Anne of Austria, Queen of France, was an early 17th century fashion icon wearing dresses that showcased her cleavage.
Detail of Portrait of Madame X (1884) by John Singer Sargent, whose cleavage caused enough controversy for Sargent to re-paint and make the cleavage less daring.
Lais Ribeiro at a Victoria's Secret fashion show. Lingerie manufacturers controlled and constructed the mandatory bustline of the 1990s. In their heyday, Wonderbra sponsored a National Cleavage Day in South Africa every year, and the webcast of the Victoria's Secret fashion show became one of the Internet's biggest events.
Canadian government industry statistics (during the period sales figures were compiled by Industry Canada), panties were considered "lingerie," rather than so-called "foundation undergarments" and are not part of this data set.
Modern corset
Cotton and silk bust improver, circa 1890
Breasts before and after mammaplasty, with scars visible
Male bra

Products routinely used on the face, including vitamin A, vitamin B3, and vitamin C, masks, cleansers, moisturizers, and exfoliators, are also applied to the cleavage, though products specifically designed for the cleavage and neck and also available.