Volcanic gas

gasgasesgaseous contentexsolvedgas bubblesgas fumeshot gasessulphurous gasestoxic gas inhalationvolcanic discharge
Volcanic gases are gases given off by active (or, at times, by dormant) volcanoes.wikipedia
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Volcano

volcanicvolcanoesextinct volcano
Volcanic gases are gases given off by active (or, at times, by dormant) volcanoes.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

Magma

magmaticmeltmagmas
These include gases trapped in cavities (vesicles) in volcanic rocks, dissolved or dissociated gases in magma and lava, or gases emanating directly from lava or indirectly through ground water heated by volcanic action.
Besides molten rock, magma may also contain suspended crystals and gas bubbles.

Hydrogen sulfide

hydrogen sulphideH 2 SH2S
The principal components of volcanic gases are water vapor (H 2 O), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), sulfur either as sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) (high-temperature volcanic gases) or hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) (low-temperature volcanic gases), nitrogen, argon, helium, neon, methane, carbon monoxide and hydrogen.
also occurs in volcanic gases, natural gas, and in some sources of well water.

Lava

lava flowlava flowspahoehoe
These include gases trapped in cavities (vesicles) in volcanic rocks, dissolved or dissociated gases in magma and lava, or gases emanating directly from lava or indirectly through ground water heated by volcanic action.
tends to entrap gas, which form vesicles (bubbles) within the rock as they rise to the surface

Water vapor

water vapourvaporevaporation
The principal components of volcanic gases are water vapor (H 2 O), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), sulfur either as sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) (high-temperature volcanic gases) or hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) (low-temperature volcanic gases), nitrogen, argon, helium, neon, methane, carbon monoxide and hydrogen.
However, water vapor is consistently the commonest volcanic gas; as a rule, it comprises more than 60% of total emissions during a subaerial eruption.

Gas

gasesgaseousg
These include gases trapped in cavities (vesicles) in volcanic rocks, dissolved or dissociated gases in magma and lava, or gases emanating directly from lava or indirectly through ground water heated by volcanic action.
Volcanic gas

Types of volcanic eruptions

volcanic eruptioneruptionvolcanic eruptions
In explosive volcanic eruptions, the sudden release of gases from magma may cause rapid movements of the molten rock.
Hawaiian eruptions are the calmest types of volcanic events, characterized by the effusive eruption of very fluid basalt-type lavas with low gaseous content.

Volcanic sublimate

sublimatesublimationmineral sublimates
At sites of advective gas loss, precipitation of sulfur and rare minerals forms sulfur deposits and small sulfur chimneys, called fumaroles.
A volcanic sublimate or fumarolic sublimate is a mineral which forms directly from volcanic gas, by the process of deposition, during an eruption or discharge from a volcanic vent or fumarole.

Multi-component gas analyzer system

Multi-GAS
The Multi-Component Gas Analyzer System (Multi-GAS) is also used to remotely measure CO 2 and SO 2 . The fluxes of other gases are usually estimated by measuring the ratios of different gases within the volcanic plume, e.g. by FTIR, electrochemical sensors at the volcano crater rim, or direct sampling, and multiplying the ratio of the gas of interest to SO 2 by the SO 2 flux.
A multi-component gas analyzer system (Multi-GAS) is an instrument package used to take real-time high-resolution measurements of volcanic gas plumes.

Mofetta

mofettemofettes
Sites of cold degassing of predominantly carbon dioxide are called mofettes.
Mofetta (Italian from Latin mephītis, a pestilential exhalation), is a name applied to a volcanic discharge consisting chiefly of carbon dioxide, often associated with other vapours, representing the final phase of volcanic activity.

Volcano observatory

Volcanic gas monitoring is a standard tool of any volcano observatory.
Each observatory provides continuous and periodic monitoring of the seismicity, other geophysical changes, ground movements, volcanic gas chemistry, and hydrologic conditions and activity between and during eruptions.

Harmonic tremor

volcanic tremorearthquake sequenceearthquakes of increasing intensity
Used in conjunction with monitoring data on seismicity and deformation, correlative monitoring gains great efficiency.
A harmonic tremor is a sustained release of seismic and infrasonic energy typically associated with the underground movement of magma, the venting of volcanic gases from magma, or both.

Scipione Breislak

Volcanic gases were collected and analysed as long ago as 1790 by Scipione Breislak in Italy.
Breislak was a pioneer in the collection and analysis of volcanic gas.

Vesicular texture

vesicularvesiclesvesicle
These include gases trapped in cavities (vesicles) in volcanic rocks, dissolved or dissociated gases in magma and lava, or gases emanating directly from lava or indirectly through ground water heated by volcanic action.

Volcanic rock

volcaniclava rockvolcanic rocks
These include gases trapped in cavities (vesicles) in volcanic rocks, dissolved or dissociated gases in magma and lava, or gases emanating directly from lava or indirectly through ground water heated by volcanic action.

Hydrothermal circulation

hydrothermalepithermalhydrothermal fluid
These include gases trapped in cavities (vesicles) in volcanic rocks, dissolved or dissociated gases in magma and lava, or gases emanating directly from lava or indirectly through ground water heated by volcanic action.

Mantle (geology)

mantleupper mantleEarth's mantle
primordial and recycled constituents from the Earth's mantle,

Crust (geology)

crustEarth's crustcrustal
assimilated constituents from the Earth's crust,

Groundwater

ground waterunderground waterground
groundwater and the Earth's atmosphere.

Carbon dioxide

CO 2 CO2carbon dioxide (CO 2 )
The principal components of volcanic gases are water vapor (H 2 O), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), sulfur either as sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) (high-temperature volcanic gases) or hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) (low-temperature volcanic gases), nitrogen, argon, helium, neon, methane, carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Sites of cold degassing of predominantly carbon dioxide are called mofettes.

Sulfur dioxide

sulphur dioxideSO 2 SO2
The principal components of volcanic gases are water vapor (H 2 O), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), sulfur either as sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) (high-temperature volcanic gases) or hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) (low-temperature volcanic gases), nitrogen, argon, helium, neon, methane, carbon monoxide and hydrogen.

Nitrogen

NN 2 dinitrogen
The principal components of volcanic gases are water vapor (H 2 O), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), sulfur either as sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) (high-temperature volcanic gases) or hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) (low-temperature volcanic gases), nitrogen, argon, helium, neon, methane, carbon monoxide and hydrogen.

Argon

Arargon gas 40 Ar
The principal components of volcanic gases are water vapor (H 2 O), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), sulfur either as sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) (high-temperature volcanic gases) or hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) (low-temperature volcanic gases), nitrogen, argon, helium, neon, methane, carbon monoxide and hydrogen.

Helium

Hesuperfluid heliumhelium II
The principal components of volcanic gases are water vapor (H 2 O), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), sulfur either as sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) (high-temperature volcanic gases) or hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) (low-temperature volcanic gases), nitrogen, argon, helium, neon, methane, carbon monoxide and hydrogen.

Neon

Neneon gas 21 Ne
The principal components of volcanic gases are water vapor (H 2 O), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), sulfur either as sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) (high-temperature volcanic gases) or hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) (low-temperature volcanic gases), nitrogen, argon, helium, neon, methane, carbon monoxide and hydrogen.