Volcano

volcanicvolcanoesextinct volcanovolcanic activityvolcanic igneous activityextinctdormantdormant volcanoactive volcanovolcanic vent
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.wikipedia
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Volcanic gas

gasgasesgaseous content
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Volcanic gases are gases given off by active (or, at times, by dormant) volcanoes.

Volcanic ash

ashash cloudash fall
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. Vents that issue volcanic material (including lava and ash) and gases (mainly steam and magmatic gases) can develop anywhere on the landform and may give rise to smaller cones such as Puu Ōō on a flank of Hawaii's Kīlauea.
Volcanic ash consists of fragments of pulverized rock, minerals and volcanic glass, created during volcanic eruptions and measuring less than 2 mm (0.079 inches) in diameter.

Hotspot (geology)

hotspothotspotshot spot
These so-called "hotspots", for example Hawaii, are postulated to arise from upwelling diapirs with magma from the core–mantle boundary, 3,000 km deep in the Earth.
In geology, the places known as hotspots or hot spots are volcanic regions thought to be fed by underlying mantle that is anomalously hot compared with the surrounding mantle.

Ring of Fire

Pacific Ring of Firecircum-Pacific orogenic beltPacific Rim
For example, a mid-oceanic ridge, such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates whereas the Pacific Ring of Fire has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates.
It has 452 volcanoes (more than 75% of the world's active and dormant volcanoes).

Planet

planetsFormer classification of planetsplanetary-mass object
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Since the dawn of the Space Age, close observation by space probes has found that Earth and the other planets share characteristics such as volcanism, hurricanes, tectonics, and even hydrology.

Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field

Volcanoes can also form where there is stretching and thinning of the crust's plates, e.g., in the East African Rift and the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and Rio Grande Rift in North America.
As a monogenetic volcanic field, it is a place with numerous small basaltic volcanoes and extensive lava flows.

Magma chamber

chambermagma reservoirmagmatic systems
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
If it finds its way to the surface, then the result will be a volcanic eruption; consequently, many volcanoes are situated over magma chambers.

Aeolian Islands

Aeolian archipelagoAeolian islandLipari Islands
The word volcano is derived from the name of Vulcano, a volcanic island in the Aeolian Islands of Italy whose name in turn comes from Vulcan, the god of fire in Roman mythology.
The Aeolian Islands (Isole Eolie, Ìsuli Eoli, Αιολίδες Νήσοι, Aiolides Nisoi) are a volcanic archipelago in the Tyrrhenian Sea north of Sicily, named after the demigod of the winds Aeolus.

Vulcan (mythology)

VulcanVolcanusVulcanus
The word volcano is derived from the name of Vulcano, a volcanic island in the Aeolian Islands of Italy whose name in turn comes from Vulcan, the god of fire in Roman mythology.
Vulcan (Latin: Volcānus or Vulcānus;, ) is the god of fire including the fire of volcanoes, metalworking, and the forge in ancient Roman religion and myth.

Volcanology

volcanologistsvolcanologistvulcanology
The study of volcanoes is called volcanology, sometimes spelled vulcanology.
Volcanology (also spelled vulcanology) is the study of volcanoes, lava, magma, and related geological, geophysical and geochemical phenomena.

Earth

terrestrialworldGlobal
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Earth's atmosphere and oceans were formed by volcanic activity and outgassing.

Volcanic winter

cold summercool the planetcooled the atmosphere
Historically, volcanic winters have caused catastrophic famines.
A volcanic winter is a reduction in global temperatures caused by volcanic ash and droplets of sulfuric acid and water obscuring the Sun and raising Earth's albedo (increasing the reflection of solar radiation) after a large, particularly explosive volcanic eruption.

Plate tectonics

tectonic platetectonic platesplate tectonic
Earth's volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major, rigid tectonic plates that float on a hotter, softer layer in its mantle.
Earthquakes, volcanic activity, mountain-building, and oceanic trench formation occur along these plate boundaries (or faults).

Yellowstone Caldera

YellowstonecalderaYellowstone supervolcano
The Hawaiian Islands are said to have been formed in such a manner; so has the Snake River Plain, with the Yellowstone Caldera being the part of the North American plate above the hot spot.
The Yellowstone Caldera is a volcanic caldera and supervolcano in Yellowstone National Park in the Western United States, sometimes referred to as the Yellowstone Supervolcano. The caldera and most of the park are located in the northwest corner of Wyoming.

Lava dome

lava domesdomecryptodome
Some volcanoes have rugged peaks formed by lava domes rather than a summit crater while others have landscape features such as massive plateaus.
In volcanology, a lava dome or volcanic dome is a roughly circular mound-shaped protrusion resulting from the slow extrusion of viscous lava from a volcano.

Lassen Peak

Mount LassenMt. Lassen1915 volcanic eruption
They are sometimes formed within the crater of a previous volcanic eruption, as in the case of Mount Saint Helens, but can also form independently, as in the case of Lassen Peak.
Lassen Peak, commonly referred to as Mount Lassen, is the southernmost active volcano in the Cascade Range of the Western United States.

Plateau

plateaushigh plateaumountain plateau
Some volcanoes have rugged peaks formed by lava domes rather than a summit crater while others have landscape features such as massive plateaus.
Plateaus can be formed by a number of processes, including upwelling of volcanic magma, extrusion of lava, and erosion by water and glaciers.

Mud volcano

mud volcanoesmud-volcanosedimentary volcanism
Other types of volcano include cryovolcanoes (or ice volcanoes), particularly on some moons of Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune; and mud volcanoes, which are formations often not associated with known magmatic activity.
Mud volcanoes are not true igneous volcanoes as they do not produce lava and are not necessarily driven by magmatic activity.

Parícutin

ParacutinParícutin volcano
Parícutin in Mexico and Sunset Crater in Arizona are examples of cinder cones.
Parícutin (or Volcán de Parícutin, also accented Paricutín) is a cinder cone volcano located in the Mexican state of Michoacán, near the city of Uruapan and about 322 km west of Mexico City.

Monogenetic volcanic field

monogeneticmonogenetic volcanomonogenetic volcanoes
Most cinder cones erupt only once.
A monogenetic volcanic field is a type of volcanic field consisting of a group of small monogenetic volcanoes, each of which erupts only once, as opposed to polygenetic volcanoes, which erupt repeatedly over a period of time.

Mayon

Mt. MayonMayon VolcanoMayon Eruption
Classic examples include Mount Fuji in Japan, Mayon Volcano in the Philippines, and Mount Vesuvius and Stromboli in Italy.
Mayon (Bulkan Mayon, Monte Mayón), also known as Mayon Volcano or Mount Mayon, is an active stratovolcano in the province of Albay in Bicol Region, on the large island of Luzon in the Philippines.

Puʻu ʻŌʻō

Puu ŌōPu'u 'O'oPuu Oo Crater
Vents that issue volcanic material (including lava and ash) and gases (mainly steam and magmatic gases) can develop anywhere on the landform and may give rise to smaller cones such as Puu Ōō on a flank of Hawaii's Kīlauea.
Puu Ōō (often written Puu Oo, poo-oo oh-oh) is a volcanic cone in the eastern rift zone of the Kīlauea volcano of the Hawaiian Islands.

Magma

magmaticmeltmagmas
In a process called flux melting, water released from the subducting plate lowers the melting temperature of the overlying mantle wedge, thus creating magma.
Following their ascent through the crust, magmas may feed a volcano or solidify underground to form an intrusion (e.g., an igneous dike or a sill).

Volcanic field

caldera complexesvolcanic areavolcanic fields
In New Mexico, Caja del Rio is a volcanic field of over 60 cinder cones.
A volcanic field is an area of the Earth's crust that is prone to localized volcanic activity.

Mount Fuji

Mt. FujiFujiFujisan
Classic examples include Mount Fuji in Japan, Mayon Volcano in the Philippines, and Mount Vesuvius and Stromboli in Italy.
It is a dormant stratovolcano that last erupted in 1707–1708.