Volta Laboratory and Bureau

Volta LaboratoryVolta BureauVolta Laboratory AssociationBell LaboratoryVolta Graphophone CompanyVolta AssociatesVolta Laboratory-Sound recording
The Volta Laboratory (also known as the "Alexander Graham Bell Laboratory", the "Bell Carriage House" and the "Bell Laboratory") and the Volta Bureau were created in Georgetown, Washington, D.C.wikipedia
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Georgetown (Washington, D.C.)

GeorgetownGeorgetown, Washington, D.C.Georgetown, D.C.
The Volta Laboratory (also known as the "Alexander Graham Bell Laboratory", the "Bell Carriage House" and the "Bell Laboratory") and the Volta Bureau were created in Georgetown, Washington, D.C. by Alexander Graham Bell.
Georgetown is home to the main campus of Georgetown University and numerous other landmarks, such as the Volta Bureau and the Old Stone House, the oldest unchanged building in Washington.

Phonograph

turntablesgramophoneturntable
The Volta Laboratory was founded in 1880–1881 with Charles Sumner Tainter and Bell's cousin, Chichester Bell, for the research and development of telecommunication, phonograph and other technologies. "... as well as several other important, and commercially decisive improvements to the phonograph, during which they created the tradename for one of their products – the Graphophone (a playful transposition of phonograph)." The experimental machines built at the Volta Laboratory include both disc and cylinder types, with some of the disc type turntables rotating vertically about a horizontal axis, as well as a hand-powered, non-magnetic tape recorder.
Alexander Graham Bell's Volta Laboratory made several improvements in the 1880s and introduced the graphophone, including the use of wax-coated cardboard cylinders and a cutting stylus that moved from side to side in a zigzag groove around the record.

Alexander Graham Bell

BellGraham BellAlexander Bell
The Volta Laboratory (also known as the "Alexander Graham Bell Laboratory", the "Bell Carriage House" and the "Bell Laboratory") and the Volta Bureau were created in Georgetown, Washington, D.C. by Alexander Graham Bell.
In 1893, Keller performed the sod-breaking ceremony for the construction of Bell's new Volta Bureau, dedicated to "the increase and diffusion of knowledge relating to the deaf".

Columbia Records

ColumbiaCBSCBS Records
In 1887, the Volta Laboratory Association transferred the sound recording and phonograph invention patents they had been granted to the American Graphophone Company (later to evolve into Columbia Records).
It was founded in 1887, evolving from the American Graphophone Company, the successor to the Volta Graphophone Company.

Chichester Bell

Chester BellChichester A. Bell
The Volta Laboratory was founded in 1880–1881 with Charles Sumner Tainter and Bell's cousin, Chichester Bell, for the research and development of telecommunication, phonograph and other technologies.
Prior to moving to Washington, D.C. to join his cousin Alexander Graham Bell's Volta Laboratory, Chichester was Assistant Professor of Chemistry, University College London.

Charles Sumner Tainter

Charles TainterSumner Tainter[Charles Sumner] Tainter
The Volta Laboratory was founded in 1880–1881 with Charles Sumner Tainter and Bell's cousin, Chichester Bell, for the research and development of telecommunication, phonograph and other technologies.
A year later Bell called Tainter to what would become his Volta Laboratory in Washington, D.C., where he would work for the next several years.

Photophone

transmit sound
* the Photophone – an optical, wireless telephone, the precursor to fiber-optic communications (February 1880);
It was invented jointly by Alexander Graham Bell and his assistant Charles Sumner Tainter on February 19, 1880, at Bell's laboratory at 1325 L Street in Washington, D.C. Both were later to become full associates in the Volta Laboratory Association, created and financed by Bell.

Fiber-optic communication

fiber-opticfiber optic communicationsfiber-optic network
* the Photophone – an optical, wireless telephone, the precursor to fiber-optic communications (February 1880);
In 1880 Alexander Graham Bell and his assistant Charles Sumner Tainter created a very early precursor to fiber-optic communications, the Photophone, at Bell's newly established Volta Laboratory in Washington, D.C. Bell considered it his most important invention.

Graphophone

American Graphophone CompanyBerliner Gram-O-PhoneEdison's advanced commercial version
"... as well as several other important, and commercially decisive improvements to the phonograph, during which they created the tradename for one of their products – the Graphophone (a playful transposition of phonograph)."
It was invented at the Volta Laboratory established by Alexander Graham Bell in Washington, D.C., United States.

Volta Prize

prix du Galvanisme
In 1879, Bell and his wife Mabel Hubbard, who had been deaf from early childhood, moved to Washington, D.C. The following year, the French government awarded Bell the Volta Prize of 50,000 francs (approximately US$0 in current dollars) for the invention of the telephone.
Since Bell was himself becoming more affluent, he used the prize money to create institutions in and around Washington, D.C., including the prestigious Volta Laboratory Association in 1880 (also known as the 'Volta Laboratory' and as the 'Alexander Graham Bell Laboratory') precursor to Bell Labs, with his endowment fund (the 'Volta Fund'), and then in 1887 the 'Volta Bureau', which later became the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing (AG Bell).

Phonograph cylinder

wax cylinderwax cylinderscylinder
The experimental machines built at the Volta Laboratory include both disc and cylinder types, with some of the disc type turntables rotating vertically about a horizontal axis, as well as a hand-powered, non-magnetic tape recorder.
Following seven years of research and experimentation at their Volta Laboratory, Charles Sumner Tainter, Alexander Graham Bell and Chichester Bell introduced wax as the recording medium and engraving, rather than indenting, as the recording method.

Tape recorder

audio tapetape machineaudiotape
The experimental machines built at the Volta Laboratory include both disc and cylinder types, with some of the disc type turntables rotating vertically about a horizontal axis, as well as a hand-powered, non-magnetic tape recorder.
The earliest known audio tape recorder was a non-magnetic, non-electric version invented by Alexander Graham Bell's Volta Laboratory and patented in 1886.

Alexander Melville Bell

Bell's fatherBell, Alexander MelvilleMelville Bell
In 1889, Bell and his family moved from their Brodhead-Bell mansion to a new home close to his father, Alexander Melville Bell.
In 1887, his son, Alexander Graham Bell, sold off the intellectual assets owned by the Volta Laboratory Association.

Visible Speech

an ingenious iconic phonetic alphabetBell's Visible Speechphonetic alphabet
In 1895 Bell's father, noted philologist and elocutionist Alexander Melville Bell, who had authored over 45 publications on elocution, the use of visible speech for the deaf and similar related subjects, assigned all his publication copyrights to the Volta Bureau for its financial benefit.
The money he earned from his patent of the telephone and the sale of his Volta Laboratory patents helped him to pursue this mission.

Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing

AAPTSDAG Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of HearingAlexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf
It was renamed as the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf in 1956 and then the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing in 1999.
In 1908 it merged with Alexander Graham Bell's Volta Bureau (founded in 1887 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge relating to the deaf"), and was renamed as the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf in 1956 at the suggestion of Mrs. Frances Toms, the mother of a deaf son who was able to achieve high academic standings in normal non-deaf schools with the organization's help.

Dictation machine

voice recorderdigital dictationdictation
The Graphophone was originally intended for business use as a dictation recording and playback machine.
They began their work at Bell's Volta Laboratory in Washington, D.C., in 1879, and continued until they were granted basic patents in 1886 for recording in wax.

Dictaphone

Dictaphone CorporationDictaphonesThe Dictaphone Co.
It was formed to control the patents and to handle the commercial development of their numerous sound recording and reproduction inventions, one of which became the first dictation machine, the 'Dictaphone'.
The Volta Laboratory was established by Alexander Graham Bell in Washington, D.C. in 1881.

Peabody and Stearns

Peabody & StearnsPeabody, Stearns & FurberPeabody, Stearns and Furber
The building, a neoclassical Corinthian templum in antis structure of closely matching golden yellow sandstone and Roman brick with architectural terracotta details, was built in 1893 to a design by Peabody and Stearns of Boston.
* Volta Bureau, 3414 Volta Pl. NW, Washington, D.C. (1893)

Gardiner Greene Hubbard

Gardiner HubbardGardiner Green HubbardGardiner G. Hubbard
According to Sumner Tainter, it was due to Gardiner Green Hubbard that Bell took an interest in the emerging field of phonograph technology.
These improvements were invented by Alexander Bell's cousin Chester Bell, a chemist, and Charles Sumner Tainter, an optical instrument maker, at Alexander Graham Bell's Volta Laboratory in Washington, D.C. Hubbard and Chester Bell approached Edison about combining their interests, but Edison refused, resulting in the Volta Laboratory Association merging the shares of their Volta Graphophone Company with the company that later evolved into Columbia Records in 1886.

Bell Labs

Bell LaboratoriesBell Telephone LaboratoriesAT&T Bell Laboratories
In 1880, when the French government awarded Alexander Graham Bell the Volta Prize of 50,000 francs (approximately US$10,000 at that time; about $0 in January 2019's dollars) for the invention of the telephone, he used the award to fund the Volta Laboratory (Alexander Graham Bell Laboratory) in Washington, D.C. in collaboration with Sumner Tainter and Bell's cousin Chichester Bell.

IRENE (technology)

IRENE
On April 23, 2013, the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History, which houses a collection of Volta Laboratory materials, announced that one of its fragile Volta experimental sound recordings, a deteriorated wax-on-cardboard disc that can now be played safely by the IRENE optical scanning technology, had preserved the inventor's Scottish-tinged voice.

Research and development

R&DResearch & DevelopmentR & D
The Volta Laboratory was founded in 1880–1881 with Charles Sumner Tainter and Bell's cousin, Chichester Bell, for the research and development of telecommunication, phonograph and other technologies.

Telecommunication

telecommunicationscommunicationstelecom
The Volta Laboratory was founded in 1880–1881 with Charles Sumner Tainter and Bell's cousin, Chichester Bell, for the research and development of telecommunication, phonograph and other technologies.

National Historic Landmark

National Historic Landmark DistrictNational Historic LandmarksNational Historical Landmark
The current building, a U.S. National Historic Landmark, was constructed in 1893 under the direction of Alexander Graham Bell to serve as a center of information for deaf and hard of hearing persons.