Voltaic pile

dry pilechemical batteryvoltaic cellvoltaic currentcopper-zinc batteryelectric batteryelectric columnelectric pileElectrical Battery Inventionfirst electrical battery
The voltaic pile was the first electrical battery that could continuously provide an electric current to a circuit.wikipedia
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Electric battery

batterybatteriesbattery-powered
The voltaic pile was the first electrical battery that could continuously provide an electric current to a circuit.
Italian physicist Alessandro Volta built and described the first electrochemical battery, the voltaic pile, in 1800.

Alessandro Volta

VoltaVolta, AlessandroAllessandro Volta
It was invented by Italian physicist Alessandro Volta, who published his experiments in 1799.
He invented the Voltaic pile in 1799, and reported the results of his experiments in 1800 in a two-part letter to the President of the Royal Society.

Electrolysis of water

water electrolysiselectrolysisoxidation of water
The voltaic pile then enabled a rapid series of other discoveries including the electrical decomposition (electrolysis) of water into oxygen and hydrogen by William Nicholson and Anthony Carlisle (1800) and the discovery or isolation of the chemical elements sodium (1807), potassium (1807), calcium (1808), boron (1808), barium (1808), strontium (1808), and magnesium (1808) by Humphry Davy.
In 1800 Alessandro Volta invented the voltaic pile, and a few weeks later William Nicholson and Anthony Carlisle used it for the electrolysis of water.

Potassium

KK + potassium ion
The voltaic pile then enabled a rapid series of other discoveries including the electrical decomposition (electrolysis) of water into oxygen and hydrogen by William Nicholson and Anthony Carlisle (1800) and the discovery or isolation of the chemical elements sodium (1807), potassium (1807), calcium (1808), boron (1808), barium (1808), strontium (1808), and magnesium (1808) by Humphry Davy.
Potassium metal was first isolated in 1807 by Sir Humphry Davy, who derived it from caustic potash (KOH, potassium hydroxide) by electrolysis of molten KOH with the newly discovered voltaic pile.

Daniell cell

Daniel batteryDaniellDaniell galvanic cell
The entire 19th century electrical industry was powered by batteries related to Volta's (e.g. the Daniell cell and Grove cell) until the advent of the dynamo (the electrical generator) in the 1870s.
He was searching for a way to eliminate the hydrogen bubble problem found in the voltaic pile, and his solution was to use a second electrolyte to consume the hydrogen produced by the first.

Anthony Carlisle

CarlisleSir Anthony Carlisle
The voltaic pile then enabled a rapid series of other discoveries including the electrical decomposition (electrolysis) of water into oxygen and hydrogen by William Nicholson and Anthony Carlisle (1800) and the discovery or isolation of the chemical elements sodium (1807), potassium (1807), calcium (1808), boron (1808), barium (1808), strontium (1808), and magnesium (1808) by Humphry Davy.
In 1800, he and William Nicholson discovered electrolysis by passing a voltaic current through water, decomposing it into its constituent elements of hydrogen and oxygen.

William Nicholson (chemist)

William NicholsonNicholsonNicholson, William
The voltaic pile then enabled a rapid series of other discoveries including the electrical decomposition (electrolysis) of water into oxygen and hydrogen by William Nicholson and Anthony Carlisle (1800) and the discovery or isolation of the chemical elements sodium (1807), potassium (1807), calcium (1808), boron (1808), barium (1808), strontium (1808), and magnesium (1808) by Humphry Davy.
In May 1800 he with Anthony Carlisle discovered electrolysis, the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen by voltaic current.

Humphry Davy

Sir Humphry DavyDavySir Humphry Davy, Bt
The voltaic pile then enabled a rapid series of other discoveries including the electrical decomposition (electrolysis) of water into oxygen and hydrogen by William Nicholson and Anthony Carlisle (1800) and the discovery or isolation of the chemical elements sodium (1807), potassium (1807), calcium (1808), boron (1808), barium (1808), strontium (1808), and magnesium (1808) by Humphry Davy. Sir Humphry Davy and Andrew Crosse were among the first to develop large voltaic piles. Humphry Davy showed that the electromotive force, which drives the electric current through a circuit containing a single voltaic cell, was caused by a chemical reaction, not by the voltage difference between the two metals.
Davy was a pioneer in the field of electrolysis using the voltaic pile to split common compounds and thus prepare many new elements.

Luigi Galvani

GalvaniGalvani, LuigiAloysius Galvani
Volta's invention built on Luigi Galvani's 1780s discovery of how a circuit of two metals and a frog's leg can cause the frog's leg to respond.
Volta's “pile” became known therefore as a voltaic pile.

Zinc

ZnZn 2+ zinc alloy
In 1800, Volta stacked several pairs of alternating copper (or silver) and zinc discs (electrodes) separated by cloth or cardboard soaked in brine (electrolyte) to increase the electrolyte conductivity.
Galvani's friend, Alessandro Volta, continued researching the effect and invented the Voltaic pile in 1800.

William Hyde Wollaston

WollastonHyde WollastonW. H. Wollaston
William Hyde Wollaston showed that electricity from voltaic piles had identical effects to those of electricity produced by friction.
In 1801, he performed an experiment showing that the electricity from friction was identical to that produced by voltaic piles.

Electric arc

arcingarcarc discharge
In 1802 Vasily Petrov used voltaic piles in the discovery and research of electric arc effects.
The first continuous arc was discovered independently in 1802 and described in 1803 as a "special fluid with electrical properties", by Vasily V. Petrov, a Russian scientist experimenting with a copper-zinc battery consisting of 4200 discs.

Andrew Crosse

Sir Humphry Davy and Andrew Crosse were among the first to develop large voltaic piles.
Along with Sir Humphry Davy (who visited Fyne Court in 1827), Crosse was one of the first to develop large voltaic piles.

Electricity

electricalelectricelectrically
Volta demonstrated in 1794 that when two metals and brine-soaked cloth or cardboard are arranged in a circuit they produce an electric current.
Alessandro Volta's battery, or voltaic pile, of 1800, made from alternating layers of zinc and copper, provided scientists with a more reliable source of electrical energy than the electrostatic machines previously used.

Contact electrification

contact tensioncontact potentialcontact electricity
Alessandro Volta's theory of contact tension considered that the emf, which drives the electric current through a circuit containing a voltaic cell, occurs at the contact between the two metals.
Then it was discovered that 'piles' of dissimilar metal disks separated by acid-soaked cloth, Voltaic piles, could also produce charge differences.

Michael Faraday

FaradayFaraday, MichaelSir Michael Faraday
Expanding on Volta's work and the electro-magnetism work of his mentor Humphry Davy, Michael Faraday utilized both magnets and the voltaic pile in his experiments with electricity.
His first recorded experiment was the construction of a voltaic pile with seven ha'penny coins, stacked together with seven disks of sheet zinc, and six pieces of paper moistened with salt water.

Francis Ronalds

Sir Francis RonaldsRonalds
Francis Ronalds in 1814 was one of the first to realise that dry piles also worked through chemical reaction rather than metal to metal contact, even though corrosion was not visible due to the very small currents generated.
He published his first papers in the Philosophical Magazine in 1814 on the properties of the dry pile, a form of battery that his mentor Jean-André Deluc helped to develop.

Johann Wilhelm Ritter

Johann RitterRitter, Johann Wilhelm
The first to publish was Johann Wilhelm Ritter in 1802, albeit in an obscure journal, but over the next decade, it was announced repeatedly as a new discovery.
In 1800, shortly after the invention of the voltaic pile, William Nicholson and Anthony Carlisle discovered that water could be decomposed by electricity.

Electromotive force

EMFelectromotive force (EMF)
Humphry Davy showed that the electromotive force, which drives the electric current through a circuit containing a single voltaic cell, was caused by a chemical reaction, not by the voltage difference between the two metals.
Voltaic pile

Vasily Vladimirovich Petrov

Vasily Petrov
In 1802 Vasily Petrov used voltaic piles in the discovery and research of electric arc effects.
In 1802, Petrov discovered the electric arc effect, thanks to his building the world's largest and most powerful Voltaic pile at the time, which consisted of around 4,200 copper and zinc discs.

Zamboni pile

dry pile
One form of dry pile is the Zamboni pile.
*Voltaic pile

Sodium

NaNa + sodium ion
The voltaic pile then enabled a rapid series of other discoveries including the electrical decomposition (electrolysis) of water into oxygen and hydrogen by William Nicholson and Anthony Carlisle (1800) and the discovery or isolation of the chemical elements sodium (1807), potassium (1807), calcium (1808), boron (1808), barium (1808), strontium (1808), and magnesium (1808) by Humphry Davy.

Calcium

CaCa 2+ calcium ion
The voltaic pile then enabled a rapid series of other discoveries including the electrical decomposition (electrolysis) of water into oxygen and hydrogen by William Nicholson and Anthony Carlisle (1800) and the discovery or isolation of the chemical elements sodium (1807), potassium (1807), calcium (1808), boron (1808), barium (1808), strontium (1808), and magnesium (1808) by Humphry Davy.

Boron

Bboron-10 10 B
The voltaic pile then enabled a rapid series of other discoveries including the electrical decomposition (electrolysis) of water into oxygen and hydrogen by William Nicholson and Anthony Carlisle (1800) and the discovery or isolation of the chemical elements sodium (1807), potassium (1807), calcium (1808), boron (1808), barium (1808), strontium (1808), and magnesium (1808) by Humphry Davy.