Voltaire

VoltairianFrançois-Marie Arouet (Voltaire)VoltairianismFrançois-Marie ArouetVoltaire’sCherish those who seek the truth but beware of those who find it.François-Marie Arouet dit VoltaireFrench writer and philosopherIt is not more surprising to be born twice than once; everything in nature is resurrection.M. Voltaire
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 169430 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his criticism of Christianity, especially the Roman Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech, and separation of church and state.wikipedia
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Age of Enlightenment

Enlightenmentthe Enlightenment18th-century philosophy
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 169430 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his criticism of Christianity, especially the Roman Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech, and separation of church and state.
The major figures of the Enlightenment included Beccaria, Diderot, Hume, Kant, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Adam Smith, and Voltaire.

Lycée Louis-le-Grand

Louis-le-GrandCollège Louis-le-GrandCollège de Clermont
He was educated by the Jesuits at the Collège Louis-le-Grand (1704–1711), where he was taught Latin, theology, and rhetoric; later in life he became fluent in Italian, Spanish, and English.
Indeed, former students have included writers Molière, Victor Hugo and Charles Baudelaire, revolutionaries Robespierre, the Marquis de Sade and Camille Desmoulins, as well as seven former presidents of the French Republic and countless other ministers and prime ministers, philosophers such as Voltaire, Diderot, Emile Durkheim, Jean-Paul Sartre, Jean Cavaillès and Jacques Derrida, scientists Évariste Galois, Henri Poincaré and Laurent Schwartz, and artists Eugène Delacroix, Edgar Degas and Georges Méliès.

Separation of church and state

disestablishmentchurch and stateseparation of religion and state
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 169430 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his criticism of Christianity, especially the Roman Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech, and separation of church and state.
Voltaire defended some level of separation but ultimately subordinated the Church to the needs of the State while Denis Diderot, for instance, was a partisan of a strict separation of Church and State, saying "the distance between the throne and the altar can never be too great".

Artémire (tragedy)

Artémire
Voltaire's next play, Artémire, set in ancient Macedonia, opened on 15 February 1720.
Artémire was Voltaire's second tragedy in five acts.

Hérode et Mariamne

Mariamneon the same storyVoltaire
While the poem was an instant success, Voltaire's new play, Mariamne, was a failure when it first opened in March 1724.
Hérode et Mariamne or Mariamne is a 1724 tragedy by Voltaire.

Henriade

HenriadLa Henriade
On his return to France, he secured a second publisher in Rouen, who agreed to publish La Henriade clandestinely.
La Henriade is an epic poem of 1723 written by the French Enlightenment writer and philosopher Voltaire.

Letters on the English

Letters Concerning the English NationLettersLetters Concerning on the English Nations
At this time he published his views on British attitudes toward government, literature, religion and science in a collection of essays in letter form entitled Letters Concerning the English Nation (London, 1733).
Letters on the English (or Letters Concerning the English Nation; French: Lettres philosophiques) is a series of essays written by Voltaire based on his experiences living in England between 1726 and 1729 (though from 1707 the country was part of the Kingdom of Great Britain).

Zaïre (play)

ZaïreZaire
Further success followed, in 1732, with his play Zaïre, which when published in 1733 carried a dedication to Fawkener that praised English liberty and commerce.
Zaïre (The Tragedy of Zara) is a five-act tragedy in verse by Voltaire.

Guy Auguste de Rohan-Chabot

chevalier de Rohan-Chabotthe Chevalier de Rohan
In early 1726, a young French nobleman, the chevalier de Rohan-Chabot, taunted Voltaire about his change of name, and Voltaire retorted that his name would be honored while de Rohan would dishonor his.
Guy Auguste de Rohan-Chabot known as the comte de Chabot (18 August 1683 – 13 September 1760), often referred to as Chevalier de Rohan, was a French nobleman most notable for an altercation with Voltaire.

Everard Fawkener

Sir Everard Fawkener
In England, Voltaire lived largely in Wandsworth, with acquaintances including Everard Fawkener.
He met philosopher Voltaire in Paris, on his way home from Aleppo in 1725.

Francesco Algarotti

AlgarottiALGAROTTI, Count F.Count Francesco Algarotti
In the fall of 1735, Voltaire was visited by Francesco Algarotti, who was preparing a book about Newton in Italian.
He was "one of the first Esprits cavaliers of the age," a man of broad knowledge, an expert in Newtonianism, architecture and music and a friend of most of the leading authors of his times: Voltaire, Jean-Baptiste de Boyer, Marquis d'Argens, Pierre-Louis de Maupertuis and the atheist Julien Offray de La Mettrie.

Mérope

He continued to write plays, such as Mérope (or La Mérope française) and began his long research into science and history.
Mérope (full title La Mérope Française ) is a tragedy in five acts by Voltaire.

Elements of the Philosophy of Newton

Elements of Newton's PhilosophyEléments de la philosophie de Newton
Voltaire's own book Elements of Newton's Philosophy made Newton accessible and understandable to a far greater public, and the Marquise wrote a celebratory review in the Journal des savants.
Elements of the Philosophy of Newton (Éléments de la philosophie de Newton) is a book written by the philosopher Voltaire in 1738 that helped to popularize the theories and thought of Isaac Newton.

Émilie du Châtelet

Marquise du ChâteletGabrielle Émilie Le Tonnelier de BreteuilChatelet, Marchioness de (Émilie)
In 1733, Voltaire met Émilie du Châtelet, a mathematician and married mother of three who was 12 years his junior and with whom he was to have an affair for 16 years.
Because of her well-known collaboration and romantic involvement with Voltaire, which spanned much of her adult life, for generations Du Châtelet has been known as mistress and collaborator to her much better known intellectual companion.

Catherine Barton

Voltaire may have been present at the funeral of Isaac Newton, and met Newton's niece, Catherine Conduitt.
She was known as a brilliant conversationalist, and attracted the admiration of such famous figures as Jonathan Swift and Voltaire.

Henry IV of France

Henry IVHenri IVHenry of Navarre
He instead turned to an epic poem about Henry IV of France that he had begun in early 1717. It was followed by La Henriade, an epic poem on the French King Henri IV, glorifying his attempt to end the Catholic-Protestant massacres with the Edict of Nantes, and by a historical novel on King Charles XII of Sweden.
He was celebrated in the popular song "Vive le roi Henri" (which later became an anthem for the French monarchy during the reigns of his successors) and in Voltaire's Henriade.

Pour le Mérite

Blue MaxPour le mérite für Wissenschaften und KünsteOrder of Pour le Mérite
The Prussian king (with the permission of Louis XV) made him a chamberlain in his household, appointed him to the Order of Merit, and gave him a salary of 20,000 French livres a year.
Only a few civilians were honored: Pierre Louis Maupertuis (1747), Francesco Algarotti (1747) and Voltaire (1750).

Anagram

anagrammaticanagram solveranagrams
It is an anagram of AROVET LI, the Latinized spelling of his surname, Arouet, and the initial letters of le jeune ("the young").
The name "Voltaire" of François Marie Arouet fits this pattern, and is allowed to be an anagram of "Arouet, l[e] j[eune]" (U = V, J = I) that is, "Arouet the younger".

Smallpox

small poxsmall-poxvariola
After Voltaire's recovery from a month-long smallpox infection in November 1723, the first copies were smuggled into Paris and distributed.
According to Voltaire (1742), the Turks derived their use of inoculation from neighbouring Circassia.

Charles XII of Sweden

Charles XIIKing Charles XIIKarl XII
It was followed by La Henriade, an epic poem on the French King Henri IV, glorifying his attempt to end the Catholic-Protestant massacres with the Edict of Nantes, and by a historical novel on King Charles XII of Sweden.
As for his famous reluctance towards peace efforts, he is quoted by Voltaire as saying upon the outbreak of the war; "I have resolved never to start an unjust war but never to end a legitimate one except by defeating my enemies".

Marie Louise Mignot

Madame DenisMadame Marie-Louise DenisMme Denis
At first, his attraction to Marie Louise Mignot was clearly sexual, as evidenced by his letters to her (only discovered in 1957).
She was the daughter of Voltaire's sister, Catherine Arouet (1686–1726) and her husband Pierre-François Mignot (d. 1737).

Micromégas

Micromegas: a comic romance, which is a biting satire on philosophy, ignorance, and the self-conceit of mankind
Life went well for Voltaire at first, and in 1751 he completed Micromégas, a piece of science fiction involving ambassadors from another planet witnessing the follies of humankind.
Micromégas is a 1752 novella by the French philosopher and satirist Voltaire.

Society of Jesus

JesuitJesuitsS.J.
He was educated by the Jesuits at the Collège Louis-le-Grand (1704–1711), where he was taught Latin, theology, and rhetoric; later in life he became fluent in Italian, Spanish, and English.
And Jesuit-educated Voltaire called the Jesuit government "a triumph of humanity."

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

LeibnizGottfried LeibnizGottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz
Both she and Voltaire were also curious about the philosophies of Gottfried Leibniz, a contemporary and rival of Newton.
In philosophy, Leibniz is most noted for his optimism, i.e. his conclusion that our universe is, in a restricted sense, the best possible one that God could have created, an idea that was often lampooned by others such as Voltaire.

Giacomo Casanova

CasanovaCasanova, GiacomoCa-Hwang
He would stay in Ferney for most of the remaining 20 years of his life, frequently entertaining distinguished guests, such as James Boswell, Adam Smith, Giacomo Casanova, and Edward Gibbon.
He associated with European royalty, popes, and cardinals, along with luminaries such as Voltaire, Goethe, and Mozart.