Vomiting

14th-century illustration of vomiting from the Casanatense Tacuinum Sanitatis
Vomiting
Partially digested food, with man-sized glove for scale
A drunk man vomiting, while a young slave is holding his forehead. Brygos Painter, 500–470 BC
Special bags are often supplied on boats for sick passengers to vomit into.

Involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.

- Vomiting
14th-century illustration of vomiting from the Casanatense Tacuinum Sanitatis

500 related topics

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Nurses encourage a patient to drink an oral rehydration solution to treat the combination of dehydration and hypovolemia secondary to cholera. Cholera leads to GI loss of both excess free water (dehydration) and sodium (hence ECF volume depletion—hypovolemia).

Dehydration

Lack of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.

Lack of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.

Nurses encourage a patient to drink an oral rehydration solution to treat the combination of dehydration and hypovolemia secondary to cholera. Cholera leads to GI loss of both excess free water (dehydration) and sodium (hence ECF volume depletion—hypovolemia).
Urine color as an indicator of hydration

Excess free water or hypotonic water can leave the body in two ways – sensible loss such as osmotic diuresis, sweating, vomiting and diarrhea, and insensible water loss, occurring mainly through the skin and respiratory tract.

The level of bicarbonate in the blood (HCO3−) determines the severity of acidosis. Bicarbonate measurements are part of routine metabolic panels.

Metabolic acidosis

Serious electrolyte disorder characterized by an imbalance in the body's acid-base balance.

Serious electrolyte disorder characterized by an imbalance in the body's acid-base balance.

The level of bicarbonate in the blood (HCO3−) determines the severity of acidosis. Bicarbonate measurements are part of routine metabolic panels.

Symptoms may include palpitations, headache, altered mental status such as severe anxiety due to hypoxia, decreased visual acuity, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, altered appetite and weight gain, muscle weakness, bone pain, and joint pain.

A young boy coughing due to pertussis causing whooping cough.

Cough

Sudden expulsion of air through the large breathing passages that can help clear them of fluids, irritants, foreign particles and microbes.

Sudden expulsion of air through the large breathing passages that can help clear them of fluids, irritants, foreign particles and microbes.

A young boy coughing due to pertussis causing whooping cough.
Coughing is viewed as a public health issue.

Acute complications include cough syncope (fainting spells due to decreased blood flow to the brain when coughs are prolonged and forceful), insomnia, cough-induced vomiting, subconjunctival hemorrhage or "red eye", coughing defecation and in women with a prolapsed uterus, cough urination.

A drawing of people with seasickness from 1841

Motion sickness

Motion sickness occurs due to a difference between actual and expected motion.

Motion sickness occurs due to a difference between actual and expected motion.

A drawing of people with seasickness from 1841

Symptoms commonly include nausea, vomiting, cold sweat, headache, dizziness, tiredness, loss of appetite, and increased salivation.

A 1681 painting depicting a person vomiting

Nausea

A 1681 painting depicting a person vomiting

Nausea is a diffuse sensation of unease and discomfort, often perceived as an urge to vomit.

Gastroenteritis viruses: A = rotavirus, B = adenovirus, C = norovirus and D = astrovirus. The virus particles are shown at the same magnification to allow size comparison.

Gastroenteritis

Inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract; the stomach and intestine.

Inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract; the stomach and intestine.

Gastroenteritis viruses: A = rotavirus, B = adenovirus, C = norovirus and D = astrovirus. The virus particles are shown at the same magnification to allow size comparison.
Bristol stool chart
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ATCC 14028) as seen with a microscope at 1000 fold magnification and following Gram staining
Percentage of rotavirus tests with positive results, by surveillance week, United States, July 2000 – June 2009
Deaths due to diarrhoeal diseases per million persons in 2012

Symptoms may include diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal pain.

An ECG in a person with a potassium level of 1.1 meq/L showing the classical changes of ST segment depression, inverted T waves, large U waves, and a slightly prolonged PR interval.

Hypokalemia

Low level of potassium in the blood serum.

Low level of potassium in the blood serum.

An ECG in a person with a potassium level of 1.1 meq/L showing the classical changes of ST segment depression, inverted T waves, large U waves, and a slightly prolonged PR interval.

Vomiting can also cause hypokalemia, although not much potassium is lost from the vomitus.

Upright abdominal X-ray demonstrating a small bowel obstruction. Note multiple air fluid levels.

Bowel obstruction

Mechanical or functional obstruction of the intestines which prevents the normal movement of the products of digestion.

Mechanical or functional obstruction of the intestines which prevents the normal movement of the products of digestion.

Upright abdominal X-ray demonstrating a small bowel obstruction. Note multiple air fluid levels.
Upright abdominal X-ray demonstrating a small bowel obstruction. Note multiple air fluid levels.
Upright abdominal X-ray of a person with a large bowel obstruction showing multiple air fluid levels and dilated loops of bowel
A small bowel obstruction as seen on CT
Average inner diameters and ranges of different sections of the large intestine.
Small bowel obstruction on ultrasound

Signs and symptoms include abdominal pain, vomiting, bloating and not passing gas.

Micrograph showing gastritis. H&E stain.

Gastritis

Inflammation of the lining of the stomach.

Inflammation of the lining of the stomach.

Micrograph showing gastritis. H&E stain.
A peptic ulcer may accompany gastritis. Endoscopic image.
Early acute superficial gastritis: Marked neutrophilic infiltrates appear in the mucous neck region and lamina with a pit microabscess. This case was caused by Helicobacter pylori.
Updated Sydney System for visual classification of gastritis on histopathology.

Other possible symptoms include nausea and vomiting, bloating, loss of appetite and heartburn.

Packages of medication

Antiemetic

Packages of medication

An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea.