Vomiting

emeticvomitemesisvomitsvomitedvomituspurgingemeticspukeemetogenic
Vomiting is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.wikipedia
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Nausea

nauseousnauseatedvomiting
The feeling that one is about to vomit is called nausea; it often precedes, but does not always lead to vomiting.
Nausea is an unpleasant, diffuse sensation of unease and discomfort, often perceived as an urge to vomit.

Gastritis

Chronic gastritisacute gastritisstomach inflammation
Vomiting can be caused by a wide variety of conditions; it may be present as a specific response to ailments like gastritis or poisoning, or as a non-specific sequela ranging from brain tumors and elevated intracranial pressure to overexposure to ionizing radiation.
Other possible symptoms include nausea and vomiting, bloating, loss of appetite and heartburn.

Brain tumor

brain cancerbrain tumourbrain tumors
Vomiting can be caused by a wide variety of conditions; it may be present as a specific response to ailments like gastritis or poisoning, or as a non-specific sequela ranging from brain tumors and elevated intracranial pressure to overexposure to ionizing radiation.
These symptoms may include headaches, seizures, problems with vision, vomiting and mental changes.

Intracranial pressure

increased intracranial pressureintracranial hypertensionpressure inside the skull
Vomiting can be caused by a wide variety of conditions; it may be present as a specific response to ailments like gastritis or poisoning, or as a non-specific sequela ranging from brain tumors and elevated intracranial pressure to overexposure to ionizing radiation.
In general, symptoms and signs that suggest a rise in ICP include headache, vomiting without nausea, ocular palsies, altered level of consciousness, back pain and papilledema.

Regurgitation (digestion)

regurgitationregurgitateregurgitated
Vomiting is different from regurgitation, though the terms are often used interchangeably.
It is in most animals a normal and voluntary process unlike the complex vomiting reflex in response to toxins.

Purging disorder

purging
Self-induced vomiting can be a component of an eating disorder such as bulimia, and is itself now an eating disorder on its own, purging disorder.
Purging disorder is an eating disorder characterized by recurrent purging (self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas) to control weight or shape in the absence of binge eating episodes.

Area postrema

vomiting centerbrainstem vomiting centeremetic center
Receptors on the floor of the fourth ventricle of the brain represent a chemoreceptor trigger zone, known as the area postrema, stimulation of which can lead to vomiting.
The area postrema is a structure in the medulla oblongata in the brainstem that controls vomiting.

Antiemetic

antiemeticsanti-emeticanti-emetics
Antiemetics are sometimes necessary to suppress nausea and vomiting.
An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea.

Chemoreceptor trigger zone

CTZ
Receptors on the floor of the fourth ventricle of the brain represent a chemoreceptor trigger zone, known as the area postrema, stimulation of which can lead to vomiting.
The chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) is an area of the medulla oblongata that receives inputs from blood-borne drugs or hormones, and communicates with other structures in the vomiting center to initiate vomiting.

Metabolic acidosis

Hypokalemic acidosismetabolicacidosis
A less frequent occurrence results from a vomiting of intestinal contents, including bile acids and, which can cause metabolic acidosis.
severe anxiety due to hypoxia, decreased visual acuity, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, altered appetite and weight gain, muscle weakness, bone pain, and joint pain.

Cough

coughingdry coughproductive cough
Under normal circumstances the gag reflex and coughing prevent this from occurring; however, these protective reflexes are compromised in persons under the influence of certain substances (including alcohol) or are even mildly anesthetized.
Acute complications include cough syncope (fainting spells due to decreased blood flow to the brain when coughs are prolonged and forceful), insomnia, cough-induced vomiting, subconjunctival hemorrhage or "red eye", coughing defecation and in women with a prolapsed uterus, cough urination.

Mallory–Weiss syndrome

Mallory-Weiss syndromeMallory-Weiss tearMallory–Weiss tear
Repeated or profuse vomiting may cause erosions to the esophagus or small tears in the esophageal mucosa (Mallory–Weiss tear).
This is usually caused by severe vomiting because of alcoholism or bulimia, but can be caused by any condition which causes violent vomiting and retching such as food poisoning.

Motion sickness

seasicknessseasicksea sickness
Antiemetics are typically used to treat motion sickness and the side effects of medications such as opioids and chemotherapy.
Symptoms commonly include nausea, vomiting, cold sweat, headache, sleepiness, yawning, loss of appetite, and increased salivation.

Metabolic alkalosis

alkaloticelevated blood pHincreased blood pH and high blood bicarbonate level
Combined with the resulting alkaline tide, this leads to hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis (low chloride levels together with high and and increased blood pH) and often hypokalemia (potassium depletion).

Hypokalemia

hypokalaemialow blood potassiumhypokalemic
Combined with the resulting alkaline tide, this leads to hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis (low chloride levels together with high and and increased blood pH) and often hypokalemia (potassium depletion).
Vomiting can also cause hypokalemia, although not much potassium is lost from the vomitus.

Gastroenteritis

stomach flucholera morbusinfectious diarrhea
Symptoms may include diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal pain.

Dehydration

dehydrateddehydratedehydrating
In severe cases, where dehydration develops, intravenous fluid may be required.
Excess free water or hypotonic water can leave the body in two ways - sensible loss such as osmotic diuresis, sweating, vomiting and diarrhea, and insensible water loss, occurring mainly through the skin and respiratory tract.

Potassium

KK + potassium ion
Combined with the resulting alkaline tide, this leads to hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis (low chloride levels together with high and and increased blood pH) and often hypokalemia (potassium depletion).
Common causes are increased gastrointestinal loss (vomiting, diarrhea), and increased renal loss (diuresis).

Hematemesis

haematemesisvomiting bloodvomiting of blood
Fresh blood in the vomit is termed hematemesis ("blood vomiting").
Hematemesis is the vomiting of blood.

Coffee ground vomiting

coffee-grind like materialcoffee-ground vomitingvomiting black blood
Altered blood bears resemblance to coffee grounds (as the iron in the blood is oxidized) and, when this matter is identified, the term coffee-ground vomiting is used.
Coffee ground vomitus refers to a particular appearance of vomit.

Retching

dry heavesretches
Retching (also known as dry heaving) is the reverse movement (retroperistalsis) of the stomach and esophagus without vomiting.

Poison

poisonouspoisonstoxic substances
Vomiting can be caused by a wide variety of conditions; it may be present as a specific response to ailments like gastritis or poisoning, or as a non-specific sequela ranging from brain tumors and elevated intracranial pressure to overexposure to ionizing radiation.

Serotonin

5-HTserotonergic5-hydroxytryptamine
The neurotransmitters that regulate vomiting are poorly understood, but inhibitors of dopamine, histamine, and serotonin are all used to suppress vomiting, suggesting that these play a role in the initiation or maintenance of a vomiting cycle.
This activates 5-HT3 receptors in the chemoreceptor trigger zone that stimulate vomiting.

Bowel obstruction

intestinal obstructionobstructionsmall bowel obstruction
Fecal vomiting is often a consequence of intestinal obstruction or a gastrocolic fistula and is treated as a warning sign of this potentially serious problem (signum mali ominis).
Signs and symptoms include abdominal pain, vomiting, bloating and not passing gas.

Retroperistalsis

antiperistalticreverse peristalsissegmental reversal
It usually occurs as a precursor to vomiting.