Vomiting

emeticvomitemesisvomitsvomitedvomituspurgingemeticsemetogenicregurgitation
Vomiting (synonyms: emesis, puking, barfing, heaving, throwing up, etc.) is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.wikipedia
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Nausea

nauseousvomitingfeeling of sickness
The feeling that one is about to vomit is called nausea, which often precedes, but does not always lead to, vomiting.
Nausea is an unpleasant, diffuse sensation of unease and discomfort, often perceived as an urge to vomit.

Gastritis

acute gastritischronic gastritisgastritis with low acidity
Vomiting can be caused by a wide variety of conditions; it may present as a specific response to ailments like gastritis or poisoning, or as a non-specific sequela of disorders ranging from brain tumors and elevated intracranial pressure to overexposure to ionizing radiation.
Other possible symptoms include nausea and vomiting, bloating, loss of appetite and heartburn.

Brain tumor

brain cancerbrain tumourbrain tumors
Vomiting can be caused by a wide variety of conditions; it may present as a specific response to ailments like gastritis or poisoning, or as a non-specific sequela of disorders ranging from brain tumors and elevated intracranial pressure to overexposure to ionizing radiation.
These symptoms may include headaches, seizures, problems with vision, vomiting and mental changes.

Intracranial pressure

increased intracranial pressureintracranial hypertensionintra-cranial pressure
Vomiting can be caused by a wide variety of conditions; it may present as a specific response to ailments like gastritis or poisoning, or as a non-specific sequela of disorders ranging from brain tumors and elevated intracranial pressure to overexposure to ionizing radiation.
In general, symptoms and signs that suggest a rise in ICP include headache, vomiting without nausea, ocular palsies, altered level of consciousness, back pain and papilledema.

Regurgitation (digestion)

regurgitationregurgitateregurgitated
Vomiting is different from regurgitation, although the two terms are often used interchangeably.
It is in most animals a normal and voluntary process unlike the complex vomiting reflex in response to toxins.

Purging disorder

purging
Self-induced vomiting can be a component of an eating disorder, such as bulimia nervosa, and is itself now an eating disorder on its own, purging disorder.
Purging disorder is an eating disorder characterized by recurrent purging (self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas) to control weight or shape in the absence of binge eating episodes.

Area postrema

vomiting centerbrainstem vomiting centeremetic center
Receptors on the floor of the fourth ventricle of the brain represent a chemoreceptor trigger zone, known as the area postrema, stimulation of which can lead to vomiting.
The area postrema is a medullary structure in the brain that controls vomiting.

Antiemetic

antiemeticsanti-emeticanti-emetics
Antiemetics are sometimes necessary to suppress nausea and vomiting.
An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea.

Chemoreceptor trigger zone

CTZ
Receptors on the floor of the fourth ventricle of the brain represent a chemoreceptor trigger zone, known as the area postrema, stimulation of which can lead to vomiting.
The chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) is an area of the medulla oblongata that receives inputs from blood-borne drugs or hormones, and communicates with other structures in the vomiting center to initiate vomiting.

Cough

coughingdry coughproductive cough
Under normal circumstances the gag reflex and coughing prevent this from occurring; however, these protective reflexes are compromised in persons under the influences of certain substances such as alcohol or anesthesia.
Acute complications include cough syncope (fainting spells due to decreased blood flow to the brain when coughs are prolonged and forceful), insomnia, cough-induced vomiting, rupture of blebs causing spontaneous pneumothorax (although this still remains to be proven), subconjunctival hemorrhage or "red eye", coughing defecation and in women with a prolapsed uterus, cough urination.

Metabolic acidosis

metabolicacidosisdecreases in the pH of the blood
A less frequent occurrence results from a vomiting of intestinal contents, including bile acids and, which can cause metabolic acidosis.
severe anxiety due to hypoxia, decreased visual acuity, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, altered appetite and weight gain, muscle weakness, bone pain, and joint pain.

Mallory–Weiss syndrome

Mallory–Weiss tearMallory-Weiss tearesophageal bleeding
Repeated or profuse vomiting may cause erosions to the esophagus or small tears in the esophageal mucosa (Mallory–Weiss tear).
This is usually caused by severe vomiting because of alcoholism or bulimia, but can be caused by any conditions which causes violent vomiting and retching such as food poisoning.

Dehydration

dehydrateddehydratedehydrating
In severe cases, where dehydration develops, intravenous fluid may be required.
Excess free water or hypotonic water can leave the body in two ways - sensible loss such as osmotic diuresis, sweating, vomiting and diarrhea, and insensible water loss, occurring mainly through the skin and respiratory tract.

Metabolic alkalosis

alkaloticelevated blood pHincreased blood pH and high blood bicarbonate level
Combined with the resulting alkaline tide, this leads to hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis (low chloride levels together with high and and increased blood pH) and often hypokalemia (potassium depletion).
Vomiting results in the loss of hydrochloric acid (hydrogen and chloride ions) with the stomach contents. In the hospital setting this can commonly occur from nasogastric suction tubes.

Hypokalemia

hypokalaemialow blood potassiumhypokalemic
Combined with the resulting alkaline tide, this leads to hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis (low chloride levels together with high and and increased blood pH) and often hypokalemia (potassium depletion).
Rather, heavy urinary losses of K + in the setting of postemetic bicarbonaturia force urinary potassium excretion (see Alkalosis below).

Gastroenteritis

stomach flucholera morbusinfectious diarrhea
The vagal and enteric nervous system inputs transmit information regarding the state of the gastrointestinal system. Irritation of the GI mucosa by chemotherapy, radiation, distention, or acute infectious gastroenteritis activates the 5-HT 3 receptors of these inputs.
Symptoms may include diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.

Motion sickness

seasicknessseasicksea sickness
The vestibular system, which sends information to the brain via cranial nerve VIII (vestibulocochlear nerve), plays a major role in motion sickness, and is rich in muscarinic receptors and histamine H 1 receptors.
If the cause of the nausea is not resolved, the sufferer will usually vomit, but vomiting may not relieve the feeling of weakness and nausea, which means the person might continue to vomit until the underlying cause of the nausea is resolved.

Potassium

KK + potassium ion
Combined with the resulting alkaline tide, this leads to hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis (low chloride levels together with high and and increased blood pH) and often hypokalemia (potassium depletion).
Common causes are increased gastrintestinal loss (vomiting, diarrhea), and increased renal loss (diuresis).

Hematemesis

haematemesisvomiting bloodvomiting of blood
Fresh blood in the vomit is termed hematemesis ("blood vomiting").
Hematemesis or haematemesis is the vomiting of blood.

Coffee ground vomiting

coffee-ground vomitingvomiting black bloodVomiting blood that resembles coffee grounds
Altered blood bears resemblance to coffee grounds (as the iron in the blood is oxidized) and, when this matter is identified, the term coffee-ground vomiting is used.
Coffee ground vomitus refers to a particular appearance of vomit.

Retching

dry heavesretches
Vomiting is ordinarily preceded by retching.
Retching (also known as dry heaving) is the reverse movement (retroperistalsis) of the stomach and esophagus without vomiting.

Retroperistalsis

antiperistalticreverse peristalsissegmental reversal
Retroperistalsis starts from the middle of the small intestine and sweeps up digestive tract contents into the stomach, through the relaxed pyloric sphincter.
It usually occurs as a precursor to vomiting.

Serotonin

5-HTserotonergic5-hydroxytryptamine
The neurotransmitters that regulate vomiting are poorly understood, but inhibitors of dopamine, histamine, and serotonin are all used to suppress vomiting, suggesting that these play a role in the initiation or maintenance of a vomiting cycle.
This activates 5-HT3 receptors in the chemoreceptor trigger zone that stimulate vomiting.

Poison

poisonouspoisonstoxic substances
Vomiting can be caused by a wide variety of conditions; it may present as a specific response to ailments like gastritis or poisoning, or as a non-specific sequela of disorders ranging from brain tumors and elevated intracranial pressure to overexposure to ionizing radiation.
Emesis (i.e. induced by ipecac) is no longer recommended in poisoning situations, because vomiting is ineffective at removing poisons.

Bowel obstruction

intestinal obstructionobstructionsmall bowel obstruction
Fecal vomiting is often a consequence of intestinal obstruction or a gastrocolic fistula and is treated as a warning sign of this potentially serious problem (signum mali ominis).
Signs and symptoms include abdominal pain, vomiting, bloating and not passing gas.