Vomiting

14th-century illustration of vomiting from the Casanatense Tacuinum Sanitatis
Vomiting
Partially digested food, with man-sized glove for scale
A drunk man vomiting, while a young slave is holding his forehead. Brygos Painter, 500–470 BC
Special bags are often supplied on boats for sick passengers to vomit into.

Involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.

- Vomiting
14th-century illustration of vomiting from the Casanatense Tacuinum Sanitatis

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14th-century illustration of vomiting from the Casanatense Tacuinum Sanitatis

Coffee ground vomiting

14th-century illustration of vomiting from the Casanatense Tacuinum Sanitatis

Coffee ground vomitus refers to a particular appearance of vomit.

Adrenal gland

Adrenal insufficiency

Condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol; but may also include impaired production of aldosterone , which regulates sodium conservation, potassium secretion, and water retention.

Condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol; but may also include impaired production of aldosterone , which regulates sodium conservation, potassium secretion, and water retention.

Adrenal gland

Additional signs and symptoms include weakness, tiredness, dizziness, low blood pressure that falls further when standing (orthostatic hypotension), cardiovascular collapse, muscle aches, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

Peritonitis from tuberculosis

Peritonitis

Inflammation of the localized or generalized peritoneum, the lining of the inner wall of the abdomen and cover of the abdominal organs.

Inflammation of the localized or generalized peritoneum, the lining of the inner wall of the abdomen and cover of the abdominal organs.

Peritonitis from tuberculosis

Development of ileus paralyticus (i.e., intestinal paralysis), which also causes nausea, vomiting and bloating

Transmission electron micrograph of Norwalk virus. The white bar = 50 nm

Norovirus

Most common cause of gastroenteritis.

Most common cause of gastroenteritis.

Transmission electron micrograph of Norwalk virus. The white bar = 50 nm
X-ray crystallographic structure of the Norwalk virus capsid
Annual Trend in Reports of Norovirus Infection in England and Wales (2000–2011). Source: HPA
Laboratory reports of norovirus infections in England and Wales 2000–2012. Source: HPA, NB Testing methods changed in 2007

Infection is characterized by non-bloody diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach pain.

Packages of medication

Medication

Drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

Drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

Packages of medication
Pharmacists are medication experts.
A medication is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
February 1918 drawing by Marguerite Martyn of a visiting nurse in St. Louis, Missouri, with medicine and babies

Drugs affecting the central nervous system include: psychedelics, hypnotics, anaesthetics, antipsychotics, eugeroics, antidepressants (including tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, lithium salts, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)), antiemetics, Anticonvulsants/antiepileptics, anxiolytics, barbiturates, movement disorder (e.g., Parkinson's disease) drugs, nootropics, stimulants (including amphetamines), benzodiazepines, cyclopyrrolones, dopamine antagonists, antihistamines, cholinergics, anticholinergics, emetics, cannabinoids, and 5-HT (serotonin) antagonists.

A young boy coughing due to pertussis causing whooping cough.

Cough

Sudden expulsion of air through the large breathing passages that can help clear them of fluids, irritants, foreign particles and microbes.

Sudden expulsion of air through the large breathing passages that can help clear them of fluids, irritants, foreign particles and microbes.

A young boy coughing due to pertussis causing whooping cough.
Coughing is viewed as a public health issue.

Acute complications include cough syncope (fainting spells due to decreased blood flow to the brain when coughs are prolonged and forceful), insomnia, cough-induced vomiting, subconjunctival hemorrhage or "red eye", coughing defecation and in women with a prolapsed uterus, cough urination.

Spacefilling model of substance P

Substance P

Arg Pro Lys Pro Gln Gln Phe Phe Gly Leu Met (RPKPQQFFGLM)

Arg Pro Lys Pro Gln Gln Phe Phe Gly Leu Met (RPKPQQFFGLM)

Spacefilling model of substance P

SP is a trigger for nausea and emesis.

Typical rat poison bait station (Germany, 2010)

Rodenticide

Rodenticides are chemicals made and sold for the purpose of killing rodents.

Rodenticides are chemicals made and sold for the purpose of killing rodents.

Typical rat poison bait station (Germany, 2010)
Poison baits infused with peanuts to attract rodents.
Rat poison vendor's stall at a market in Linxia City, China
Civilian Public Service worker distributes poisoned bait for typhus control in Gulfport, Mississippi, ca. 1945.
Wildlife eating rodenticide from a bait station intended for rats

Rodents are disinclined to gorge on an unknown food (perhaps reflecting an adaptation to their inability to vomit), preferring to sample, wait and observe whether it makes them or other rats sick.

Abdomen

Part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.

Part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.

Abdominal organs anatomy.
Surface projections of the organs of the trunk, from which organ locations are derived mainly from vertebra levels, ribs and the ilium.
Front of abdomen, showing markings for duodenum, pancreas, and kidneys.
Side-by-side comparison of quadrants and regions.
The analogous gross morphologies of a human and an ant.
In the worker ant, the abdomen consists of the propodeum fused to the thorax and the metasoma, itself divided into the narrow petiole and bulbous gaster.
View of the various organs and blood-vessels in proximity with liver.
The relations of the viscera and large vessels of the abdomen, seen from behind.

When the glottis is closed and the thorax and pelvis are fixed, they are integral in the cough, urination, defecation, childbirth, vomit, and singing functions.

Peyote

Small, spineless cactus which contains psychoactive alkaloids, particularly mescaline.

Small, spineless cactus which contains psychoactive alkaloids, particularly mescaline.

A group of Lophophora williamsii.
A flowering peyote.
Lophophora williamsii seedling at roughly 1 1⁄2 months of age
Range of wild peyote
Dried Lophophora williamsii slices ("Peyote Buttons") with a US 5 cent coin (21 mm, 0.8 in)) for scale
Chemical structure of hordenine (peyocactin), an antimicrobial compound contained in the peyote cactus
Peyote in Wirikuta, Mexico
A Native American Peyote Drummer (circa 1927)

Peyote can have strong emetic effects, and one death has been attributed to esophageal bleeding caused by vomiting after peyote ingestion in a Native American patient with a history of alcohol abuse.