Vorbis

Ogg VorbisOGGaoTuVVorbis audio.ogglibvorbisOGG audioOgg/VorbisVorbis OGGvorbis ogg files
Vorbis is a free and open-source software project headed by the Xiph.Org Foundation.wikipedia
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Chris Montgomery

Chris "Monty" MontgomeryMonty Montgomery
Vorbis is a continuation of audio compression development started in 1993 by Chris Montgomery.
Christopher "Monty" Montgomery (born June 6, 1972 ) is the American creator of the Ogg Free Software container format and Vorbis audio codec and others, and the founder of The Xiph.Org Foundation, which promotes public domain multimedia codecs.

Ogg

.oggOGMogg123
Vorbis is most commonly used in conjunction with the Ogg container format and it is therefore often referred to as Ogg Vorbis.
The audio layer is most commonly provided by the music-oriented Vorbis format or its successor Opus.

Data compression

compressionvideo compressioncompressed
The project produces an audio coding format and software reference encoder/decoder (codec) for lossy audio compression.
Lossless audio compression produces a representation of digital data that decompress to an exact digital duplicate of the original audio stream, unlike playback from lossy compression techniques such as Vorbis and MP3.

Opus (audio format)

OpusOpus audio format.opus
2011, April comparison by Hydrogenaudio - Vorbis vs HE-AAC vs Opus at 64 kbit/s. Vorbis was on average between the LC-AAC low anchor and Nero HE-AAC, while the upcoming Opus (by Xiph) was best.
Opus replaces both Vorbis and Speex for new applications, and several blind listening tests have ranked it higher-quality than any other standard audio format at any given bitrate until transparency is reached, including MP3, AAC, and HE-AAC.

Modified discrete cosine transform

MDCTMDCT-basedMDCTs
Vorbis had been shown to perform significantly better than many other lossy audio formats in the past in that it produced smaller files at equivalent or higher quality while retaining computational complexity comparable to other MDCT formats such as AAC or Windows Media Audio.
As a result of these advantages, the MDCT is employed in most modern lossy audio formats, including MP3, AC-3, Vorbis, Windows Media Audio, ATRAC, Cook, AAC, Opus, and LDAC.

List of codecs

video codecsList of multimedia (audio/video) codecsaudio codec
Vorbis had been shown to perform significantly better than many other lossy audio formats in the past in that it produced smaller files at equivalent or higher quality while retaining computational complexity comparable to other MDCT formats such as AAC or Windows Media Audio.
Vorbis

Bitrate peeling

The Vorbis format supports bitrate peeling for reducing the bitrate of already encoded files without re-encoding, and several experimental implementations exist.
Bitrate Peeling is a technique used in Ogg Vorbis audio encoded streams, wherein a stream can be encoded at one bitrate but can be served at that or any lower bitrate.

Windows Media Audio

WMAXMA.wma
Vorbis had been shown to perform significantly better than many other lossy audio formats in the past in that it produced smaller files at equivalent or higher quality while retaining computational complexity comparable to other MDCT formats such as AAC or Windows Media Audio. Low bitrate (less than 64 kbit/s): the most recent (2007) public multiformat test at 48 kbit/s showed that aoTuV Vorbis had a better quality than WMA and LC-AAC, the same quality as WMA Professional, and a lower quality than HE-AAC. Mid to low bitrates (less than 128 kbit/s down to 64 kbit/s): private tests in 2005 at 80 kbit/s and 96 kbit/s showed that aoTuV Vorbis had a better quality than other lossy audio formats (LC-AAC, HE-AAC, MP3, MPC, WMA).
Fundamentally, WMA is a transform coder based on modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT), somewhat similar to AAC, Cook and Vorbis.

ReplayGain

Most applications also support common de facto standards such as discnumber and ReplayGain information.
ReplayGain is a proposed standard published by David Robinson in 2001 to measure the perceived loudness of audio in computer audio formats such as MP3 and Ogg Vorbis.

Small Gods

"Vorbis" is named after a Discworld character Exquisitor Vorbis in Small Gods by Terry Pratchett.
The audio codec Ogg Vorbis is named after the character Exquisitor Vorbis in Small Gods.

High-Efficiency Advanced Audio Coding

eAAC+eAACHE-AAC
Low bitrate (less than 64 kbit/s): the most recent (2007) public multiformat test at 48 kbit/s showed that aoTuV Vorbis had a better quality than WMA and LC-AAC, the same quality as WMA Professional, and a lower quality than HE-AAC. Mid to low bitrates (less than 128 kbit/s down to 64 kbit/s): private tests in 2005 at 80 kbit/s and 96 kbit/s showed that aoTuV Vorbis had a better quality than other lossy audio formats (LC-AAC, HE-AAC, MP3, MPC, WMA).
The test, taking bitrate distribution and RMSD into account, is a tie between mp3PRO, HE AAC and Ogg Vorbis.

Radio New Zealand

RNZThe WirelessRadio NZ
Others include Jamendo and Mindawn, as well as several national radio stations like JazzRadio, Absolute Radio, NPR, Radio New Zealand and Deutschlandradio.
Almost all RNZ-produced programmes are available back to January 2008, and have MP3 and Ogg Vorbis and download and podcasts options.

Vorbis comment

vorbiscommentVorbis comments
Vorbis metadata, called Vorbis comments, supports metadata tags similar to those implemented in the ID3 standard for MP3.
A Vorbis comment is a metadata container used in the Vorbis, FLAC, Theora, Speex and Opus file formats.

WebM

.webm155-165 kbps Opus WebM
It is also used in WebM, a container format based on a subset of Matroska.
WebM initially supported VP8 video and Vorbis audio streams.

Variable bitrate

VBRvariable bit ratevariable
The bit rates mentioned above are only approximate; Vorbis is inherently variable-bitrate (VBR), so bitrate may vary considerably from sample to sample.
MP3, WMA and AAC audio files can optionally be encoded in VBR, while Opus, Vorbis are always in VBR.

MP3 player

digital audio playerMP3 playersmusic player
Vorbis is supported by several large digital audio player manufacturers such as Samsung, SanDisk, Rio, Neuros Technology, Cowon, and iriver.
Other formats are patent-free or otherwise open, such as MP3, Vorbis, FLAC, and Speex (the latter three part of the Ogg open multimedia project).

Lossy compression

lossylossy data compressioncompressed
The project produces an audio coding format and software reference encoder/decoder (codec) for lossy audio compression.
Ogg Vorbis (noted for its lack of patent restrictions)

Religions of the Discworld

VorbisBruthaDios
"Vorbis" is named after a Discworld character Exquisitor Vorbis in Small Gods by Terry Pratchett.
The Vorbis audio codec is named after this character.

Pre-echo

As with most modern formats, the most consistently cited problem with Vorbis is pre-echo, a faint copy of a sharp attack that occurs just before the actual sound (this artifact is most obvious when reproducing the sound of castanets).
It occurs in transform-based audio compression algorithms – typically based on the modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT) – such as MP3, MPEG-4 AAC, and Vorbis, and is due to quantization noise being spread over the entire transform-window of the codec.

MP3

.mp3MP3 downloadmp3s
Intensive development began following a September 1998 letter from the Fraunhofer Society announcing plans to charge licensing fees for the MP3 audio format. Mid to low bitrates (less than 128 kbit/s down to 64 kbit/s): private tests in 2005 at 80 kbit/s and 96 kbit/s showed that aoTuV Vorbis had a better quality than other lossy audio formats (LC-AAC, HE-AAC, MP3, MPC, WMA).
There are also open compression formats like Opus and Vorbis that are available free of charge and without any known patent restrictions.

Musepack

MPC.mpcMPC/Musepack/Mpeg+
Mid to low bitrates (less than 128 kbit/s down to 64 kbit/s): private tests in 2005 at 80 kbit/s and 96 kbit/s showed that aoTuV Vorbis had a better quality than other lossy audio formats (LC-AAC, HE-AAC, MP3, MPC, WMA).
In May 2004, a series of double-blind listening tests (as reported on Slashdot ) suggested that Musepack and Ogg Vorbis (which was the 1.1 "aoTuV" fork at the time) were the two best available codecs for high-quality audio compression at bitrates around 128kbit/s, beating MP3, AAC, WMA, and ATRAC.

Jamendo

Others include Jamendo and Mindawn, as well as several national radio stations like JazzRadio, Absolute Radio, NPR, Radio New Zealand and Deutschlandradio.
Users can listen to MP3 encoded audio files (96 kbit/s) and download in MP3 (192kbit/s) and Ogg Vorbis formats.

S1 MP3 player

Chinese MP3 and MP4 players with a recording function, and voice recordersiPod" MP3
S1 MP3 Players also supports Ogg Vorbis since at least 2006, though this is not typically listed on the player's packaging.
Ogg Vorbis support on a small number of models mostly made after 2005, though this is not typically listed on the player's packaging and may come with drawbacks (such as lower maximum volume, decreased battery life or an inability to read ID tags).

Absolute Radio

Virgin RadioVirgin 1215Absolute
Others include Jamendo and Mindawn, as well as several national radio stations like JazzRadio, Absolute Radio, NPR, Radio New Zealand and Deutschlandradio.
Streaming audio formats and presentation developed over time: QuickTime streaming was added in July 1999, an interactive media player launched in October 1999, an Ogg-Vorbis stream was launched in June 2003, and HE-AAC and Ogg-FLAC streams were launched in December 2009.

Tremor (software)

Tremor
Tremor, a version of the Vorbis decoder which uses fixed-point arithmetic (rather than floating point), was made available to the public on September 2, 2002 (also under a BSD-style license).
Tremor by the Xiph.Org Foundation is a fixed-point version of the Vorbis decoder for those platforms without floating point operations.