Vowel

vowelsvowel heightVheightqualityvowel backnessvowel qualityvocalicvowel lettervowel qualities
A vowel is a syllabic speech sound pronounced without any stricture in the vocal tract.wikipedia
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Vowel length

shortlong vowellong
Vowels vary in quality, in loudness and also in quantity (length).
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.

Consonant

consonantsCconsonantal
Vowels are one of the two principal classes of speech sounds, the other being the consonant.
Contrasting with consonants are vowels.

Syllable

codaonsetsyllable coda
A vowel is a syllabic speech sound pronounced without any stricture in the vocal tract.
It is typically made up of a syllable nucleus (most often a vowel) with optional initial and final margins (typically, consonants).

Semivowel

glideglidessemi-vowel
In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic voiced, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.

Vertical vowel system

vertical
Some languages have vertical vowel systems in which at least at a phonemic level, only height is used to distinguish vowels.
A vertical vowel system is the system of vowels in a language that requires only vowel height to phonemically distinguish vowels.

Voice (phonetics)

voiced voiced voicing
They are usually voiced, and are closely involved in prosodic variation such as tone, intonation and stress.
(For a more detailed, technical explanation, see modal voice and phonation.) In most European languages, with a notable exception being Icelandic, vowels and other sonorants (consonants such as m, n, l, and r) are modally voiced.

Vowel diagram

vowel chartIPA vowel chartquadrilateral diagram
These three parameters are indicated in the schematic quadrilateral IPA vowel diagram on the right.
A vowel diagram or vowel chart is a schematic arrangement of the vowels.

Cardinal vowels

cardinal vowelcardinalvowel
Daniel Jones developed the cardinal vowel system to describe vowels in terms of the features of tongue height (vertical dimension), tongue backness (horizontal dimension) and roundedness (lip articulation).
A cardinal vowel is a vowel sound produced when the tongue is in an extreme position, either front or back, high or low.

Close vowel

CloseHighhigh vowel
Open vowels have high F1 frequencies, while close vowels have low F1 frequencies, as can be seen in the accompanying spectrogram: The and have similar low first formants, whereas has a higher formant.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in U.S. terminology ), is any in a class of vowel sounds used in many spoken languages.

International Phonetic Alphabet

IPAPronunciationInternational Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
The traditional view of vowel production, reflected for example in the terminology and presentation of the International Phonetic Alphabet, is one of articulatory features that determine a vowel's quality as distinguishing it from other vowels.
Among the symbols of the IPA, 107 letters represent consonants and vowels, 31 diacritics are used to modify these, and 19 additional signs indicate suprasegmental qualities such as length, tone, stress, and intonation.

Near-close vowel

Near-closeNear-highClose-mid
A near-close vowel or a near-high vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

Mid vowel

MidUpper midHigh-Mid
A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.

Front vowel

Frontfront vowelsfronted
Back vowels have low F2 frequencies, while front vowels have high F2 frequencies.
A front vowel is a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.

Close-mid vowel

Close-midMidHigh-mid
A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

Open vowel

OpenLowlow vowel
Open vowels have high F1 frequencies, while close vowels have low F1 frequencies, as can be seen in the accompanying spectrogram: The and have similar low first formants, whereas has a higher formant.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.

Open-mid vowel

Open-midLow-midMid
An open-mid vowel (also mid-open vowel, low-mid vowel, mid-low vowel or half-open vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

Back vowel

Backback vowelsbackness
Back vowels have low F2 frequencies, while front vowels have high F2 frequencies.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.

Central vowel

CentralcentralisedCentralized
A central vowel, formerly also known as a mixed vowel, is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

Roundedness

unroundedroundedrounded vowel
Roundedness is named after the rounding of the lips in some vowels.
In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel.

Close front rounded vowel

yClose front protruded vowelclose front compressed vowel
Swedish and Norwegian are the only two known languages in which the feature is contrastive; they have both endo- and exo-labial close front vowels and close central vowels, respectively.
The close front rounded vowel, or high front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.

Near-open vowel

Near-openNear OpenNear-
A near-open vowel or a near-low vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

Continuant

continuancecontinuitysemi mute
In phonetics, a continuant is a speech sound produced without a complete closure in the oral cavity, namely fricatives, approximants and vowels.

Close central rounded vowel

Close central compressed vowelClose central protruded vowelcentral
Swedish and Norwegian are the only two known languages in which the feature is contrastive; they have both endo- and exo-labial close front vowels and close central vowels, respectively.
The close central rounded vowel, or high central rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

Nasal vowel

nasalnasal vowelsnasalized
In nasal vowels, the velum is lowered, and some air travels through the nasal cavity as well as the mouth.
A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the soft palate (or velum) so that the air flow escapes through the nose and the mouth simultaneously, as in the French vowel or Amoy [].

Swedish language

SwedishSwedish-languageSwedish-speaking
Swedish and Norwegian are the only two known languages in which the feature is contrastive; they have both endo- and exo-labial close front vowels and close central vowels, respectively.
The language has a comparatively large vowel inventory.