Vytautas

Vytautas the GreatWitoldVitautVytautas DidysisGrand Duke VytautasVitovtDuke VytautasGrand Duke Vytautas of LithuaniaGrand Duke Vytautas the GreatGreat Prince Vitautas
Vytautas (c. 1350 – October 27, 1430), also known as Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian:, Witold Kiejstutowicz or Witold Wielki, Ruthenian: Vitovt, Latin: Alexander Vitoldus, Old German: Wythaws or Wythawt) from the 15th century onwards, was a ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which chiefly encompassed the Lithuanians and Ruthenians.wikipedia
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Grand Duchy of Lithuania

LithuaniaLithuanianGrand Duke of Lithuania
1350 – October 27, 1430), also known as Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian:, Witold Kiejstutowicz or Witold Wielki, Ruthenian: Vitovt, Latin: Alexander Vitoldus, Old German: Wythaws or Wythawt) from the 15th century onwards, was a ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which chiefly encompassed the Lithuanians and Ruthenians.
The reign of Vytautas the Great marked both the greatest territorial expansion of the Grand Duchy and the defeat of the Teutonic Knights in the Battle of Grunwald in 1410.

Vytautas Magnus University

University of LithuaniaKaunas UniversityUniversity of Kaunas
In commemoration of the 500-year anniversary of his death, Vytautas Magnus University was named after him.
Initially it was known as the University of Lithuania, but in 1930 the university was renamed to Vytautas Magnus University, commemorating 500 years of death of Vytautas the Great, the Lithuanian ruler, well known for the nation's greatest historical expansion in the 15th century.

Grodno

HrodnaHrodnoGrodna
He was also the Prince of Hrodna (1370–1382), Prince of Lutsk (1387–1389), and the postulated king of the Hussites.
The famous Lithuanian Grand Duke Vytautas was the prince of Hrodna from 1376 to 1392, and he stayed there during his preparations for the Battle of Grunwald (1410).

Lithuania

LTURepublic of LithuaniaLithuanian
In modern Lithuania, Vytautas is revered as a national hero and was an important figure in the national rebirth in the 19th century.
After two civil wars, Vytautas the Great became the Grand Duke of Lithuania in 1392.

Lutsk

ŁuckLutzkLuck
He was also the Prince of Hrodna (1370–1382), Prince of Lutsk (1387–1389), and the postulated king of the Hussites.
Vytautas the Great, Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1392 to 1430, founded the town itself by importing colonists (mostly Jews, Tatars, and Karaims).

Vilnius

VilnaWilnoVilnius, Lithuania
When Kęstutis discovered this in 1381, he seized Vilnius, imprisoned Jogaila, and made himself Grand Duke.
His grandchildren Vytautas the Great and Jogaila, however, fought civil wars.

Lithuanian name

Lithuanian family nameLithuanianname in Lithuania
Vytautas is a popular male given name in Lithuania.
They include Vytautas, Gediminas, Algirdas, and Žygimantas.

History of Lithuania

LithuaniaLithuanianLithuanian history
Monuments in his honour were built in many towns in the independent Lithuania during the interwar period from 1918 to 1939.
Ruthenian lands may have been ruled jointly by Lithuania and the Golden Horde as condominiums until the time of Vytautas, who stopped paying tribute.

Lithuanians

LithuanianLithuanian peopleLithuanian diaspora
1350 – October 27, 1430), also known as Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian:, Witold Kiejstutowicz or Witold Wielki, Ruthenian: Vitovt, Latin: Alexander Vitoldus, Old German: Wythaws or Wythawt) from the 15th century onwards, was a ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which chiefly encompassed the Lithuanians and Ruthenians.
One variation, which is implicated in familial hypercholesterolemia, has been dated to the 14th century, corresponding to the establishment of Ashkenazi settlements in response to the invitation extended by Vytautas the Great in 1388.

Treaty of Dovydiškės

In 1380, Jogaila signed the secret Treaty of Dovydiškės with the Teutonic Order against Kęstutis.
Kęstutis and his son Vytautas acknowledged Jogaila's title and maintained friendly relations with him even when his right of inheritance was challenged by Andrei of Polotsk, Algirdas' eldest son.

Treaty of Dubysa

Jogaila and the Order agreed to the Treaty of Dubysa, by which Jogaila promised to accept Christianity, become an ally of the Order, and give the Order part of Samogitia up to the Dubysa River.
During the Lithuanian Civil War (1381–84), Teutonic Order helped Jogaila and Skirgaila to defeat their uncle Kęstutis and his son Vytautas.

Sophia of Lithuania

SophiaSophia VitovtovnaSofiia Vitovtovna
Also, to gain more influence, Vytautas married his only daughter Sophia to Vasili I of Russia in 1391.
She was the only daughter of Vytautas the Great of Lithuania and his first wife, Anna.

Ostrów Agreement

Astrava TreatyAstrava AgreementTreaty of Ostrów
Jogaila and Vytautas signed the Astrava Treaty in which Vytautas recovered all Kęstutis' lands, including Trakai, and was given more.
The Ostrów or Astrava Agreement (Astravos sutartis, Востраўскае пагадненне, Ugoda w Ostrowie) was a treaty between Jogaila (Władysław II Jagiełło), King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, and his cousin Vytautas the Great, signed on 4 August 1392.

List of rulers of Lithuania

Grand Duke of LithuaniaPresident of LithuaniaPresident
Vytautas' uncle Algirdas had been Grand Duke of Lithuania until his death in 1377.

Skirgaila

Duke SkirgailaGrand Duke SkirgailaSkirhajla
Jogaila left his brother Skirgaila as regent in Lithuania.
It is believed that the dynastic disputes that soon erupted between him and his uncle Kęstutis and his cousin Vytautas the Great were largely inspired by Skirgaila.

Trakai

TrokiTrakai, Lithuanianames section
He then burned three important Teutonic castles, and regained all Kęstutis' lands, except for Trakai.
However, his rule was briefly interrupted when in 1383 joint forces of Kęstutis's son Vytautas and the Teutonic Knights captured the town.

Švitrigaila

SvitrigailaSvidrigailoBoleslav
Vytautas waged a war in 1406–1408 against his son-in-law Vasili I of Moscow and Švitrigaila, a brother of Jogaila who with the support of the Teutonic Order had declared himself grand prince.
He spent most of his life in largely unsuccessful dynastic struggles against his cousins Vytautas and Sigismund Kęstutaitis.

Battle of the Vorskla River

1399 invasion of Ukraineat the Vorskla Riverbattle of Vorskla
The campaign resulted in a crushing defeat at the Battle of the Vorskla River in 1399.
It was fought on August 12, 1399, between the Tatars, under Edigu and Temur Qutlugh, and the armies of Tokhtamysh and Grand Duke Vytautas of Lithuania.

Treaty of Salynas

In preparation for the crusade against the Golden Horde in 1398, Vytautas had signed the Treaty of Salynas with the Teutonic Knights and transferred Žemaitija Samogitia to them.
Treaty of Salynas (Frieden von Sallinwerder, Salyno sutartis) was a peace treaty signed on 12 October 1398 by the Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas the Great and the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights Konrad von Jungingen.

Union of Krewo

Union of KrevaUnion of KrėvaAct of Kreva
In 1385, Jogaila concluded the Union of Krewo with Poland, under which he married Jadwiga of Poland and became King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło.
It was guaranteed by the seals of Jogaila's brothers Skirgaila, Kaributas, Lengvenis and their cousin Vytautas.

Teutonic Order

Teutonic KnightsTeutonicTeutonic Knight
Algirdas and Vytautas' father Kęstutis had ruled jointly in the form of diarchy, with Algirdas governing the east and Kęstutis the west, primarily responsible for defense against the Teutonic Order.
The Order initially managed to play Jogaila and his cousin Vytautas against each other, but this strategy failed when Vytautas began to suspect that the Order was planning to annex parts of his territory.

Samogitian uprisings

Samogitian uprisingFirst Samogitian Uprisingsecond Samogitian uprising
In 1409 the second Samogitian uprising against the Teutonic Knights began, as the rebels burned Skirsnemunė castle.
Samogitia was granted to the Teutonic Knights by Vytautas the Great, Grand Duke of Lithuania, several times in order to enlist Knights' support for his other military affairs.

Battle of Grunwald

GrunwaldBattle of Grunwald (Tannenberg)Battle of Tannenberg
In 1410, Vytautas himself commanded the forces of the Grand Duchy in the Battle of Grunwald, also called the Battle of Žalgiris (Lithuanian) or Tannenberg (German).
The alliance of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, led respectively by King Władysław II Jagiełło (Jogaila) and Grand Duke Vytautas, decisively defeated the German–Prussian Teutonic Knights, led by Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen.

Smolensk

SmoleńskhistorySmalensk
A number of territories revolted against Vytautas, and Smolensk was retaken by its hereditary ruler, George of Smolensk and not re-conquered by Lithuanians until 1404.
The last sovereign monarch of Smolensk was Yury of Smolensk; during his reign the city was taken by Vytautas the Great of Lithuania on three occasions: in 1395, 1404, and 1408.

Klaipėda

MemelKlaipedaMemel (Klaipėda)
Žemaitija/Samogitia was returned to Lithuania in perpetuity, while the city of Memel (present-day Klaipėda) and surrounding territories stayed with the Order.
The first time the city was mentioned as Caloypede in the letter of Vytautas in 1413, for the second time in the negotiation documents of 1420 as Klawppeda, and for the third time in the Treaty of Melno of 1422 as Cleupeda.