Władysław III of Poland

Detail of Władysław's seal
Baptism of Władysław III (1425) at Wawel Cathedral in Kraków
Władysław III at the Battle of Varna as imagined by Jan Matejko
Ottoman miniature depicting Murad II and Władysław III's beheading
St. Joachim and St. Anne Meeting at the Golden Gate.
The Royal Seal of Władysław III Warneńczyk, 1438
Cenotaph effigy, Wawel Cathedral
Coat of arms
The Memorial of the Battle in Varna, built on an ancient Thracian mound tomb, bearing the name of the fallen king.
Imaginary portrait from Thuróczi János' Chronica Hungarorum (Władysław was only 20 when he died)
Church, Madalena do Mar, Madeira, hypothetical burial place of Władysław III

King of Poland and the Supreme Duke (Supremus Dux) of Grand Duchy of Lithuania from 1434 as well as King of Hungary and Croatia from 1440 until his death at the Battle of Varna.

- Władysław III of Poland

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Battle of Varna

The Battle of Varna took place on 10 November 1444 near Varna in eastern Bulgaria.

The Crusaders were trapped below. Their defeat permitted the Fall of Constantinople. Beyond the Ottoman Sultan and the Janissaries was the cradle of medieval Bulgaria.
The Hussite Wagenburg - an old sketch from the 15th century.
Movements of the forces during the battle.
A scene from the Battle of Varna (1444) on the Kronika wszystkiego świata of Marcin Bielski, published in 1564.
The Memorial of the Battle in Varna, built on an ancient Thracian mound tomb, bearing the name of the fallen king.

The Ottoman Army under Sultan Murad II (who did not actually rule the sultanate at the time) defeated the Hungarian–Polish and Wallachian armies commanded by Władysław III of Poland (also King of Hungary), John Hunyadi (acting as commander of the combined Christian forces) and Mircea II of Wallachia.

Holy Crown of Hungary

The coronation crown used by the Kingdom of Hungary for most of its existence; kings have been crowned with it since the twelfth century.

The Holy Crown
Back of the Holy Crown
The crown depicted in the 15th-century Fugger Chronicle. All images of the crown before the mid-17th century show the cross in its original upright position.
The Holy Crown of Hungary, 1857
An Engraving from 1613
Matthias II of Hungary on a medal with the Holy Crown
A sketch of the enamel icons of the Saints on the Holy Crown (top view, the crown's front side is on the bottom of the image)
Byzantine Emperor Michael VII Doukas on the corona graeca of the Holy Crown of Hungary
Hungarian King Géza I on the corona graeca of the Holy Crown of Hungary
An engraving of Matthias II of Hungary, showing the cross in vertical position
Franz Joseph I crowned with the Holy Crown as Hungarian king
A plaque at Munkács Castle commemorating the guarding of the Crown there in 1805–1806
King Charles IV, taking his coronation oath at Holy Trinity Column outside Matthias Church (1916). To date, he is the last monarch to be crowned with St. Stephen's Crown. Notice the size difference between the crown and the king's head.
The coat of arms of Hungary with the Holy Crown on top
The portrayal of Stephen I on the Hungarian coronation pall from 1031
The Crown, Sword, Sceptre and Globus Cruciger of Hungary, in the Hungarian Parliament Building
The Holy Crown on the commemorative 2000 HUF banknote, issued in 2000, the millennium anniversary of the coronation of King Saint Stephen
Front of the Holy Crown

The only kings who were not so crowned were Wladyslaw I, John Sigismund Zápolya and Joseph II.

Sophia of Halshany

Princess of Halshany and was Queen of Poland as the fourth and last wife of Jogaila, King of Poland and Supreme Duke of Lithuania.

16th-century miniature of Sophia
Sophia on a commemorative coin of twenty Belarusian rubles (2006)
Seal of Sophia from a 1435 document
Queen Sophia's Chapel (left) of the Wawel Cathedral, funded by Sophia in 1431–1432
Bible of Queen Sophia

As the mother of Władysław III, King of Poland and Hungary, and Casimir IV, Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland, she was the mother of the Jagiellon dynasty.

Casimir IV Jagiellon

Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1440 and King of Poland from 1447, until his death.

Casimir IV, 17th-century depiction bearing a close resemblance
Lithuanian coin of Grand Duke Casimir IV Jagiellon with the Columns of the Gediminids and Vytis (Pogonia)
Countries ruled by the Jagiellonian dynasty in 1490
Casimir IV in advanced age, by Jan Matejko
Portrait of King Casimir, by Aleksander Lesser, 1860
Giovanni da Capistrano and King Casimir IV
Tomb of Casimir IV in the Wawel Cathedral, late Gothic masterpiece by Veit Stoss
Statue of Casimir IV Jagiellon in Malbork
Poland and Lithuania in 1466, under Casimir's rule
Polish knights and soldiers during the times of Casimir
Polish stamp, 1938

In 1427, the Polish nobility initiated an anti-Jagiellonian opposition and attempted to have Władysław II Jagiełło's sons Władysław III and Casimir IV Jagiellon declared illegitimate to the Polish throne as they, being sons of a Lithuanian noblewoman Sophia of Halshany, had no blood link to the previous ruling Polish dynasty, the Piasts, however Casimir's father ensured the succession for his sons.

John Hunyadi

Leading Hungarian military and political figure in Central and Southeastern Europe during the 15th century.

John Hunyadi depicted in the 15th-century Chronica Hungarorum (Brno, 1488)
King Sigismund of Hungary's charter of the grant of Hunyad Castle (in present-day Hunedoara, Romania) to Voyk, Magos and Radol (the sons of Serbe), and their uncle or cousin, Radol, and Voyk's son, John
Sigismund, King of Hungary
Detail of the seal of Vladislaus, King of Poland and Hungary, whom Hunyadi supported in the civil war of 1440-1442
The Battle of Varna, as depicted in the 1564 edition of Martin Bielski's Polish Chronicle
Main entrance of the Hunyad Castle (in present-day Hunedoara, Romania)
Ruins of Despot Đurađ Branković's palace in the Smederevo Fortress—Hunyadi was kept prisoner in this fort after his defeat in the Second Battle of Kosovo in 1448
Ladislaus the Posthumous, King of Hungary and Bohemia, and Duke of Austria
Gothic fresco of the Siege of Belgrade in the Church of Immaculate Conception of Virgin Mary in Olomouc (1468)
Hunyadi's tomb in Gyulafehérvár / Alba Iulia Catholic Cathedral.
Statue of Hunyadi, Heroes' Square, Budapest, Hungary
Personal Coat of arms – note the raven depicted on the escutcheon, the origin of the name Corvinus.
Lithograph picture of John Hunyadi fighting against the Ottomans in the Battle of Varna, made by József Marastoni.
The Tower of John Hunyadi at the remains of the Zemun Fortress, Belgrade, Serbia
John Hunyadi (John Thuróczy - Chronica Hungarorum, 1488)

He actively took part in the civil war between the partisans of Wladislas I and the minor Ladislaus V, two claimants to the throne of Hungary in the early 1440s, on behalf of the former.


City on the Warta river in central Poland with 41,390 inhabitants (2020).

Collegiate Church, 14th century
Memorial plaque at the site of the first public execution of Poles, carried out by the Germans on September 15, 1939
Pre-war view of the Danielewicz Palace, which was destroyed during World War II
St. Adalbert Church
City Theatre
Antoine de Paris monument

1294-1297 Ladislaus III the Short (Władysław Łokietek)

Zbigniew Oleśnicki (cardinal)

High-ranking Roman Catholic clergyman and an influential Polish statesman and diplomat.

Oleśnicki according to a sketch by Jan Matejko
Zbigniew of Oleśnica

He took part in the management of the country's most important affairs, initially as a royal secretary under King Władysław II Jagiełło and later as the effective regent during King Władysław III's minority.

PFC Cherno More Varna

Bulgarian professional association football club based in the city of Varna, which currently competes in Bulgaria's primary football competition, the First League.

Vladislav Varna in 1925. Vladislav was one of the predecessors of Cherno More.
Cherno More ultras on the stadium's eastern stand.
Ticha Stadium

In 1921 Sports Club Granit left the collective membership with SK Ticha due to financial disputes, becoming SC Vladislav after Polish king Władysław of Varna.


Town of 13,786 inhabitants in central Poland.

The First Sejm in Łęczyca, by Jan Matejko
Baroque Church of the Immaculate Conception of Mary
Park Miejski (Municipal Park)

Władysław III of Poland

Jagiellonian dynasty

Royal dynasty, founded by Jogaila, the Grand Duke of Lithuania, who in 1386 was baptized as Władysław, married Queen Jadwiga of Poland, and was crowned King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło.

Jogaila, later Władysław II Jagiełło (c. 1352/1362 – 1 June 1434) was Grand Duke of Lithuania (1377–1434), King of Poland (1386–1399) alongside his wife Jadwiga, and then sole King of Poland.
Baptism of Władysław III of Poland at Wawel in 1425
The Crusade of Varna was a series of events in 1443–44 between the crusaders and the Ottoman Empire, culminating in a devastating Christian loss at the Battle of Varna on 10 November 1444.
Thirteen Years' War—Battle of Chojnice in 1454
Malbork Castle during Thirteen Years' War (1460)
Sigismund I the Old (1467 –1548), King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania
Chicken War or Hen War, a 1537 anti-royalist and anti-absolutist rokosz (rebellion) by the Polish nobility.
Death of Barbara Radziwiłł Painting by Józef Simmler
Wawel Hill, the castle and the cathedral
Ladislaus II Jagiellon (1456–1516), King of Bohemia and Hungary
Louis II of Hungary (1506–1526), King of Hungary and Bohemia
Discovery of the corpse of King Louis II after the Battle of Mohacs

In 1430 the nobility agreed to the succession of the future Władysław III, only after the King gave in and guaranteed the satisfaction of their new demands.