Władysław II Jagiełło

Early coin of the Grand Duke of Lithuania Jogaila with a lion, minted at the Vilnius Mint between 1386 and 1387
Seal of Jogaila with his title (in Latin) as King in Lithuania, used in 1377–1386, before becoming the King of Poland in 1386
Poland and Lithuania 1386–1434
Lithuanian Denar of Jogaila (minted in 1388–1392) with Vytis (Pahonia)
Royal seal of Władysław II Jagiełło
Battle of Grunwald, 1410. Painting by Jan Matejko
The Teutonic Order's castle at Marienburg
Polish and Lithuanian conflict with Teutonic Prussia, 1377–1434.
Jagiełło's sarcophagus, Wawel Cathedral
Władysław II Jagiełło by Jan Matejko
Władysław Jagiełło as depicted in Ksawery Pillati's Portraits of Polish Princes and Kings, 1888
A 17th-century depiction of Władysław II Jagiełło and Jadwiga of Poland by the cross by Tommaso Dolabella
King Jagiello Monument, Central Park, New York
Grunwald Monument, Kraków

Grand Duke of Lithuania (1377–1434) and then King of Poland (1386–1434), first alongside his wife Jadwiga until 1399, and then sole ruler of Poland.

- Władysław II Jagiełło

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Battle of Grunwald

Fought on 15 July 1410 during the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War.

Battle of Grunwald by Jan Matejko (1878)
The most important source about the battle is Cronica conflictus...
The Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania within their vassals between 1386 and 1434
Territory of the State of the Teutonic Order between 1260 and 1410; the locations and dates of major battles, including the Battle of Grunwald, are indicated by crossed red swords.
Lithuanians fighting with Teutonic knights (14th-century bas-relief from the Castle of Marienburg)
Map of army movements in the Grunwald campaign
Teutonic Order presents Grunwald Swords as gift to King Władysław II Jagiełło (painting by Wojciech Kossak)
Banners of the Kingdom of Poland and Lwów Land during the battle
Muslim Tatar fights a Teutonic knight (detail from a painting by Wojciech Kossak)
After the Battle of Grunwald: The Solidarity of the Northern Slavs (1924), by Alfons Mucha, The Slav Epic
The battle as depicted in the Berner Chronik of Diebold Schilling
After the battle, the Castle of Marienburg, which served as the Teutonic capital, was unsuccessfully besieged for two months by the Polish–Lithuanian forces
Memorials at the battlefield built in 1960
Ruins of the Chapel of St. Mary
Military parade of the 1st Infantry Regiment of the Lithuanian Grand Duke Gediminas during commemoration of the battle of Žalgiris in Ukmergė on 15 July 1930.
Grunwald Monument was erected in Kraków, Poland for the battle's 500th anniversary. It was destroyed during World War II by the Germans and rebuilt in 1976.
A re-enactor dressed as King Władysław II Jagiełło (left) during the annual recreation of the battle in 2003
A German National People's Party propaganda poster from 1920 depicts a Teutonic knight threatened by a Pole and a socialist
Retreat of Lithuanian light cavalry (battle location and initial army positions according to a 1836 map by Johannes Voigt and contradicted by archaeological excavations in 2014–2017){{sfn|Ekdahl|2018|pp=243, 256, 257}}
Right-flank Polish–Lithuanian assault
Polish heavy cavalry break-through

The alliance of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, led respectively by King Władysław II Jagiełło (Jogaila) and Grand Duke Vytautas, decisively defeated the German Teutonic Order, led by Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen.

List of Polish monarchs

Ruled at various times either by dukes and princes or by kings (11th to 18th centuries).

Stanislaus II Augustus

His daughter, Jadwiga, later married Jogaila, the pagan Grand Duke of Lithuania, who in 1386 was baptized and crowned as Władysław II Jagiełło, thus creating the Jagiellonian dynasty and a personal union between Poland and Lithuania.

Jadwiga of Poland

The first female monarch of the Kingdom of Poland, reigning from 16 October 1384 until her death.

Effigy of Jadwiga on her seal
Jadwiga with her mother and sisters as depicted on Saint Simeon's casket in Zadar
Lands ruled or claimed around 1370 by Jadwiga's father, Louis the Great (or the Hungarian): Hungary and Poland are colored red, the vassal states and the Kingdom of Naples are coloured light red
Dymitr of Goraj by Jan Matejko depicts Jadwiga trying to break the castle gate to join William
Saint Florian's Psalter, commissioned by Jadwiga in around 1370, held in the National Library of Poland in Warsaw
Queen Jadwiga's Oath, by Józef Simmler, 1867
Stephen I of Moldavia's promise of loyalty to Jadwiga and Jogaila against Sigismund
Jadwiga's sarcophagus, Wawel Cathedral, Kraków
Jadwiga as imagined by Marcello Bacciarelli

With her mother's consent, Jadwiga's advisors opened negotiations with Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania, who was still a pagan, concerning his potential marriage to Jadwiga.

Grand Duchy of Lithuania

European state that existed from the 13th century to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and the Habsburg Empire of Austria.

The Grand Duchy of Lithuania at the height of its power in the 15th century (on a modern day map)
Lithuania in the Mappa mundi of Pietro Vesconte, 1321. The inscription reads: Letvini pagani - pagan Lithuanians.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania at the height of its power in the 15th century (on a modern day map)
Balts in the 12th century
Columns of Gediminas
Gediminas' Tower in Vilnius
Lithuanian state in 13-15th centuries
Lubart's Castle in Ukraine, built by the son of Gediminas' Liubartas in the mid-14th century, is famous for the Congress of Lutsk which took place in 1429
Grand Duchy of Lithuania under the rule of Vytautas the Great
Poland and Lithuania in 1386–1434
Trakai Island Castle, residence of the Grand Duke Vytautas
The Battle of Grunwald, 1410, with Ulrich von Jungingen and Vytautas at center
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania within the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth c. 1635
Lithuania and its administrative divisions in the 17th century
Church of St. Johns in Vilnius. Example of Vilnius Baroque style
St. Anne's Church and the church of the Bernardine Monastery in Vilnius
Constitution of 3 May, one of the first official state documents issued in both Polish and Lithuanian, Lithuanian edition
Lithuanian primer for kids, published in Vilnius, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, 1783 edition
Area where Lithuanian was spoken in the 16th century
Lithuania proper (in green) and Samogitia (in red) within the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in a map from 1712
Panegyric to Sigismund III Vasa, visiting Vilnius, first hexameter in Lithuanian, 1589
The Statute of Grand Duchy of Lithuania (1588) in Ruthenian printed in Vilnius
The first printed book in Lithuanian Catechism of Martynas Mažvydas by Martynas Mažvydas
Lithuanian ancient hill fort in Rudamina
Lithuanian ancient hill fort mounds in Kernavė, now listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Kaunas Castle
thumb|Lida Castle
Ruins of Navahrudak Castle. Current state (2004)
Ruins of Kreva Castle
Mir Castle - a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Belarus.
Medininkai Castle
Palace of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania in Vilnius
Vilnius University and the Church of St. John
St. George Church (1487) in Kaunas
Church of Vytautas the Great in Kaunas
Pažaislis Monastery church, decorated with expensive marble
Royal insignias of the rulers of Lithuania in the Vilnius Cathedral, 1931
Coins of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Coins of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Coins of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Recreation of the Lithuanian soldiers
thumb|right|Showcase of the Crimean Karaites traditional lifestyle in Trakai, Lithuania
Žemaitukas, a historic horse breed from Lithuania, known from the 6–7th centuries, used as a warhorse by the Lithuanians
"Christianization of Lithuania in 1387", oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1889, Royal Castle in Warsaw
Priest, lexicographer Konstantinas Sirvydas, the cherisher of the Lithuanian language in the 17th century
Lithuanian national coats of arms: Columns of Gediminas, Double Cross of the Jagiellonians (Jogaila) and Samogitian bear
Coat of arms of the Grand Chancellors of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Coat of arms of the Grand Marshals of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuanian Metrica
Reciprocal Guarantee of Two Nations which distinguishes Poles, Lithuanians, Ruthenians, and others, adopted on 20 October 1791
Kamianets-Podilskyi Castle in Ukraine.

Algirdas's son Jogaila signed the Union of Krewo in 1386, bringing two major changes in the history of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: conversion to Christianity and establishment of a dynastic union between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland.

Union of Krewo

Document, signed in Kreva on 14 August 1385
Poland and Lithuania in 1387
Monument of Jadwiga and Jogaila in Kraków

In a strict sense, the Union of Krewo or Act of Krėva (also spelled Union of Krevo, Act of Kreva; Крэўская унія; unia w Krewie; Krėvos sutartis) comprised a set of prenuptial promises made at Kreva Castle on 14 August 1385 by Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania, in regard to his prospective marriage to the underage reigning Queen Jadwiga of Poland.

Kęstutis

Ruler of medieval Lithuania.

Kęstutis seal from 1379
Litas commemorative coin dedicated to Kęstutis
The hillfort of Senieji Trakai Castle where the wedding of Grand Duke Kęstutis and Birutė was held
Trakai Peninsula Castle built by Kęstutis
Malbork castle, where Kęstutis was detained in 1361
Vytautas and Kęstutis imprisoned by Jogaila. Painting by Wojciech Gerson
Kęstutis on the Millennium of Russia monument in Veliky Novgorod.

He was the Duke of Trakai and governed the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, 1342–1382, together with his brother Algirdas (until 1377), and with his nephew Jogaila (until 1381).

Vytautas

Vytautas (c.

Seal of Vytautas
Poland and Lithuania, 1386–1434
Privilege to Vilnius Cathedral issued by Vytautas in Vilnius on 16 February 1410 (Latin language)
Principality of Smolensk coin with lions or leopards and the Columns of Gediminas, showing it as a vassal of Vytautas the Great, circa 1399–1401.
Vytautas the Great Monument in Kaunas
Church of Vytautas the Great. Built around 1400 in Kaunas
Vytautas the Great watch tower in Kherson, Ukraine
Vytautas and Kęstutis imprisoned by Jogaila. Painting by Wojciech Gerson

It is known that Vytautas himself knew and spoke in the Lithuanian language with Jogaila.

Jagiellonian dynasty

Jogaila, later Władysław II Jagiełło (c. 1352/1362 – 1 June 1434) was Grand Duke of Lithuania (1377–1434), King of Poland (1386–1399) alongside his wife Jadwiga, and then sole King of Poland.
Baptism of Władysław III of Poland at Wawel in 1425
The Crusade of Varna was a series of events in 1443–44 between the crusaders and the Ottoman Empire, culminating in a devastating Christian loss at the Battle of Varna on 10 November 1444.
Thirteen Years' War—Battle of Chojnice in 1454
Malbork Castle during Thirteen Years' War (1460)
Sigismund I the Old (1467 –1548), King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania
Chicken War or Hen War, a 1537 anti-royalist and anti-absolutist rokosz (rebellion) by the Polish nobility.
Death of Barbara Radziwiłł Painting by Józef Simmler
Wawel Hill, the castle and the cathedral
Ladislaus II Jagiellon (1456–1516), King of Bohemia and Hungary
Louis II of Hungary (1506–1526), King of Hungary and Bohemia
Discovery of the corpse of King Louis II after the Battle of Mohacs
350px

The Jagiellonian dynasty, or simply Jagiellon, was a royal dynasty, founded by Jogaila, the Grand Duke of Lithuania, who in 1386 was baptized as Władysław, married Queen Jadwiga of Poland, and was crowned King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło.

Gediminids

The Gediminids (Gediminaičiai,, Гедзімінавічы, Giedyminowicze, Гедиміновичі;) were a dynasty of monarchs in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania that reigned from the 14th to the 16th century.

The Gediminid symbol in Rambynas Hill, Lithuania

Jogaila

Vilnius

Capital and largest city of Lithuania, with a population of 592,389.

Iron Wolf
King Mindaugas Monument
Palace of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania and Grand Duke Gediminas Monument with the howling iron wolf
Vilnius panorama in 1600 by Tomasz Makowski
La Grande Armée in Vilnius during its retreat (near the Vilnius Town Hall). In the beginning of his invasion of Russia, Napoleon established the Lithuanian Provisional Governing Commission, with the nobility seeing him as a liberator.
House of the Signatories in Vilnius
In 1905, the Great Seimas of Vilnius took place in the current Lithuanian National Philharmonic Society building
Celebration of incorporation of Vilnius Region to Poland in 1922. The event sparked vast Lithuanians anger with a popular interwar chant: "Mes be Vilniaus nenurimsim!" (We will not calm down without Vilnius!)
Lithuanian Army tanks in Vilnius after regaining control of the capital
Povilas Plechavičius, commander of the LTDF
The former KGB headquarters in Vilnius, now the Museum of Occupations and Freedom Fights
Annual commemoration of January Events in the Independence Square near the Seimas Palace with bonfires
Gediminas Avenue in autumn
Neris River at Mindaugas Bridge with Vilnius Upper Castle in the distance. A favorable geographic location made the Upper Castle on the Gediminas' Hill unconquerable for hundreds of years.
Foggy winter sunrise in Vilnius
Gothic wall frescoes of the Church of St. Francis and St. Bernard (16th century)
Tombstone of Lew Sapieha, ca. 1633, at Church of St. Michael
Lithuanian Girl with Palm Sunday Fronds by Kanuty Rusiecki
Vilnius Picture Gallery in the old town (former Chodkiewicz Palace)
Zawadzki bookstore on the present-day Pilies Street. The store banners are printed in five languages: Russian, Polish, Lithuanian, French, German.
Gate of the Basilian Monastery where poet Adam Mickiewicz was imprisoned for fighting the Russian rule
The Institute of Lithuanian Literature and Folklore (Vileišis Palace)
Billboard above the Botanical Garden (now Bernardinai Garden) main gates of the first cinema screening in Vilnius (1897)
Lithuanian Theater, Music and Cinema Museum, located in the 17th century Minor Radvilos Palace
Libretto of the first opera staged in Vilnius (1636), which overtook the first operas in Paris (1645) and London (1656)
Lithuanian Song and Dance Festival in Vingis Park
Andrius Mamontovas, leader of Foje and founder of the annual Gatvės muzikos diena (Street Music Day)
Page in Latin of theatre program dedicated to Algirdas (1687), once performed in Vilnius
Lithuanian National Drama Theatre
Coronal mass ejection, captured in 1867 with Vilnius's photoheliograph, which was only the second such device in the entire world
Kaziuko mugė is held annually in the city in honor of Saint Casimir
Krzysztof Mikołaj "Piorun" Radziwiłł (Voivode of Vilnius from 1584 to 1603). Due to his prominent victories versus Ivan the Terrible's troops during the Livonian War, he was nicknamed "the Thunderbolt" (Perkūnas).
Vilnius Town Hall, reconstructed in neoclassical style according to the design by Laurynas Gucevičius in 1799
Vilnius City Municipality Building in Konstitucijos Avenue, housing the city's municipal council and administration
Map of Vilnius elderships. Numbers on the map correspond with numbers in the list
Medininkai Castle, built in the first half of the 14th century. It is the largest enclosure type defensive castle in Lithuania and one of the primary landmarks of the Vilnius district.
Seimas Palace in Vilnius, where the parliamentarians of Lithuania convenes
St. Anne's Church and the Church of St. Francis and St. Bernard are an outstanding examples of Gothic architecture in Lithuania
Church of St. Peter and St. Paul is a Baroque architecture masterpiece. It was funded by Michał Kazimierz Pac, commemorating a victory over the Muscovites and their expulsion from Vilnius after six years of occupation.
The 17th-century Chapel of Saint Casimir, a patron saint of Lithuania and its youth, in the Cathedral of Vilnius
Model of the Vilnius Castle Complex in the first half of the 17th century. The Upper Castle, which early wooden variants dates to the 10th century, was partly destroyed during the Battle of Vilnius (1655) and was never rebuilt.
Vilnius Old Town apartments offers views to the most notable landmarks of the city and a medieval atmosphere
Part of Valakampiai neighborhood in Antakalnis eldership by the Neris River as seen from Verkiai Palace
Helios City complex in Naujamiestis with shopping mall and apartments
Šnipiškės in the 19th century with the Chapel of Jesus of Šnipiškės
Grand Duke Sigismund II Augustus (Vilnius' founder's Gediminas' direct offspring by the male-line ) with his wife, the Grand Duchess Barbara Radziwiłł, in Vilnius. The city prospered during his reign and the Golden Age.
Pagan Lithuanians worshipping a grass snake, oak and holy fire. From Olaus Magnus' Historia de Gentibus Septentrionalibus (History of the Northern People), book 3, 1555.
Manifesto of the Uprising of 1794 in Lithuanian, encouraging Lithuanians to defend Vilnius from falling under the Russian control. The number of inhabitants in the Grand Duchy's capital fell fivefold, compared to 1760s when more than 60 thousand citizens were living in Vilnius, when the uprising failed in 1794 and in 1795 the state was abolished after the Third Partition.
Vilnius within Lithuania proper (marked in green) in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in a map from 1712
Multicultural Vilnians in 1915. The city was famous for its tolerance of various ethnicities till World War I.
Europa Tower is the tallest building in the Baltic states and is one of the symbols of modern Vilnius and its economic growth
K29 business centre is the first office in the Baltic states which received excellent BREEAM rating
Vilnius University Astronomical Observatory, est. in 1753, is one of the oldest in Europe and was the first in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Scientific centres and universities faculties in the Sunrise Valley
Virginijus Šikšnys is a prominent biochemist of the Vilnius University
The Green Hall business centre complex in Žvėrynas, which houses IT companies and the Europe's first international Blockchain Centre
The Bank of Lithuania headquarters in Gediminas Avenue
The Grand Courtyard of Vilnius University and Church of St. Johns
National M. K. Čiurlionis School of Art is a prestigious art school, offering free education to talented Lithuanians
One of the 16th century Central Vilnius University Library reading rooms, decorated in 1803 with the portraits of the 12 most prominent figures in antiquity art and science
Church of St. Casimir, the first Baroque church in Vilnius, known for excellent acoustics and organ concerts with renowned international musicians
Orthodox Cathedral of the Theotokos, built in the 14th century by Grand Duke Algirdas for newcomers Ruthenians in the Ruthenian quarter of Vilnius
Choral Synagogue of Vilnius
The interior of the Chapel of the Gate of Dawn with the holy Our Lady of the Gate of Dawn painting
The first Divine Mercy painting by Eugeniusz Kazimirowski (1934) at the Divine Mercy Sanctuary, Vilnius
Verkiai Calvary, c. undefined 1840s. It was built as a sign of gratitude for the victory in the Second Northern War.
Three Crosses in Kalnai Park
Singing fountain in Bernardinai Garden
Tourists in the Old Town of Vilnius
The Republic of Užupis is a tourists frequently visited micronation in Vilnius, full of Bohemian culture and art
Grand Hotel Kempinski Vilnius
Siemens Arena
Vilnius International Airport main entrance
Carsharing company SPARK car and an EV charging station in Vilnius
Solaris Urbino 18 bus and Škoda 26Tr Solaris trolleybuses in Vilnius
Orange bikes, available for renting
House in which the Vilnius Medical Society was established in 1805
The title page of Kurier Litewski (1760, Vilnius)
La Grande Armée in Vilnius during its retreat (near the Vilnius Town Hall). In the beginning of his invasion of Russia, Napoleon established the Lithuanian Provisional Governing Commission, with the nobility seeing him as a liberator.

His grandchildren Vytautas the Great and Jogaila, however, fought civil wars.