WHOIS

CRISPCross Registry Information Service ProtocolRWhoisWHOIS DatabaseAPNIC Whois DatabaseIP address lookupsjwhoisReferral Whois (RWhois) ProtocolWho isWHOIS server
WHOIS (pronounced as the phrase "who is") is a query and response protocol that is widely used for querying databases that store the registered users or assignees of an Internet resource, such as a domain name, an IP address block or an autonomous system, but is also used for a wider range of other information.wikipedia
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Network Solutions

Network Solutions, Inc.Network Solutions, LLCNetwork Solutions Inc.
InterNIC was formed in 1993 under contract with the NSF, consisting of Network Solutions, Inc., General Atomics and AT&T.
NSI also maintained the central database of assigned names called WHOIS.

Elizabeth J. Feinler

Elizabeth FeinlerElizabeth "Jake" FeinlerJake Feinler
Elizabeth Feinler and her team (who had created the Resource Directory for ARPANET) were responsible for creating the first WHOIS directory in the early 1970s.
In 1982, an Internet protocol was defined by Ken Harrenstien and Vic White in her group to access the online directory of people, called Whois.

Domain Name System

DNSresource recordDNS record
She and the team created domains, with Feinler's suggestion that domains be divided into categories based on the physical address of the computer.
For zones operated by a registry, administrative information is often complemented by the registry's RDAP and WHOIS services.

Asia-Pacific Network Information Centre

APNICAsia Pacific Network Information Centre (APNIC)Asia-Pacific Network Information Center
At present, popular web-based WHOIS-queries may be conducted from ARIN, RIPE and APNIC.
The APNIC Whois Database details of IP addresses and AS numbers originally allocated by APNIC.

Domain name registry

domain registryregistrydomain name registration
Specific details of which records are stored vary among domain name registries.
The allocated and assigned domain names are made available by registries by use of the WHOIS system and via their domain name servers.

Domain privacy

WhoisGuardprivate domain registration
Others cite the competing goal of domain privacy as a criticism, although this problem is strongly mitigated by domain privacy services.
A user buys privacy from the company, who in turn replaces the user's information in the WHOIS with the information of a forwarding service (for email and sometimes postal mail, it is done by a proxy server).

Shared Whois Project

The Shared Whois Project (SWIP) is the process used to submit, maintain and update information to ensure up-to-date and efficient maintenance of WHOIS records, as structured in RFC 1491.

Domain name registrar

domain registrarregistrarregistrars
Since the advent of the commercialized Internet, multiple registrars and unethical spammers, such permissive searching is no longer available.
Some scammers contact end-users by telephone (because the contact information is available through WHOIS) to obtain more information.

Routing Policy Specification Language

RPSL
The routing policies are stored at various whois databases including RIPE, RADB and APNIC.

ICANN

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and NumbersInternet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
On December 1, 1999, management of the top-level domains (TLDs) com, net, and org was assigned to ICANN.
In 2013, the initial report of ICANN's Expert Working Group has recommended that the present form of Whois, a utility that allows anyone to know who has registered a domain name on the Internet, should be "abandoned".

RegisterFly

But if the registrar goes out of business, as with the failure of RegisterFly in 2007, the rightful domain holder with privacy-protected registrations may have difficulty regaining the administration of his/her domain name.
eNom and ICANN also accused RegisterFly of inappropriately altering clients' WHOIS data.

IP address

IP addressesIPdynamic IP address
WHOIS (pronounced as the phrase "who is") is a query and response protocol that is widely used for querying databases that store the registered users or assignees of an Internet resource, such as a domain name, an IP address block or an autonomous system, but is also used for a wider range of other information.

Internet Society

ISOCThe Internet Society
The current iteration of the WHOIS protocol was drafted by the Internet Society, and is documented in.

Stanford University

StanfordLeland Stanford Junior UniversityUniversity of Stanford
Feinler set up a server in Stanford's Network Information Center (NIC) which acted as a directory which could retrieve relevant information about people or entities.

DARPA

Defense Advanced Research Projects AgencyAdvanced Research Projects AgencyARPA
At the time of the emergence of the internet from the ARPANET, the only organization that handled all domain registrations was the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) of the United States government (created during 1958.

UUNET

MFS UUNETUUNET Technologies Inc
UUNET began offering domain registration service; however they simply handled the paperwork which they forwarded to the DARPA Network Information Center (NIC).

National Science Foundation

NSFNational Science Foundation (NSF)U.S. National Science Foundation
Then the National Science Foundation directed that management of Internet domain registration would be handled by commercial, third-party entities.

InterNIC

Network Information CenterNICInternet Network Information Center
InterNIC was formed in 1993 under contract with the NSF, consisting of Network Solutions, Inc., General Atomics and AT&T.

General Atomics

General AtomicGeneral Atomics Aeronautical Systems Inc.designers of the plant
InterNIC was formed in 1993 under contract with the NSF, consisting of Network Solutions, Inc., General Atomics and AT&T.

AT&T

AT&T Inc.Southwestern Bell CorporationAT&T Latin America
InterNIC was formed in 1993 under contract with the NSF, consisting of Network Solutions, Inc., General Atomics and AT&T.

Top-level domain

top level domainTLDtop-level domains
On December 1, 1999, management of the top-level domains (TLDs) com, net, and org was assigned to ICANN.

Common Gateway Interface

CGICGI scriptCGI scripting
A month later, it had self-detecting Common Gateway Interface support so that the same program could operate a web-based WHOIS lookup, and an external TLD table to support multiple WHOIS servers based on the TLD of the request.

American Registry for Internet Numbers

ARINAmerican Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN)
At present, popular web-based WHOIS-queries may be conducted from ARIN, RIPE and APNIC. Meanwhile, ARIN and RIPE NCC managed to serve WHOIS data via RESTful web services.

Réseaux IP Européens Network Coordination Centre

RIPE NCCRIPERIPE Network Coordination Centre
Meanwhile, ARIN and RIPE NCC managed to serve WHOIS data via RESTful web services.