Waist–hip ratio

waist-hip ratiowaist-to-hip ratiowaist to hip ratiohip-to-waist rationarrow waistwaist-to-hip ratio (WHR)waist-to-hip ratios
The waist-hip ratio or waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is the dimensionless ratio of the circumference of the waist to that of the hips.wikipedia
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Waist

waist circumference
The waist-hip ratio or waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is the dimensionless ratio of the circumference of the waist to that of the hips.
A study published in the European Heart Journal April 2007 showed that waist circumference and waist-hip ratio were predictors of cardiovascular events.

Obesity

obesemorbidly obeseoverweight
WHR is used as a measurement of obesity, which in turn is a possible indicator of other more serious health conditions.
It is defined by body mass index (BMI) and further evaluated in terms of fat distribution via the waist–hip ratio and total cardiovascular risk factors.

Abdominal obesity

central obesitybeer bellypot belly
The WHO states that abdominal obesity is defined as a waist-hip ratio above 0.90 for males and above 0.85 for females, or a body mass index (BMI) above 30.0.
Waist–hip ratio (the circumference of the waist divided by that of the hips of >0.9 for men and >0.85 for women)

Hip

hip jointhipship-joint
The waist-hip ratio or waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is the dimensionless ratio of the circumference of the waist to that of the hips.
Waist–hip ratio

Body mass index

BMIbody mass index (BMI)body-mass index
The WHO states that abdominal obesity is defined as a waist-hip ratio above 0.90 for males and above 0.85 for females, or a body mass index (BMI) above 30.0.
A 2011 study that followed 60,000 participants for up to 13 years found that waist–hip ratio was a better predictor of ischaemic heart disease mortality.

Diabetes mellitus

diabetesdiabeticdiabetics
Women within the 0.7 range have optimal levels of estrogen and are less susceptible to major diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disorders and ovarian cancers.
Even those who are not obese often have a high waist–hip ratio.

Physical attractiveness

physiquephysically attractivebeauty
Some researchers have found that the waist–hip ratio is a significant measure of female attractiveness.
Men, on average, tend to be attracted to women who have a youthful appearance and exhibit features such as a symmetrical face, full breasts, full lips, and a low waist-hip ratio.

Hip and buttock padding

The methods include the use of a corset to reduce the waist size and hip and buttock padding to increase the apparent size of the hips and buttocks.
Hip and buttock padding is used to increase the apparent size of the hips and buttocks in order to increase apparent waist-hip ratio which implies more feminine body shape.

Glenn Wilson (psychologist)

Glenn WilsonGlenn D. WilsonDr Glenn D. Wilson
Singh argued that the WHR was a more consistent estrogen marker than the bust–waist ratio (BWR) studied at King's College, London by Dr. Glenn Wilson in the 1970s.
His use of the bust-waist ratio as an objective index of female sexual attractiveness presaged the waist-hip ratio, now widely accepted as an oestrogen (fertility) marker.

Devendra Singh

The concept and significance of WHR as an indicator of attractiveness was first theorized by evolutionary psychologist Devendra Singh at the University of Texas at Austin in 1993.
A pioneer in the field of evolutionary psychology, Singh's most notable research concerned the evolutionary significance of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR).

Bust/waist/hip measurements

BustChestmeasurements
Singh argued that the WHR was a more consistent estrogen marker than the bust–waist ratio (BWR) studied at King's College, London by Dr. Glenn Wilson in the 1970s.
Waist-hip ratio

Digit ratio

2D:4D finger ratiosdigit-length ratioFinger length ratios
Digit ratio
Waist–hip ratio

Dimensionless quantity

dimensionlessdimensionless numberdimensionless quantities
The waist-hip ratio or waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is the dimensionless ratio of the circumference of the waist to that of the hips.

Ratio

ratiosproportionratio analysis
The waist-hip ratio or waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is the dimensionless ratio of the circumference of the waist to that of the hips.

World Health Organization

WHOWorld Health OrganisationWorld Health Organization (WHO)
The WHO states that abdominal obesity is defined as a waist-hip ratio above 0.90 for males and above 0.85 for females, or a body mass index (BMI) above 30.0. According to the World Health Organization's data gathering protocol, the waist circumference should be measured at the midpoint between the lower margin of the last palpable ribs and the top of the iliac crest, using a stretch‐resistant tape that provides a constant 100 g tension.

Iliac crest

iliac bladecrest of the iliumcrest
According to the World Health Organization's data gathering protocol, the waist circumference should be measured at the midpoint between the lower margin of the last palpable ribs and the top of the iliac crest, using a stretch‐resistant tape that provides a constant 100 g tension.

National Institutes of Health

NIHNational Institute of HealthNational Institutes of Health (NIH)
The United States National Institutes of Health and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey used results obtained by measuring at the top of the iliac crest.

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

NHANES
The United States National Institutes of Health and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey used results obtained by measuring at the top of the iliac crest.

Navel

umbilicusbelly buttonbellybutton
Waist measurements are usually obtained by laypersons by measurings around the waist at the navel, but research has shown that these measurements may underestimate the true waist circumference.

Body fat percentage

body fatfat masspercentage body fat
The body fat percentage is considered to be an even more accurate measure of relative weight.

Cortisol

stress hormonestress hormoneshydrocortisone
The anti-stress hormone cortisol is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and has been associated with higher levels of abdominal fat and therefore a higher WHR.

Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis

hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axisHPA axishypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal
The anti-stress hormone cortisol is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and has been associated with higher levels of abdominal fat and therefore a higher WHR.

Cushing's syndrome

hyperadrenocorticismhypercortisolismCushing syndrome
Evidence for the relationship between cortisol and central fat distribution has primarily been studied in individuals with Cushing’s syndrome.

Leptin

leptin resistancelectinLEP
It is more likely that a complex set of biological and neuroendocrine pathways related to cortisol secretion contribute to central adiposity, such as leptin, neuropeptide y, corticotropin releasing factor and the sympathetic nervous system.