Walkie-talkie

walkie talkiewalkie-talkiesradiohandheld transceiverportable radiohand-heldpolice radiosportablewalkie talkiespolice radio
A walkie-talkie (more formally known as a handheld transceiver, or HT) is a hand-held, portable, two-way radio transceiver.wikipedia
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Alfred J. Gross

Al Gross
Its development during the Second World War has been variously credited to Donald L. Hings, radio engineer Alfred J. Gross, and engineering teams at Motorola.
He created and patented many communications devices, specifically in relation to an early version of the walkie-talkie, Citizens' Band radio, the telephone pager and the cordless telephone.

Two-way radio

two way radioRadio Operator2-way radio
A walkie-talkie (more formally known as a handheld transceiver, or HT) is a hand-held, portable, two-way radio transceiver.
Hand-held two-way radios are often called walkie-talkies, handie-talkies or hand-helds.

Duplex (telecommunications)

half-duplexfull-duplexduplex
A walkie-talkie is a half-duplex communication device.
An example of a half-duplex device is a walkie-talkie two-way radio that has a "push-to-talk" button; when the local user wants to speak to the remote person they push this button, which turns on the transmitter but turns off the receiver, so they cannot hear the remote person.

Transceiver

transceiversradio transceivertranceiver
A walkie-talkie (more formally known as a handheld transceiver, or HT) is a hand-held, portable, two-way radio transceiver.
An example of a transceiver would be a walkie-talkie or a CB radio.

Donald Hings

Its development during the Second World War has been variously credited to Donald L. Hings, radio engineer Alfred J. Gross, and engineering teams at Motorola.
In 1937 he created a portable radio signaling system for his employer CM&S, which he called a "packset", but which later became known as the "Walkie-Talkie".

SCR-300

Motorola SCR-300
The first device to be widely nicknamed a "walkie-talkie" was developed by the US military during World War II, the backpacked Motorola SCR-300.
This backpack-mounted unit was the first radio to be nicknamed a "walkie talkie".

SCR-536

AM SCR-536
The first handheld walkie-talkie was the AM SCR-536 transceiver from 1941, also made by Motorola, named the Handie-Talkie (HT).
It is popularly referred to as a walkie talkie, although it was originally designated a "handie talkie".

AN/PRC-6

Following World War II, Raytheon developed the SCR-536's military replacement, the AN/PRC-6.
The AN/PRC-6 is a walkie-talkie used by the U.S. military in the late Korean War era through the Vietnam War.

Henryk Magnuski

Henryk Manguski
The team consisted of Dan Noble, who conceived of the design using frequency modulation; Henryk Magnuski, who was the principal RF engineer; Marion Bond; Lloyd Morris; and Bill Vogel.
He was a primary contributor in the development of one of the first Walkie-Talkie radios, the Motorola SCR-300, and influenced the company's success in the field of radio communication.

Daniel E. Noble

Dan Noble
The team consisted of Dan Noble, who conceived of the design using frequency modulation; Henryk Magnuski, who was the principal RF engineer; Marion Bond; Lloyd Morris; and Bill Vogel.
Introduced in 1943, and first used at the Battle of Anzio, the portable FM field radio allowed communication with less interference than the AM "walkie-talkie" systems that had been used earlier in World War II.

Whip antenna

ground plane antennaWhipantennas
It used a 24-inch whip antenna.
They are widely used as the antennas for hand-held radios, cordless phones, walkie-talkies, FM radios, boom boxes, and Wi-Fi enabled devices, and are attached to vehicles as the antennas for car radios and two-way radios for wheeled vehicles and for aircraft.

Microphone

microphonescondenser microphonedynamic microphone
Typical walkie-talkies resemble a telephone handset, with a speaker built into one end and a microphone in the other (in some devices the speaker also is used as the microphone) and an antenna mounted on the top of the unit.
In practical use, speakers are sometimes used as microphones in applications where high quality and sensitivity are not needed such as intercoms, walkie-talkies or video game voice chat peripherals, or when conventional microphones are in short supply.

Family Radio Service

FRSconsumer-grade two-way radiosFRS allocation
The personal walkie-talkie has become popular also because of the U.S. Family Radio Service (FRS) and similar licence-free services (such as Europe's PMR446 and Australia's UHF CB) in other countries.
The Family Radio Service (FRS) is an improved walkie-talkie radio system authorized in the United States since 1996.

Marine VHF radio

marine radioVHF radioVHF
Most countries allow the sale of walkie-talkies for, at least, business, marine communications, and some limited personal uses such as CB radio, as well as for amateur radio designs.
A portable set (often essentially a waterproof, VHF walkie-talkie in design) can be carried on a kayak, or to a lifeboat in an emergency, has its own power source and is waterproof if GMDSS-approved.

Squelch

DCScarrier squelchnoise squelch'' or ''carrier squelch
In addition, as costs come down, it is possible to add advanced squelch capabilities such as CTCSS (analog squelch) and DCS (digital squelch) (often marketed as "privacy codes") to inexpensive radios, as well as voice scrambling and trunking capabilities.
It operates strictly on the signal strength, such as when a television mutes the audio or blanks the video on "empty" channels, or when a walkie-talkie mutes the audio when no signal is present.

Base station

base stationsbaseradio base station
Such systems always work with a base station that acts as a repeater and controller, although individual handsets and mobiles may have a mode that bypasses the base station.
In professional two-way radio systems, a base station is used to maintain contact with a dispatch fleet of hand-held or mobile radios, and/or to activate one-way paging receivers.

Continuous Tone-Coded Squelch System

CTCSSContinuous Tone Coded Squelch SystemCTCSS tone
In addition, as costs come down, it is possible to add advanced squelch capabilities such as CTCSS (analog squelch) and DCS (digital squelch) (often marketed as "privacy codes") to inexpensive radios, as well as voice scrambling and trunking capabilities.
In hand-held radios, an LED indicator may glow green, yellow, or orange to indicate another user is talking on the channel.

PMR446

PMRPMR 446PMR radio
The personal walkie-talkie has become popular also because of the U.S. Family Radio Service (FRS) and similar licence-free services (such as Europe's PMR446 and Australia's UHF CB) in other countries.
It is used in both professional and consumer-grade walkie-talkies (similar to those used for FRS/GMRS in the United States and Canada).

Ultra high frequency

UHFUHF bandUHF radio
Most personal walkie-talkies sold are designed to operate in UHF allocations, and are designed to be very compact, with buttons for changing channels and other settings on the face of the radio and a short, fixed antenna.
They are used for television broadcasting, cell phones, satellite communication including GPS, personal radio services including Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, walkie-talkies, cordless phones, and numerous other applications.

EXtreme Radio Service

eXRS
A company called TriSquare is, as of July 2007, marketing a series of walkie-talkies in the United States, based on frequency-hopping spread spectrum technology operating in this frequency range under the name eXRS (eXtreme Radio Service—despite the name, a proprietary design, not an official allocation of the US FCC).
eXtreme Radio Service (eXRS) is a proprietary personal communication technology marketed by TriSquare in the United States.

Kenwood Corporation

KenwoodKenwood StereoTrio
While converted commercial gear by companies such as Motorola are not uncommon, many companies such as Yaesu, Icom, and Kenwood design models specifically for amateur use.
Kenwood has offered lines of HF, VHF/UHF, and portable amateur radio models, including some with built-in digital data modes (Automatic Packet Reporting System, built on AX.25 packet radio) and modems needed to send and receive these protocols.

ChatNow

In addition, personal UHF radios will sometimes be bought and used as toys, though they are not generally explicitly marketed as such (but see Hasbro's ChatNow line, which transmits both voice and digital data on the FRS band).
ChatNow is a mobile phone-like walkie-talkie developed by Hasbro's Tiger Electronics division for the preteen market.

Frequency-hopping spread spectrum

frequency hoppingFHSSfrequency-hopping
A company called TriSquare is, as of July 2007, marketing a series of walkie-talkies in the United States, based on frequency-hopping spread spectrum technology operating in this frequency range under the name eXRS (eXtreme Radio Service—despite the name, a proprietary design, not an official allocation of the US FCC).
Some walkie-talkies that employ frequency-hopping spread spectrum technology have been developed for unlicensed use on the 900 MHz band.

Regenerative circuit

regenerative receiverregenerativeregeneration
The lowest cost devices are very simple electronically (single-frequency, crystal-controlled, generally based on a simple discrete transistor circuit where "grown-up" walkie-talkies use chips), may employ superregenerative receivers, and may lack even a volume control, but they may nevertheless be elaborately decorated, often superficially resembling more "grown-up" radios such as FRS or public safety gear.
It is still used in a few specialized low data rate applications, such as garage door openers, wireless networking devices, walkie-talkies and toys.

Amateur radio

ham radioamateur radio licenseamateur
The abbreviation HT, derived from Motorola's "Handie-Talkie" trademark, is commonly used to refer to portable handheld ham radios, with "walkie-talkie" often used as a layman's term or specifically to refer to a toy.
Amateur radio satellites can be accessed, some using a hand-held transceiver (HT), even, at times, using the factory "rubber duck" antenna.