Walter Lippmann

Walter LippmanLippmannLippmann, Walter
Walter Lippmann (September 23, 1889 – December 14, 1974) was an American writer, reporter, and political commentator famous for being among the first to introduce the concept of Cold War, coining the term "stereotype" in the modern psychological meaning, and critiquing media and democracy in his newspaper column and several books, most notably his 1922 book Public Opinion.wikipedia
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Public Opinion (book)

Public Opinionmanufacturing consentPublic Opinion'' (book)
Walter Lippmann (September 23, 1889 – December 14, 1974) was an American writer, reporter, and political commentator famous for being among the first to introduce the concept of Cold War, coining the term "stereotype" in the modern psychological meaning, and critiquing media and democracy in his newspaper column and several books, most notably his 1922 book Public Opinion.
Public Opinion is a book by Walter Lippmann, published in 1922.

Stereotype

stereotypesstereotypicalstereotyping
Walter Lippmann (September 23, 1889 – December 14, 1974) was an American writer, reporter, and political commentator famous for being among the first to introduce the concept of Cold War, coining the term "stereotype" in the modern psychological meaning, and critiquing media and democracy in his newspaper column and several books, most notably his 1922 book Public Opinion.
However, it was not until 1922 that "stereotype" was first used in the modern psychological sense by American journalist Walter Lippmann in his work Public Opinion.

Council on Foreign Relations

The Council on Foreign RelationsCFRCouncil on Foreign Relations (CFR)
Lippmann was also a notable author for the Council on Foreign Relations, until he had an affair with editor Hamilton Fish Armstrong's wife, which led to a falling out between the two men.
This academic band, including Wilson's closest adviser and long-time friend "Colonel" Edward M. House, as well as Walter Lippmann, met to assemble the strategy for the postwar world.

The Inquiry

InquiryAmerican Commission of Inquiryboard of inquiry
Lippmann also played a notable role in Woodrow Wilson's post-World War I board of inquiry, as its research director.
The Heads of Research were Walter Lippmann and his successor Isaiah Bowman.

John Dewey

DeweyDewey, Johnreflective thinking
His views regarding the role of journalism in a democracy were contrasted with the contemporaneous writings of John Dewey in what has been retrospectively named the Lippmann-Dewey debate.
Dewey's most significant writings were "The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology" (1896), a critique of a standard psychological concept and the basis of all his further work; Democracy and Education (1916), his celebrated work on progressive education; Human Nature and Conduct (1922), a study of the function of habit in human behavior; The Public and its Problems (1927), a defense of democracy written in response to Walter Lippmann's The Phantom Public (1925); Experience and Nature (1925), Dewey's most "metaphysical" statement; Impressions of Soviet Russia and the Revolutionary World (1929), a glowing travelogue from the nascent USSR; Art as Experience (1934), Dewey's major work on aesthetics; A Common Faith (1934), a humanistic study of religion originally delivered as the Dwight H. Terry Lectureship at Yale; Logic: The Theory of Inquiry (1938), a statement of Dewey's unusual conception of logic; Freedom and Culture (1939), a political work examining the roots of fascism; and Knowing and the Known (1949), a book written in conjunction with Arthur F. Bentley that systematically outlines the concept of trans-action, which is central to his other works (see Transactionalism).

The New Republic

New RepublicBruce BlivenJoshua Kurlantzick
In 1913, Lippmann, Herbert Croly, and Walter Weyl became the founding editors of The New Republic magazine.
The New Republic was founded by Herbert Croly, Walter Lippmann, and Walter Weyl through the financial backing of heiress Dorothy Payne Whitney and her husband, Willard Straight, who maintained majority ownership.

Socialist Party of America

SocialistSocialist PartySocial Democratic
At some time, Lippmann became a member, alongside Sinclair Lewis, of the New York Socialist Party.
There were also agrarian utopian-leaning radicals, such as Julius Wayland of Kansas, who edited the party's leading national newspaper, Appeal to Reason, along with trade unionists; Jewish, Finnish and German immigrants; and intellectuals such as Walter Lippmann and the Black activist/intellectual Hubert Harrison.

George Santayana

SantayanaSantayana, GeorgeGeorge '''Santayana
At 17, following his graduation from New York's Dwight School, he entered Harvard University where he wrote for The Harvard Crimson and studied under George Santayana, William James, and Graham Wallas, concentrating upon philosophy and languages (he spoke German and French), and he earned his degree in three years, graduating as a member of the Phi Beta Kappa society.
Some of his Harvard students became famous in their own right, including T. S. Eliot, Robert Frost, Gertrude Stein, Horace Kallen, Walter Lippmann, and W. E. B. Du Bois.

William James

JamesJames, WilliamWilliam
At 17, following his graduation from New York's Dwight School, he entered Harvard University where he wrote for The Harvard Crimson and studied under George Santayana, William James, and Graham Wallas, concentrating upon philosophy and languages (he spoke German and French), and he earned his degree in three years, graduating as a member of the Phi Beta Kappa society.
James interacted with a wide array of writers and scholars throughout his life, including his godfather Ralph Waldo Emerson, his godson William James Sidis, as well as Charles Sanders Peirce, Bertrand Russell, Josiah Royce, Ernst Mach, John Dewey, Macedonio Fernández, Walter Lippmann, Mark Twain, Horatio Alger, G. Stanley Hall, Henri Bergson, Carl Jung, Jane Addams and Sigmund Freud.

A Test of the News

He and Charles Merz, in a 1920 study entitled A Test of the News, stated that The New York Times' coverage of the Bolshevik revolution was biased and inaccurate.
A Test of the News is a 1920 study done by Walter Lippmann, a US journalist, and Charles Merz, later editorial page editor of The New York Times.

Hamilton Fish Armstrong

Hamilton (Ham) Fish Armstrong
Lippmann was also a notable author for the Council on Foreign Relations, until he had an affair with editor Hamilton Fish Armstrong's wife, which led to a falling out between the two men.
Later that year, she married Walter Lippmann, ending the friendship between the two men.

Cold War

The Cold WarCold War eraCold-War
Walter Lippmann (September 23, 1889 – December 14, 1974) was an American writer, reporter, and political commentator famous for being among the first to introduce the concept of Cold War, coining the term "stereotype" in the modern psychological meaning, and critiquing media and democracy in his newspaper column and several books, most notably his 1922 book Public Opinion.
Newspaper columnist Walter Lippmann gave the term wide currency with his book The Cold War.

Journalism

journalistreportagejournalistic
His views regarding the role of journalism in a democracy were contrasted with the contemporaneous writings of John Dewey in what has been retrospectively named the Lippmann-Dewey debate.
In the 1920s in the United States, as newspapers dropped their blatant partisanship in search of new subscribers, political analyst Walter Lippmann and philosopher John Dewey debated the role of journalism in a democracy.

Walter Weyl

Walter Edward Weyl
In 1913, Lippmann, Herbert Croly, and Walter Weyl became the founding editors of The New Republic magazine.
In 1914, Weyl joined Herbert Croly and Walter Lippmann as a founding editors of The New Republic magazine, where he worked from 1914 to 1916.

The Phantom Public

Later, in The Phantom Public (1925), Lippmann recognized that the class of experts were also, in most respects, outsiders to any particular problem, and hence not capable of effective action.
The Phantom Public is a book published in 1925 by journalist Walter Lippmann in which he expresses his lack of faith in the democratic system by arguing that the public exists merely as an illusion, myth, and inevitably a phantom.

Fourteen Points

Wilson's 14 PointsWoodrow Wilson's 14 points14 Points
Through his connection to House, he became an adviser to Wilson and assisted in the drafting of Wilson's Fourteen Points speech.
The speech, known as the Fourteen Points, was developed from a set of diplomatic points by Wilson and territorial points drafted by the Inquiry's general secretary, Walter Lippmann, and his colleagues, Isaiah Bowman, Sidney Mezes, and David Hunter Miller.

George Seldes

Seldes, George[George] SeldesIn Fact
In 1943, George Seldes described Lippmann as one of the two most influential columnists in the United States.
Influenced by Lincoln Steffens and Walter Lippmann, Seldes's career began when he was hired at the Pittsburgh Leader at the age of 19.

Dwight School

The Dwight SchoolDwightDwight (NYC)
At 17, following his graduation from New York's Dwight School, he entered Harvard University where he wrote for The Harvard Crimson and studied under George Santayana, William James, and Graham Wallas, concentrating upon philosophy and languages (he spoke German and French), and he earned his degree in three years, graduating as a member of the Phi Beta Kappa society.

Nieman Foundation for Journalism

Nieman FoundationNieman Journalism LabNieman Reports
The Walter Lippmann House at Harvard University, which houses the Nieman Foundation for Journalism, is named after him.
It is based at Walter Lippmann House in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting

International ReportingTelegraphic Reporting (International)Pulitzer Prize
Four years later he won the annual Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting citing "his 1961 interview with Soviet Premier Khrushchev, as illustrative of Lippmann's long and distinguished contribution to American journalism."

George F. Kennan

George KennanGeorge Frost KennanKennan, George F.
Following the removal from office of Secretary of Commerce (and former Vice President of the United States) Henry A. Wallace in September 1946, Lippmann became the leading public advocate of the need to respect a Soviet sphere of influence in Europe, as opposed to the containment strategy being advocated at the time by George F. Kennan.
Walter Lippmann, a leading American commentator on international affairs, strongly criticized the "X" article.

Pulitzer Prize Special Citations and Awards

special Pulitzer PrizeJournalismSpecial Citation
He won a special Pulitzer Prize for journalism in 1958, as nationally syndicated columnist, citing "the wisdom, perception and high sense of responsibility with which he has commented for many years on national and international affairs."

Great Americans series

He has been honored by the United States Postal Service with a 6¢ Great Americans series postage stamp.

Committee on Public Information

Committee of Public InformationCommittee for Public InformationCreel Committee
He sharply criticized George Creel, whom the President appointed to head wartime propaganda efforts at the Committee on Public Information.
Walter Lippmann, a Wilson adviser, journalist, and co-founder of The New Republic, was a sharp critic of Creel.

Drift and Mastery

Drift and Mastery: An Attempt to Diagnose the Current Unrest is the second book by American journalist and political thinker Walter Lippmann.