War

Mural of War (1896), by Gari Melchers
The percentages of men killed in war in eight tribal societies, and Europe and the U.S. in the 20th century. (Lawrence H. Keeley, archeologist)
The Egyptian siege of Dapur in the 13th century BC, from Ramesseum, Thebes.
Japanese samurai attacking a Mongol ship, 13th century
Finnish soldiers during the Winter War.
American tanks moving in formation during the Gulf War.
Soldiers of the Australian 4th Division equipped for chemical warfare in WWI, Ypres sector, 1917
Global deaths in conflicts since the year 1400.
The Apotheosis of War (1871) by Vasily Vereshchagin
The remains of dead Crow Indians killed and scalped by Sioux c. 1874
Les Grandes Misères de la guerre depict the destruction unleashed on civilians during the Thirty Years' War.
Ruins of Warsaw's Napoleon Square in the aftermath of World War II
The Ottoman campaign for territorial expansion in Europe in 1566
Women and priests retrieve the dead bodies of Swabian soldiers just outside the city gates of Constance after the battle of Schwaderloh. (Luzerner Schilling)
Increasing population and constant warfare among the Maya city-states over resources may have contributed to the eventual collapse of the Maya civilization by AD 900.
Kuwaiti oil wells on fire, during the Gulf War, 1 March 1991
U.S. Marine helicopter on patrol in Somalia as part of the Unified Task Force, 1992
Median age by country. War reduces life expectancy. A youth bulge is evident for Africa, and to a lesser extent in some countries in West Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia and Central America.
U.S. soldiers directing artillery on enemy trucks in A Shau Valley, April 1968
U.S. Marines direct a concentration of fire at their opponents, Vietnam, 8 May 1968
Morning after the Battle of Waterloo, by John Heaviside Clark, 1816
In besieged Leningrad. "Hitler ordered that Moscow and Leningrad were to be razed to the ground; their inhabitants were to be annihilated or driven out by starvation. These intentions were part of the 'General Plan East'." – The Oxford Companion to World War II.
Anti-war rally in Washington, D.C., 15 March 2003

Intense armed conflict between states, governments, societies, or paramilitary groups such as mercenaries, insurgents, and militias.

- War
Mural of War (1896), by Gari Melchers

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Sewage-treatment-facility - The German language has many compounds

Non-combatant

Sewage-treatment-facility - The German language has many compounds

Non-combatant is a term of art in the law of war and international humanitarian law to refer to civilians who are not taking a direct part in hostilities; persons, such as combat medics and military chaplains, who are members of the belligerent armed forces but are protected because of their specific duties (as currently described in Protocol I of the Geneva Conventions, adopted in June 1977); combatants who are placed hors de combat; and neutral persons, such as peacekeepers, who are not involved in fighting for one of the belligerents involved in a war.

The Titan II Intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War.

Nuclear warfare

The Titan II Intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War.
Mushroom cloud from the atomic explosion over Nagasaki rising 18000 m into the air on the morning of August 9, 1945.
A photograph of Sumiteru Taniguchi's back injuries taken in January 1946 by a U.S. Marine photographer
J. Robert Oppenheimer.
Convair B-36 bomber.
American and Soviet nuclear stockpiles.
The U.S. and USSR conducted hundreds of nuclear tests, including the Desert Rock exercises at the Nevada Test Site, USA, pictured above during the Korean War to familiarize their soldiers with conducting operations and counter-measures around nuclear detonations, as the Korean War threatened to expand.
More than 100 US-built missiles having the capability to strike Moscow with nuclear warheads were deployed in Italy and Turkey in 1961
RF-101 Voodoo reconnaissance photograph of the MRBM launch site in San Cristóbal, Cuba (1962)
Montage of the launch of a Trident C4 SLBM and the paths of its reentry vehicles.
FEMA-estimated primary counterforce targets for Soviet ICBMs in 1990. The resulting fall-out is indicated with the darkest considered as lethal to lesser fall-out yellow zones.
Protest against the deployment of Pershing II missiles in Europe, Bonn, West Germany, 1981
UN vote on adoption of the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons on 7 July 2017
Large stockpile with global range (dark blue), smaller stockpile with global range (medium blue), small stockpile with regional range (light blue).

Nuclear warfare, also known as atomic warfare, is a theoretical military conflict or prepared political strategy that deploys nuclear weaponry.

Leonardo da Vinci's Profilo di capitano antico, also known as il Condottiero, 1480. Condottiero meant "leader of mercenaries" in Italy during the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance.

Mercenary

Leonardo da Vinci's Profilo di capitano antico, also known as il Condottiero, 1480. Condottiero meant "leader of mercenaries" in Italy during the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance.
Private military contractor in Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan, 2006.
Turkish mercenary in Byzantine service c. 1436
Landsknechte, etching by Daniel Hopfer, c. 1530.
A peasant begs a mercenary for mercy in front of his burning farm during the Thirty Years' War.
Frederick Russell Burnham in Africa
White mercenaries fighting alongside Congolese troops in 1964
A banner on the wall of the office of the Mahdi Army in Al Diwaniyah, Iraq announcing the killing of one of the militia members in Syria

A mercenary, sometimes known as a soldier of fortune or hired gun, is a private individual, particularly a soldier, who takes part in military conflict for personal profit, is otherwise an outsider to the conflict, and is not a member of any other official military.

A Viet Cong base camp being burned during the Vietnam War. An American private first class (PFC) stands by.

Asymmetric warfare

A Viet Cong base camp being burned during the Vietnam War. An American private first class (PFC) stands by.
Oil-drum roadside IED in Northern Ireland removed from culvert in 1984
Remnants of rifles used by Filipino soldiers during the War on display at Clark Museum
Improvised molotov cocktails
This Cougar in Al Anbar, Iraq, was hit by a directed charge IED approximately 300 – in size.

Asymmetric warfare (or asymmetric engagement) is the term given to describe a type of war between belligerents whose relative military power differs significantly, or whose strategy or tactics differ significantly.

Collage of images representing different academic disciplines

War studies

Collage of images representing different academic disciplines

War studies, sometimes called polemology, is the multi-disciplinary study of war.

PRISM: a clandestine surveillance program under which the NSA collects user data from companies like Facebook and Google.

Cyberwarfare

PRISM: a clandestine surveillance program under which the NSA collects user data from companies like Facebook and Google.
A Grid Transformer Station
Visualization of 2009 cyber warfare attacks against South Korea
Flag of Cyber Police (FATA) of Islamic Republic of Iran
Pastie announcing attack against Saudi Aramco by a group called Cutting Sword of Justice
Shamoon 1 attack timeline against Saudi Aramco
Tanker trucks unable to be loaded with gasoline due to Shamoon attacks
United States Department of Defense Seal
Seal of Joint Force Headquarters Cyber Air Force

Cyberwarfare is the use of cyber attacks against an enemy state, causing comparable harm to actual warfare and/or disrupting vital computer systems.

Mural of War (1896), by Gari Melchers

Conventional warfare

Mural of War (1896), by Gari Melchers

Conventional warfare is a form of warfare conducted by using conventional weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more states in open confrontation.

The First Geneva Convention governing the sick and wounded members of armed forces was signed in 1864.

Law of war

The First Geneva Convention governing the sick and wounded members of armed forces was signed in 1864.
The signing of the First Geneva Convention by some of the major European powers in 1864.
1904 article outlining the basic principles of the law of war, as published in the Tacoma Times.
The emblem of the International Committee of the Red Cross (French: Comité international de la croix-rouge).

The law of war is the component of international law that regulates the conditions for initiating war (jus ad bellum) and the conduct of warring parties (jus in bello).

The Battle of Gettysburg, by Thure de Thulstrup.

Belligerent

Individual, group, country, or other entity that acts in a hostile manner, such as engaging in combat.

Individual, group, country, or other entity that acts in a hostile manner, such as engaging in combat.

The Battle of Gettysburg, by Thure de Thulstrup.

In times of war, belligerent countries can be contrasted with neutral countries and non-belligerents.

The body of a young boy on the street in Tampere after the 1918 Finnish Civil War.

Civilian casualties

Civilian casualties occur when civilians are killed or injured by non-civilians, mostly law enforcement officers, military personnel, rebel group forces, or terrorists.

Civilian casualties occur when civilians are killed or injured by non-civilians, mostly law enforcement officers, military personnel, rebel group forces, or terrorists.

The body of a young boy on the street in Tampere after the 1918 Finnish Civil War.
Casualties of a mass panic during a June 1941 Japanese bombing of Chongqing. More than 5,000 civilians died during the first two days of air raids in 1939.

Under the law of war, it refers to civilians who perish or suffer wounds as a result of wartime acts.