War

Mural of War (1896), by Gari Melchers
The percentages of men killed in war in eight tribal societies, and Europe and the U.S. in the 20th century. (Lawrence H. Keeley, archeologist)
The Egyptian siege of Dapur in the 13th century BC, from Ramesseum, Thebes.
Japanese samurai attacking a Mongol ship, 13th century
Finnish soldiers during the Winter War.
American tanks moving in formation during the Gulf War.
Soldiers of the Australian 4th Division equipped for chemical warfare in WWI, Ypres sector, 1917
Global deaths in conflicts since the year 1400.
The Apotheosis of War (1871) by Vasily Vereshchagin
The remains of dead Crow Indians killed and scalped by Sioux c. 1874
Les Grandes Misères de la guerre depict the destruction unleashed on civilians during the Thirty Years' War.
Ruins of Warsaw's Napoleon Square in the aftermath of World War II
The Ottoman campaign for territorial expansion in Europe in 1566
Women and priests retrieve the dead bodies of Swabian soldiers just outside the city gates of Constance after the battle of Schwaderloh. (Luzerner Schilling)
Increasing population and constant warfare among the Maya city-states over resources may have contributed to the eventual collapse of the Maya civilization by AD 900.
Kuwaiti oil wells on fire, during the Gulf War, 1 March 1991
U.S. Marine helicopter on patrol in Somalia as part of the Unified Task Force, 1992
Median age by country. War reduces life expectancy. A youth bulge is evident for Africa, and to a lesser extent in some countries in West Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia and Central America.
U.S. soldiers directing artillery on enemy trucks in A Shau Valley, April 1968
U.S. Marines direct a concentration of fire at their opponents, Vietnam, 8 May 1968
Morning after the Battle of Waterloo, by John Heaviside Clark, 1816
In besieged Leningrad. "Hitler ordered that Moscow and Leningrad were to be razed to the ground; their inhabitants were to be annihilated or driven out by starvation. These intentions were part of the 'General Plan East'." – The Oxford Companion to World War II.
Anti-war rally in Washington, D.C., 15 March 2003

Intense armed conflict between states, governments, societies, or paramilitary groups such as mercenaries, insurgents, and militias.

- War
Mural of War (1896), by Gari Melchers

46 related topics

Alpha

305x305px

Man, the State, and War

1959 book on international relations by realist academic Kenneth Waltz.

1959 book on international relations by realist academic Kenneth Waltz.

305x305px

Waltz's initial contribution to the field of international relations was his 1959 book, Man, the State, and War, which classified theories of the causes of war into three categories, or levels of analysis.

The Royal Prince and other vessels at the Four Days Fight, 11–14 June 1666 by Abraham Storck depicts a battle of the Second Anglo-Dutch War. This period marked the beginning of a significant threat to Dutch hegemony in Europe

Power transition theory

The Royal Prince and other vessels at the Four Days Fight, 11–14 June 1666 by Abraham Storck depicts a battle of the Second Anglo-Dutch War. This period marked the beginning of a significant threat to Dutch hegemony in Europe

Power transition theory is a theory about the nature of war, in relation to the power in international relations.

305x305px

Diversionary foreign policy

305x305px

A diversionary foreign policy, or a diversionary war, is an international relations term that identifies a war instigated by a country's leader in order to distract its population from their own domestic strife.

Serious land degradation in Nauru after the depletion of the phosphate cover through mining

Land degradation

Process in which the value of the biophysical environment is affected by a combination of human-induced processes acting upon the land.

Process in which the value of the biophysical environment is affected by a combination of human-induced processes acting upon the land.

Serious land degradation in Nauru after the depletion of the phosphate cover through mining
Potato field with soil erosion
The rate of global tree cover loss has approximately doubled since 2001, to an annual loss approaching an area the size of Italy.
Overgrazing by livestock can lead to land degradation
Soil erosion in a wheat field near Pullman, US

land-use constraints associated with armed conflicts.

Two warthogs preparing to fight

Aggression

Overt or covert, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other harm upon another individual; although it can be channeled into creative and practical outlets for some.

Overt or covert, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other harm upon another individual; although it can be channeled into creative and practical outlets for some.

Two warthogs preparing to fight
Male elephant seals fighting
Testosterone to Estradiol conversion

The ǃKung people were described as 'The Harmless People' in a popular work by Elizabeth Marshall Thomas in 1958, while Lawrence Keeley's 1996 War Before Civilization suggested that regular warfare without modern technology was conducted by most groups throughout human history, including most Native American tribes.

Clausewitz while in Prussian service

Carl von Clausewitz

Prussian general and military theorist who stressed the "moral" (meaning, in modern terms, psychological) and political aspects of war.

Prussian general and military theorist who stressed the "moral" (meaning, in modern terms, psychological) and political aspects of war.

Clausewitz while in Prussian service
Marie von Clausewitz (née, Countess von Brühl)
Clausewitz as a young man

British military theorist B. H. Liddell Hart contends that the enthusiastic acceptance by the Prussian military establishment—especially Moltke the Elder, a former student of his —of what they believed to be Clausewitz's ideas, and the subsequent widespread adoption of the Prussian military system worldwide, had a deleterious effect on military theory and practice, due to their egregious misinterpretation of his ideas:

Jus ad bellum

Jus ad bellum ( or in the traditional English pronunciation of Latin; Latin for "right to war") is a set of criteria that are to be consulted before engaging in war in order to determine whether entering into war is permissible, that is, whether it will be a just war.

Ibn Khaldun statue in Tunis, Tunisia (1332–1406)

Gunnar Heinsohn

German author, sociologist and economist and professor emeritus at the University of Bremen.

German author, sociologist and economist and professor emeritus at the University of Bremen.

Ibn Khaldun statue in Tunis, Tunisia (1332–1406)

In his theory about the "youth bulge", Heinsohn argues that an excess in especially young adult male population predictably leads to social unrest, war and terrorism, as the "third and fourth sons" that find no prestigious positions in their existing societies rationalize their impetus to compete by religion or political ideology.

Clockwise from top: US troops at Uday and Qusay Hussein's hideout; insurgents in northern Iraq; the toppling of the Saddam Hussein statue in Firdos Square

Iraq War

Clockwise from top: US troops at Uday and Qusay Hussein's hideout; insurgents in northern Iraq; the toppling of the Saddam Hussein statue in Firdos Square
A UN weapons inspector in Iraq, 2002
Excerpt from Donald Rumsfeld memo dated 27 November 2001
United States Secretary of State Colin Powell holding a model vial of anthrax while giving a presentation to the United Nations Security Council
From the left: French President Jacques Chirac, US President George W. Bush, British Prime Minister Tony Blair and Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi. Chirac was against the invasion, the other three leaders were in favor.
Anti-war protest in London, September 2002. Organised by the British Stop the War Coalition, up to 400,000 took part in the protest.
Destroyed remains of Iraqi tanks near Al Qadisiyah
US Marines escort captured enemy prisoners to a holding area in the desert of Iraq on 21 March 2003.
US soldiers at the Hands of Victory monument in Baghdad
Iraqi tank on Highway 27 destroyed in April 2003
Map of the invasion routes and major operations/battles of the Iraq War through 2007
US Marines from 1st Battalion 7th Marines enter a palace during the Fall of Baghdad.
A Marine Corps M1 Abrams tank patrols Baghdad after its fall in 2003.
Humvee struck by an improvised explosive device attack in Iraq on 29 September 2004. Staff Sgt. Michael F. Barrett, a military policeman in Marine Wing Support Squadron 373, was severely injured in the attack.
Polish GROM forces in sea operations during the Iraq War
Marines from D Company, 3rd Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion guard detainees prior to loading them into their vehicle.
Occupation zones in Iraq as of September 2003
Saddam Hussein being pulled from his hideaway in Operation Red Dawn, 13 December 2003
Coalition Provisional Authority director L. Paul Bremer signs over sovereignty to the appointed Iraqi Interim Government, 28 June 2004.
US troops fire mortars.
A USMC M198 artillery piece firing outside Fallujah in October 2004
Convention center for Council of Representatives of Iraq
US Marines from 3rd Battalion 3rd Marines clear a house in Al Anbar Governorate.
Nouri al-Maliki meets with George W. Bush, June 2006
President George W. Bush announces the new strategy on Iraq from the White House Library, 10 January 2007.
US soldiers take cover during a firefight with insurgents in the Al Doura section of Baghdad, 7 March 2007.
A graph of US troop fatalities in Iraq March 2003 – July 2010, the orange and blue months are the period of the troop surge and its aftermath.
Iraqi army battalion trains for urban operations
3D map of southern Turkey and northern Iraq
An Iraqi soldier and vehicles from the 42nd Brigade, 11th Iraqi Army Division during a firefight with armed militiamen in the Sadr City district of Baghdad 17 April 2008
General David Petraeus in testimony before Congress on 8 April 2008
An Iraqi Army unit prepares to board a Task Force Baghdad UH-60 Blackhawk helicopter for a counterinsurgency mission in Baghdad in 2007.
Street fighting in Mosul in January 2008
Aerial view of the Green Zone, Baghdad International Airport, and the contiguous Victory Base Complex in Baghdad
Election map showing the largest list in every governorate
US Navy and Coast Guard personnel stand guard aboard the Al Basrah Oil Terminal in July 2009.
Iraqi commandos training under the supervision of soldiers from the US 82nd Airborne in December 2010
Alabama Army National Guard MP, MSG Schur, during a joint community policing patrol in Basra, 3 April 2010
M1 Abrams tanks in Iraqi service, January 2011
US Army soldier on the roof of an Iraqi police station in Haqlaniyah, July 2011
US and Kuwaiti troops closing the gate between Kuwait and Iraq on 18 December 2011
June 2015 military situation:
Wounded US personnel flown from Iraq to Ramstein, Germany, for medical treatment (February 2007)
Marines unload a wounded comrade from an Army UH-60 Blackhawk helicopter for medical treatment at Al Qaim.
A city street in Ramadi heavily damaged by the fighting in 2006
A memorial in North Carolina in December 2007; US casualty count can be seen in the background.
Child killed by a car bomb in Kirkuk, July 2011
This photograph from Abu Ghraib released in 2006 shows a pyramid of naked Iraqi prisoners.
Car bombing was a frequently used tactic by insurgents in Iraq.
Protesters on 19 March 2005, in London, where over 150,000 marched
A woman pleads with an Iraqi army soldier from 2nd Company, 5th Brigade, 2nd Iraqi Army Division to let a suspected insurgent free during a raid near Tafaria, Iraq.

The Iraq War was a protracted armed conflict in Iraq from 2003 to 2011 that began with the invasion of Iraq by the United States–led coalition which overthrew the Iraqi government of Saddam Hussein.

A truce – not a compromise, since a chance for high-toned gentlemen to retire gracefully from their very civil declarations of war.
By Thomas Nast in Harper's Weekly, February 17, 1877, p. 132.

Ceasefire

A truce – not a compromise, since a chance for high-toned gentlemen to retire gracefully from their very civil declarations of war.
By Thomas Nast in Harper's Weekly, February 17, 1877, p. 132.
British and German officers after arranging the German handover of the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp and the surrounding area, negotiated during a temporary truce, April 1945

A ceasefire (or truce), also spelled cease fire (the antonym of 'open fire' ), is a temporary stoppage of a war in which each side agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions.