War crimes in occupied Poland during World War II

World War II atrocities in PolandWorld War II crimes in PolandList of Polish Martyrdom sitesatrocitiesTreatment of Polish citizens by occupiersWorld War II crimes in occupied Polandatrocities committed by the Soviet Union in occupied Polandbrutalcampaign of unrestricted violencedeaths during the Soviet occupation in 1940–41
Around six million Polish citizens, are estimated to have perished during World War II. Most were civilians killed by the actions of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union.wikipedia
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Heinrich Himmler

HimmlerAlfred HimmlerH Himmler
In his capacity as Reich Commissioner, Heinrich Himmler oversaw the kidnapping of Polish children to be Germanised.
Most of them were Polish and Soviet citizens.

Pacification actions in German-occupied Poland

Pacification operations in German-occupied PolandpacificationPacification Operations in German occupied Poland
Other war crimes against Poland included deportations aimed at ethnic cleansing, imposition of forced labor, pacifications, and genocidal acts.

Valley of Death (Bydgoszcz)

Valley of DeathBydgoszcz massacresFordon
When Bydgoszcz was taken over by the Wehrmacht in October, designated killing squads began murdering civilian Poles in revenge at the Valley of Death (Bydgoszcz); some 20,000 died in all.

German AB-Aktion in Poland

AB ActionAB-AktionGerman AB-Aktion operation in Poland
The German occupiers launched AB-Aktion in May 1940—a plan to eliminate the Polish intelligentsia and leadership class.

Heinz Reinefarth

ReinefarthHeinz ReinfarthHeinrich Reinefarth
Already in 1944 SS-Gruppenführer Heinz Reinefarth claimed 250,000 dead, which is now considered exaggerated by him for propaganda purposes.
During the Warsaw Uprising of August 1944 his troops committed numerous atrocities.

Katyn massacre

Katyń massacreKatynKatyn Forest
In the Katyn massacre nearly twenty-two thousand Polish nationals were killed in mass executions simultaneously.

Selbstschutz

ethnic German self-protection militiaGerman self-defenseMennonite Selbstschutz
German army units and paramilitary Selbstschutz ("self-defense") forces composed of Volksdeutsche also participated in executions of civilians.

Anti-Polish sentiment

anti-PolishAnti-PolonismPolonophobia
During World War II, when most of Polish society became the object of genocidal policies of its neighbours, German anti-Polonism led to an unprecedented campaign of mass murder.

Occupation of Poland (1939–1945)

occupied Polandoccupation of PolandGerman-occupied Poland
These crimes were committed in occupied Poland on a tremendous scale.
Around 6 million Polish citizens—nearly 21.4% of Poland's population—died between 1939 and 1945 as a result of the occupation, half of whom were ethnic Poles and the other half Polish Jews.

Fort VII

Fort VII (KL Posen)Poznań VII FortŻabikowo Fort VII
Some 400 patients, along with medical staff, were transported to a military fortress in Poznań where, in Fort VII bunkers, they were gassed with carbon monoxide delivered in metal tanks.

Reichsgau Wartheland

WarthegauWarthelandReichsgau Posen
The Roman Catholic Church was suppressed more harshly than elsewhere in Wartheland, a province created by Nazi Germany after the invasion.

Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski

Erich von dem BachErich von dem Bach-ZalewskiErich von dem Bach Zelewski
The most severe of them took place in the Wola district, where at the beginning of August 1944 tens of thousands of civilians (men, women, and children) were methodically rounded-up and executed by Einsatzkommandos of Sicherheitspolizei operating within the Reinefarth's group of forces under the command of Erich von dem Bach-Zalewski.
Units under his command killed approximately 200,000 civilians (more than 65,000 in mass executions) and an unknown number of POWs, in numerous atrocities throughout the city.

Jedwabne

Jedwabnomiasto Jedwabne
Other retaliatory actions included the Jedwabne pogrom (or Jedwabne massacre) of Jewish people living in and near the town of Jedwabne in Bezirk Bialystok during occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany, that took place in July 1941.

Roundup (history)

łapankaroundupsroundup
The Gentile population of Polish metropolitan cities was targeted for enslavement in the łapanka actions, in which the detachments of SS, Wehrmacht and police rounded up civilians after cordoning off streets.

Extermination camp

death campsdeath campextermination camps
Starting in 1941, gas vans were used on inmates of the extermination camps.

World War II casualties of Poland

heavy losses during World War IIperishedPolish dead
Around six million Polish citizens, are estimated to have perished during World War II.

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
Around six million Polish citizens, are estimated to have perished during World War II.

Soviet Union

SovietUSSRSoviets
Most were civilians killed by the actions of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union.

Nuremberg

NürnbergNuremberg, GermanyNüremberg
At the International Military Tribunal held in Nuremberg, Germany, in 1945–46, three categories of wartime criminality were juridically established: waging a war of aggression; war crimes; and crimes against humanity.

War of aggression

wars of aggressionaggressionaggressive war
At the International Military Tribunal held in Nuremberg, Germany, in 1945–46, three categories of wartime criminality were juridically established: waging a war of aggression; war crimes; and crimes against humanity.

War crime

war crimeswar criminalwar criminals
At the International Military Tribunal held in Nuremberg, Germany, in 1945–46, three categories of wartime criminality were juridically established: waging a war of aggression; war crimes; and crimes against humanity.

Crimes against humanity

crime against humanityatrocitieshumanity
At the International Military Tribunal held in Nuremberg, Germany, in 1945–46, three categories of wartime criminality were juridically established: waging a war of aggression; war crimes; and crimes against humanity.

International law

public international lawinternationallaw of nations
These three crimes in international law were for the first time, from the end of the war, categorized as violations of fundamental human values and norms.

Ukrainians

UkrainianUkrainian peopleUkraine
In the summer and autumn of 1941 the lands annexed in the east by the Soviets, containing large Ukrainian and Belarusian populations, were overrun by Nazi Germany in the initially successful Operation Barbarossa against the Soviet Union.The occupying countries' actions eclipsed the sovereign Polish state and inflicted massive damage to the country's cultural heritage.