War of the Pacific

Pacific WarSaltpeter Warconquered land from Peru and Bolivia1879 War of the PacificChilean-Peruvian WarGuerra del Pacificowar1874 boundary treaty1879 invasion of Peruannexation by Chile
The War of the Pacific (Guerra del Pacífico), also known as the Saltpeter War (Guerra del salitre) and by multiple other names, was a war between Chile and a Bolivian–Peruvian alliance.wikipedia
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Chile

Republic of ChileChileanCHI
The War of the Pacific (Guerra del Pacífico), also known as the Saltpeter War (Guerra del salitre) and by multiple other names, was a war between Chile and a Bolivian–Peruvian alliance.
In the 19th century, Chile saw significant economic and territorial growth, ending Mapuche resistance in the 1880s and gaining its current northern territory in the War of the Pacific (1879–83) after defeating Peru and Bolivia.

Naval campaign of the War of the Pacific

naval campaignWar of the Pacific
For the first five months the war played out in a naval campaign, as Chile struggled to establish a sea-based resupply corridor for its forces in the world's driest desert.
The Naval campaign of the War of the Pacific or Saltpeter war was a naval campaign that took place from 1879 to 1884 involving Peru (as well as Bolivia), and Chile undertaken in order to support land forces in the Atacama Desert.

Land campaign of the War of the Pacific

land campaignland campaign phaseland campaigns
Afterwards, Chile's land campaign bested the Bolivian and Peruvian armies.
After the naval campaign of the War of the Pacific was resolved, the Chilean terrestrial invasion began.

Antofagasta

Antofagasta, ChileAntofagastian
On February 14, 1879 when Bolivian authorities attempted to auction the confiscated property of CSFA, Chilean armed forces occupied the port city of Antofagasta.
Previously part of Bolivia, Antofagasta was captured by Chile in the War of the Pacific (1879–83), and sovereignty was transferred under the terms of the 1904 Treaty of Peace and Friendship between the two countries.

Peruvian Army

ArmyArmy of PeruPeruvian
Afterwards, Chile's land campaign bested the Bolivian and Peruvian armies.
The consequent lack of military preparedness combined with bad leadership were major causes of Peru's defeat against Chile in the War of the Pacific (1879–1883).

Casus foederis

The following day, Peru responded by acknowledging the casus foederis.
In the War of the Pacific, Bolivia invoked casus foederis to bring Peru into the war after Chile reinvaded Bolivia's coast.

Atacama border dispute

access to the seaAtacamaAtacama border dispute between the two countries
The Atacama border dispute between Bolivia and Chile concerning the sovereignty over the coastal territories between approximately the parallels 23°S and 24°S was just one of several long-running border conflicts in South America as the area gained independence throughout the nineteenth century, since uncertainty characterized the demarcation of frontiers according to the Uti possidetis 1810, particularly in remote, thinly-populated portions of newly-independent nations.
The Atacama border dispute was a dispute between Chile and Bolivia in the 19th century that ended in the transfer to Chile of all of the Bolivian Coast and the southern tip of Bolivia's ally Peru through the Treaty of Ancón with Peru and the Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1904 between Chile and Bolivia after the War of the Pacific (1879–1883).

Boundary Treaty of 1874 between Chile and Bolivia

1874 Boundary Treatyboundary treaty with Chilesecond treaty in 1874
In February 1878, Bolivia imposed a new tax on a Chilean mining company ("Compañía de Salitres y Ferrocarril de Antofagasta", CSFA) despite Bolivian express warranty in the 1874 Boundary Treaty that it would not increase taxes on Chilean persons or industries for 25 years.
In February 1878, Bolivia imposed a new tax upon saltpeter and one year later began the War of the Pacific.

Treaty of Ancón

Treaty of Anconpeace accordsTratado de Ancón
Chile and Peru signed the Treaty of Ancón on October 20, 1883.
It was intended to settle the two nations' remaining territorial differences at the conclusion of their involvement in the War of the Pacific and to stabilise post-bellum relations between them.

Gran Chaco

ChacoChaco regionDry Chaco
Argentina, involved in a long-standing dispute with Chile over the Strait of Magellan and Patagonia, was secretly invited to join the pact, and in September 1873 the Argentine Chamber of Deputies approved the treaty and $6,000,000 for war preparations Eventually Argentina and Bolivia did not agree about the territories of Tarija and Chaco, and the former feared a Chile-Brazil axis.
Bolivia sought the Paraguay River for shipping oil out into the sea (it had become a land-locked country after the loss of its Pacific coast in the War of the Pacific), and Paraguay claimed ownership of the land.

Battle of Punta Gruesa

Punta GruesadetailsNaval Battle of Punta Gruesa
In the Battle of Iquique (May 21, 1879), the Peruvian ironclad Huáscar engaged and sank the wooden Esmeralda; Meanwhile, in the Battle of Punta Gruesa, the Peruvian Independencia chased the schooner Covadonga until the heavier Independencia collided with a submerged rock and sank in the shallow waters near Punta Gruesa.
The Battle of Punta Gruesa was a naval action that took place on May 21, 1879, during the War of the Pacific between Chile and Peru.

Peruvian Navy

PeruMarina de Guerra del PerúNavy of Peru
The Armada de Chile and Marina de Guerra del Perú fought the naval battles.
The Marina de Guerra del Perú celebrates the anniversary of its creation in 1821 on October 8 and also commemorates the decisive Battle of Angamos, the final part of the naval campaign of the War of the Pacific between Peru and Chile at the end of 1879.

Arica Province (Peru)

AricaArica province
Chile acquired the Peruvian territory of Tarapacá, the disputed Bolivian department of Litoral (turning Bolivia into a landlocked country), as well as temporary control over the Peruvian provinces of Tacna and Arica.
Following the War of the Pacific, the province was transferred to Chile and became an official Chilean territory in 1929.

Landlocked country

landlockedland-lockeddoubly landlocked
Chile acquired the Peruvian territory of Tarapacá, the disputed Bolivian department of Litoral (turning Bolivia into a landlocked country), as well as temporary control over the Peruvian provinces of Tacna and Arica.

Sodium nitrate

saltpeterNaNO 3 saltpetre
Potassium nitrate (ordinary saltpeter) and sodium nitrate (Chile saltpeter) are nitrogen-containing compounds collectively referred to as salpeter, saltpetre, salitre, caliche, or nitrate.
Chile fought the War of the Pacific (1879-1884) against the allies Peru and Bolivia and took over their richest deposits of saltpeter.

Battle of Iquique

Naval Battle of IquiqueIquiquebattle
In the Battle of Iquique (May 21, 1879), the Peruvian ironclad Huáscar engaged and sank the wooden Esmeralda; Meanwhile, in the Battle of Punta Gruesa, the Peruvian Independencia chased the schooner Covadonga until the heavier Independencia collided with a submerged rock and sank in the shallow waters near Punta Gruesa.
The Battle of Iquique (Spanish: Batalla de Iquique or Combate naval de Iquique) was a confrontation that occurred on 21 May 1879, during the naval stage of the War of the Pacific, a conflict that pitted Chile against Peru and Bolivia.

Battle of Angamos

AngamosNaval Battle of AngamosAngamos naval battle
The Battle of Angamos, on October 8, 1879 proved decisive and Peru was reduced almost exclusively to land forces.
The Battle of Angamos (Spanish: Combate de Angamos) was a naval encounter of the War of the Pacific fought between the navies of Chile and Perú at Punta Angamos, on 8 October 1879.

Guano

bat guanowanudroppings
Wanu (Hispanicized guano) is a Quechua word for fertilizer.
The Guano Age ended with the War of the Pacific (1879–1884), which saw Chilean marines invade coastal Bolivia to claim its guano and saltpeter resources.

Spanish schooner Virgen de Covadonga

CovadongaVirgen de CovadongaCovadonga (ship)
In the Battle of Iquique (May 21, 1879), the Peruvian ironclad Huáscar engaged and sank the wooden Esmeralda; Meanwhile, in the Battle of Punta Gruesa, the Peruvian Independencia chased the schooner Covadonga until the heavier Independencia collided with a submerged rock and sank in the shallow waters near Punta Gruesa.
The schooner Virgen de Covadonga was a ship that participated in the Chincha Islands War and the War of the Pacific, under Spanish and Chilean flags.

Bombardment of Callao

Blockade of Callaoscuttled the entire fleetScuttling of the Peruvian fleet at El Callao
When the Peruvian capital Lima fell after the battles of Chorrillos and Miraflores, the Peruvian naval officers scuttled the entire fleet to prevent its capture by the Chilean forces.
The Blockade of Callao was a military operation that occurred during the War of the Pacific or the Salitre War and that consisted of the Chilean squadron preventing the entry of ships to the port of Callao and the neighboring coves between 10 April 1880 and 17 January 1881.

Chilean Navy

NavyChileArmada de Chile
The Armada de Chile and Marina de Guerra del Perú fought the naval battles.
First of these conflicts were the War of the Confederation (1836–1839), the Chincha Islands War (1864–1866) and the War of the Pacific (1879–1883).

Chilean ironclad Almirante Cochrane

CochraneAlmirante CochraneCochrane'' (1874)
Historians including G. Bulnes, Basadre, and Yrigoyen agree that the real intention of the treaty was to compel Chile to modify its borders according to the geopolitical interests of Argentina, Peru and Bolivia, as Chile was militarily weak, that is, before the arrival of the Chilean ironclads Cochrane and Blanco Encalada.
She participated in the War of the Pacific, with her most prominent action being her victory over the Peruvian monitor Huáscar in the Angamos naval battle.

Galvarino Riveros Cárdenas

Galvarino Riveros
Commodore Galvarino Riveros Cárdenas replaced Williams, and he devised a plan to catch the Huáscar.
José Galvarino Riveros Cárdenas was a Chilean naval officer, Commander of the Chilean Squadron during the War of the Pacific.

Peruvian ironclad Independencia

IndependenciaBAP ''IndependenciaIndependencia'' (Peruvian ship)
In the Battle of Iquique (May 21, 1879), the Peruvian ironclad Huáscar engaged and sank the wooden Esmeralda; Meanwhile, in the Battle of Punta Gruesa, the Peruvian Independencia chased the schooner Covadonga until the heavier Independencia collided with a submerged rock and sank in the shallow waters near Punta Gruesa.
During the War of the Pacific of 1879–83, Independencia ran aground while pursuing the Chilean schooner Covadonga during the Battle of Punta Gruesa on 21 May 1879.

Battle of Pisagua

Pisagualanding in Pisaguaassault on the port of Pisagua
After neutralizing the coastal batteries, the Chileans landed and attacked beach defenses in Pisagua.
The Battle of Pisagua ("Desembarco y combate de Pisagua"), was a landing operation of the War of the Pacific, fought on November 2, 1879, between Chile and the combined forces of Bolivia and Peru.