Warring States period

Warring StatesWarring States eraChinaThe Warring StatesZhanguoChina's Warring StatesEastern Zhou DynastyIron Agelate Zhoumajor realms
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation.wikipedia
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History of China

Chineseimperial Chinaancient China
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation. It followed the Spring and Autumn period and concluded with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire, known as the Qin dynasty.
These states became independent and warred with one another in the following Warring States period.

Spring and Autumn period

Spring and AutumnChunqiuthe Spring and Autumn period
It followed the Spring and Autumn period and concluded with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire, known as the Qin dynasty.
The gradual Partition of Jin, one of the most powerful states, marked the end of the Spring and Autumn period, and the beginning of the Warring States period.

Qin dynasty

QinQin Empire
It followed the Spring and Autumn period and concluded with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire, known as the Qin dynasty.
The strength of the Qin state was greatly increased by the Legalist reforms of Shang Yang in the fourth century BC, during the Warring States period.

Qin's wars of unification

unification of ChinaQin unification of Chinaa series of wars
It followed the Spring and Autumn period and concluded with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire, known as the Qin dynasty.
In 230 BC, Ying Zheng unleashed the final campaigns of the Warring States period, setting out to conquer the remaining states, one by one.

Eastern Zhou

Eastern Zhou DynastyEastern Zhou PeriodAncient Chinese
The Warring States era also overlaps with the second half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty, though the Chinese sovereign, known as the king of Zhou, ruled merely as a figurehead and served as a backdrop against the machinations of the warring states.
It is divided into two periods: the Spring and Autumn and the Warring States.

Zhan Guo Ce

Strategies of the Warring StatesZhanguoceZhanguo ce
The "Warring States Period" derives its name from the Record of the Warring States, a work compiled early in the Han dynasty.
The Zhan Guo Ce, also known in English as the Strategies of the Warring States or Annals of the Warring States, is an ancient Chinese text that contains anecdotes of political manipulation and warfare during the Warring States period (5th to 3rd centuries).

Han (state)

HanState of HanHán
After three years of civil war, Zhao from the north and Han from the south invaded Wei. Lord Mengchang made a westward alliance with the States of Wei and Han.
Han (, Old Chinese: *) was an ancient Chinese state during the Warring States period of ancient China.

Seven Warring States

six stateswarring statesother six states
Han, the weakest of the Seven Warring States, was adjacent to the much stronger Qin, and had suffered continuous assaults by Qin in earlier years of the Warring States period.
The Seven Warring States or Seven Kingdoms refers to the seven leading states during the Warring States period (c.

Zhao (state)

ZhaoState of ZhaoZhao state
After three years of civil war, Zhao from the north and Han from the south invaded Wei.
Zhao was one of the seven major states during the Warring States period of ancient China.

Wei (state)

WeiState of WeiWei state
Lord Mengchang made a westward alliance with the States of Wei and Han.
Wei (Old Chinese: *) was one of the seven major states during the Warring States period of ancient China.

Yellow River

YellowHuang HeYellow River Valley
The remaining three allies, Qi, Wei and Han, attacked Qin, driving up the Yellow River below Shanxi to the Hangu Pass.
Early Chinese literature including the Yu Gong or Tribute of Yu dating to the Warring States period (475–221 BC) refers to the Yellow River as simply (Old Chinese: *C.gˤaj, modern Chinese (Pinyin) Hé), a character that has come to mean "river" in modern usage.

Jin (Chinese state)

JinState of JinJin state
The struggle for hegemony eventually created a state system dominated by several large states, such as Jin, Chu, Qin, Yan and Qi, while the smaller states of the Central Plains tended to be their satellites and tributaries.
The Partition of Jin marks the end of the Spring and Autumn Period and the beginning of the Warring States period.

Han dynasty

Eastern Han dynastyHanWestern Han dynasty
The "Warring States Period" derives its name from the Record of the Warring States, a work compiled early in the Han dynasty.
The Qin united the Chinese Warring States by conquest, but their regime became unstable after the death of the first emperor Qin Shi Huang.

Chu (state)

ChuState of ChuChu state
A major exception was Chu, whose rulers were called kings since King Wu of Chu started using the title c. 703 BC. They next inflicted major defeats on Yan and Chu.
With its continued expansion, Chu became a great Warring States period power, until it was overthrown by the Qin in 223 BCE.

Hebei

Hebei ProvinceHopeiHopeh
A common alternate name for Hebei is Yānzhào, after the state of Yan and state of Zhao that existed here during the Warring States period of early Chinese history.

Shanxi

Shanxi ProvinceShansiShangxi
It underwent a three-way split into the states of Han, Zhao and Wei in 403 BC, the traditional date taken as the start of the Warring States period (403–221 BC).

Zhongshan (state)

ZhongshanState of ZhongshanState of Zhōngshān
In 408–406 he conquered the State of Zhongshan to the northeast on the other side of Zhao.
Zhongshan was a small state that existed during the Warring States period, which managed to survive for almost 120 years despite its small size.

Yan (state)

YanState of YanYan state
They next inflicted major defeats on Yan and Chu.
During the Warring States period from the 5th to 3rd centuries BC, Yan was one of the last states to be conquered by the armies of Qin Shihuang: Yan fell in 222 BC, the year before the declaration of the Qin Empire.

Yue (state)

YueState of YueYue Kingdom
Chu rose to its peak in 334 BC, when it conquered Yue to its east on the Pacific coast.
Yue (Old Chinese: *), also known as Yuyue, was a state in ancient China which existed during the first millennium BC – the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods of China's Zhou dynasty – in the modern provinces of Zhejiang, Shanghai, and Jiangsu.

Qin (state)

QinState of QinQin state
It followed the Spring and Autumn period and concluded with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire, known as the Qin dynasty.
During the early Warring States period, as its neighbours in east and central China began rapidly developing, Qin was still in a state of underdevelopment and decline.

Sima Qian

Sima, QianSsu-ma Ch'ienGrand Historian
Although different scholars point toward different dates ranging from 481 BC to 403 BC as the true beginning of the Warring States, Sima Qian's choice of 475 BC is the most often cited.
He started his journey from the imperial capital, Chang'an (near modern Xi'an), then went south across the Yangtze River to Changsha Kingdom (modern Hunan Province), where he visited the Miluo River site where the Warring States era poet Qu Yuan was traditionally said to have drowned himself.

Henan

Henan ProvinceHenan, ChinaHonan
Later on, these states were replaced by seven large and powerful states during the Warring States period, and Henan was divided into three states, the Wei to the north, the Chu to the south, and the Han in the middle.

Shanghai

Shanghai, ChinaSHAShanghai Municipality
During the Warring States period (475 BC), Shanghai was part of the fief of Lord Chunshen of Chu, one of the Four Lords of the Warring States.

Liaodong Peninsula

LiaodongLiaotung PeninsulaLiaotung
Liaodong (formerly spelled Liaotung) means "East of the Liao River"; referring to the Liao River which divided the Yan commanderies of Liaoxi (West of the Liao River) and Liaodong during time of the Warring States period.

Partition of Jin

partitionedpartitionTripartition of Jin
The Partition of Jin, the watershed between the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods, refers to the division of the State of Jin between rival families into the three states of Han, Zhao and Wei.