Warsaw

A paper engraving of 16th-century Warsaw by Hogenberg showing St. John's Archcathedral to the right. The church was founded in 1390, and is one of the city's ancient and most important landmarks.
Warsaw New Town in 1778. Painted by Bernardo Bellotto
Water Filters, designed by William Lindley and finished in 1886
Sea of rubble – over 85% of the buildings in Warsaw were destroyed by the end of World War II, including the Old Town and Royal Castle.
The Warsaw Uprising took place in 1944. The Polish Home Army attempted to liberate Warsaw from the Germans before the arrival of the Red Army.
A tourist standing beside the iconic Palace of Culture and Science, 1965
Warsaw, as seen from the ESA Sentinel-2
View of Grzybowski Square in the central district of Warsaw. The city is located on the mostly flat Masovian Plain, but the city centre is at a higher elevation than the suburbs.
Autumn in Warsaw's Royal Baths
Hotel Bristol is a unique example of Warsaw's architectural heritage, combining Art Nouveau and Neo-Renaissance designs.
Main Market Square in Old Town, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
New World Street, one of the main shopping promenades in Warsaw
Łazienki Palace, also referred to as the Palace on the Isle
Saxon Garden with the central fountain
A red squirrel in one of Warsaw's parks
The Lutheran Holy Trinity Church is an important landmark
Neoclassical Commission Palace, the house of the city's government
Embassy of the Netherlands
Hala Koszyki, a former market hall from the early 20th century
The Warsaw Stock Exchange is the largest in Central Europe.
Praga Koneser Center within the former Warsaw Vodka Factory
Main TVP headquarters at Woronicza street
The main gate of the University of Warsaw
Warsaw University Library
S8 in Warsaw
Warsaw Chopin Airport
The edifice of the Grand Theatre in Warsaw. It is one of the largest theatres in Europe, featuring one of the biggest stages in the world.
Warsaw Philharmonic is a venue for the International Chopin Piano Competition
Museum of the History of Polish Jews opened in 2013
The 17th-century Ostrogski Castle (left) houses the Chopin Museum.
Wuzetka chocolate cake originated in Warsaw and is an icon of the city
Interior of the Wedel Chocolate Lounge on Szpitalna Street
Annual procession of the Three Wise Men (Epiphany) at Warsaw's Castle Square
The 1659 coat of arms of Old Warsaw on the cover of one of Warsaw's accounting books
1855 bronze sculpture of The Warsaw Mermaid in the Old Town Market Place
The Interior of the National Stadium before the UEFA Euro 2012 semi-final match between Germany and Italy on 28 June 2012
Stadion Wojska Polskiego, the home ground of Legia Warsaw football club
St. Anne's Church
Holy Cross Church
Carmelite Church has an original 18th-century façade
Wilanów Palace, once a royal residence
Belweder Palace, official seat of the President
Castle Square with the Royal Castle and Sigismund's Column
Krasiński Palace, a branch of the National Library
Canon Square (Kanonia) with the narrowest townhouse in Europe
St. Kazimierz Church at New Town Market Square
Three Crosses Square marks the entry into Old Town
Barbican, a remaining relic of historic fortifications.
Poland's bicameral parliament, the Sejm and the Senate
Chancellery of the Prime Minister
The Presidential Palace, seat of the Polish president
Supreme Court of Poland
Supreme Administrative Court
The seat of the administration of the Masovian Voivodeship
Mostowski Palace, the seat of Warsaw's police headquarters
The main gate of the Ministry of Health
Ministry of Agriculture
Ministry of Finance
Metro Line 2, Nowy Świat-Uniwersytet station
Buses
Tram car
Pendolino high-speed trains at Warszawa Centralna
Warsaw Suburban train

Capital and largest city of Poland.

- Warsaw

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Sigismund III Vasa

Sigismund III Vasa (Zygmunt III Waza, Žygimantas Vaza; 20 June 1566 – 30 April 1632

Portrait by Pieter Soutman, c. undefined 1624
John III, his wife Catherine Jagiellon and young Sigismund imprisoned at Gripsholm. An 1859 painting by Józef Simmler.
Sigismund in his youth, 1585.
Chancellor Jan Zamoyski staunchly opposed the pro-Habsburg alliance.
Archduke Ernest of Austria, whose correspondence with Sigismund caused a political crisis.
Sigismund early in his reign, by court painter Martin Kober.
Charles of Sweden, Sigismund's uncle, who waged war against Sigismund and Poland for the Swedish crown.
Equestrian portrait of King Sigismund by Peter Paul Rubens
Linköping Castle where Sigismund met with Charles to discuss the future of the Swedish monarchy.
Portrait of Sigismund as a young adult by Jan Szwankowski, ca. 1590.
Dethronisation act issued on 24 June 1607.
Sigismund as supreme commander of Poland–Lithuania, dressed in hose.
Victorious Sigismund at Smolensk, by Italian-born artist Tommaso Dolabella, 1611.
Apotheosis of Sigismund following his victory over the Ottoman Empire, etching from 1629. The king's spear striking a Turk symbolizes the triumph of Catholicism and Christianity over Islam.
Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden in a Polish costume, 1631–1632. A lifelong enemy of Sigismund, he attempted to take Ducal Prussia and Livonia.
Portrait by Peter Paul Rubens, c. 1620s
Assassination attempt on Sigismund by Michał Piekarski in 1620.
The gateway between the Warsaw Castle and St. John's Cathedral was constructed as a precaution after the assassination attempt.
John Albert was appointed bishop at the age of nine and cardinal at the age of twenty thanks to his father's reputation.
Sigismund III on catafalque following his death.
Sigismund's Column (1644) in Warsaw is a reminder of the king's decision to transfer the capital of Poland.
Silver sarcophagus of Saint Stanislaus at Wawel Cathedral is one of several exquisite items commissioned by Sigismund III.
Alchemist Sendivogius and Sigismund III, by Jan Matejko.
Anne of Habsburg was Sigismund's first consort. An introvert, she was known for her hostile attitude towards Sweden and Protestantism.
Constance of Habsburg, Anne's sister and Sigismund's second consort. A devout Catholic, she supported Sigismund in political endeavours.
False Dmitriy I takes an oath of allegiance to Sigismund III, by Nikolai Nevrev (1874)
Statue of King Sigismund III on top of Sigismund's Column in Warsaw
A 40-ducat coin depicting King Sigismund III Vasa, 1621
Mater Dolorosa painted by Sigismund in the 1620s, based on works by Gortzius Geldorp
Facade relief on the Golden House in Gdańsk
Banner used during Sigismund III Vasa's reign

As an enlightened despot, he presided over an era of prosperity and achievement, further distinguished by the transfer of the country's capital from Kraków to Warsaw.

Warsaw Uprising

Clockwise from top left: 
Civilians construct an anti-tank ditch in Wola district; German anti-tank gun in Theatre Square; Home Army soldier defending a barricade; Ruins of Bielańska Street; Insurgents leave the city ruins after surrendering to German forces; Allied transport planes airdrop supplies near Holy Cross Church.
A captured German Sd.Kfz. 251 from the 5th SS Panzer Division, being used by the 8th "Krybar" Regiment. Furthest right; commander Adam Dewicz "Grey Wolf", 14 August 1944.
Polish Home Army positions, outlined in red, on the western bank of the Vistula (4 August 1944)
Warsaw Old Town in flames during Warsaw Uprising
Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski, commander of Polish Home Army
Weapons used by the resistance, including the Błyskawica submachine gun—one of very few weapons designed and mass-produced covertly in occupied Europe.
Kubuś, an armoured car made by the Home Army during the Uprising. A single unit was built by the "Krybar" Regiment on the chassis of a Chevrolet 157 van.
The 535th platoon of Slovaks under the command of Mirosław Iringh, part of the 1st company of the "Tur" battalion from the "Kryśka" Group fought in Czerniaków and Praga district during the uprising.
German soldiers fighting the Polish resistance at Theater Square in Warsaw, September 1944
Commanding officers of the collaborationist Freiwillige (the Waffen-SS volunteers) brigade R.O.N.A. during the Warsaw Uprising, August 1944
Resistance fighter armed with a flamethrower, 22 August 1944
The city's sewer system was used to move resistance fighters between the Old Town, Śródmieście and Żoliborz districts.
Home Army soldiers from Kolegium "A" of Kedyw formation on Stawki Street in the Wola District of Warsaw, September 1944
Home Army soldier armed with Błyskawica submachine gun defending a barricade in Powiśle District of Warsaw during the Uprising, August 1944
Jewish prisoners of Gęsiówka concentration camp liberated by Polish Home Army soldiers from "Zośka" Battalion, 5 August 1944
German Stuka Ju 87 bombing Warsaw's Old Town, August 1944; the rebels were unable to capture the airfields and only 6 German aircraft could make a large number of sorties, causing great destruction to the city
Warsaw's Old Town, August 1944
Monument to General Berling in Warsaw
Tadeusz Rajszczak "Maszynka" (left) and two other young soldiers from "Miotła" Battalion, 2 September 1944
Home Army soldiers Henryk Ożarek "Henio" (left) holding a Vis pistol and Tadeusz Przybyszewski "Roma" (right) firing a Błyskawica submachine gun, from "Anna" Company of the "Gustaw" Battalion fighting on Kredytowa-Królewska Street, 3 October 1944; the use of pistols in street battles indicates a very poor equipment of weapons of the rebels
Captured German Panther tank by resistance fighters from "Zośka" Battalion under the command of Wacław Micuta, 2 August 1944
Home Army soldiers from "Zośka" Battalion liberating Gęsiówka concentration camp. Only Juliusz Deczkowski (centre) survived. Tadeusz Milewski "Ćwik" (right) was killed later in the day and Wojciech Omyła "Wojtek" (left) was killed several days later, 5 August 1944
Soldier from the "Kiliński" Battalion pictured aiming his rifle at the German-occupied PAST building, 20 August 1944
Soldier from "Pięść" Battalion led by Stanisław Jankowski "Agaton", pictured on a rooftop of a house near the Evangelic Cemetery in Wola District of Warsaw, 2 August 1944
Polish-controlled areas of Warsaw after the fall of the Old Town, around 10 September 1944
Picture of the Uprising taken from the opposite side of the Vistula river. Kierbedź Bridge viewed from Praga District towards Royal Castle and the Old Town, 1944; the rebels were unable to capture the bridges over the Vistula river and thus lost a light hope of connecting with the Red Army
Home Army soldier from the Mokotów District surrenders to German troops.
Surrender of the Warsaw Uprising resistance, 5 October 1944
Warsaw Old Town; after the Warsaw Uprising, 85% of the city was deliberately destroyed by the German forces.
Warsaw c. 1950, still witness to the massive World War II destruction of the city. Northwest view of the Krasiński Gardens and Świętojerska Street.
Mały Powstaniec ("Little Insurrectionist") Monument erected just outside Warsaw's medieval city walls in 1981, commemorates the children who fought in the Warsaw Uprising, against the German occupation.
Monument to the resistance fighters who fought in the Warsaw Uprising.
Bunker in front of gate to University of Warsaw converted to a base for Wehrmacht viewed from Krakowskie Przedmieście Street, July 1944
Members of the SS-Sonderregiment Dirlewanger fighting in Warsaw, pictured in window of a townhouse at Focha Street, August 1944
German SS-Gruppenführer Heinz Reinefarth, the "Butcher of Wola" (left, in Cossack headgear) with Jakub Bondarenko, commander of Kuban Cossack Infantry regiment, Warsaw Uprising
Azerbaijani SS volunteer formation during the Warsaw Uprising; even the collaborationist units were well armed
Resistance fighters from "Chrobry I" Battalion in front of German police station "Nordwache" at the junction of Chłodna and Żelazna Streets, 3 August 1944; only one rebel has a weapon
Barricade erected such on Napoleon Square. In background: captured Hetzer tank destroyer. 3 August 1944
One of the German POW's captured during the fighting at the PAST building located on Zielna Street, 20 August 1944
German soldier killed by the resistance during the attack on Mała PAST building. 23 August 1944
Home Army soldiers from "Ruczaj" Battalion (after a fire fight for the Mała PAST building) take pictures at the main entrance at Piusa Street next to a bunker, 24 August 1944
Polish victims of the Wola massacre burned by members of Verbrennungskommando.
People of Wola leaving the city after the uprising

The Warsaw Uprising (powstanie warszawskie; Warschauer Aufstand) was a major World War II operation by the Polish underground resistance to liberate Warsaw from German occupation.

Siege of Warsaw (1939)

Volunteer fire-fighters watching an air duel over Warsaw. Propaganda poster reads "To Arms – United, we will defeat the enemy".
Warsaw's downtown burning after an air raid by the Luftwaffe
Polish Army soldier holding last remaining part of destroyed German bomber Heinkel He111 in Warsaw, September 1939.
The position of Polish and German forces during the siege
Survivor of bombing of Warsaw, photographed by Julien Bryan
Civilian refugees in Warsaw
Polish soldiers march into German captivity on 30 September, following the capitulation
German tanks and motorized shooters on Grójecka str. between Siewierska str. and Przemyska str. PzKpfw I tank and a 7.5 cm le.IG 18 gun are visible.
American embassy in Warsaw and visible shattered window during the German air raid.
Adolf Hitler, Walter von Reichenau, Erwin Rommel and Martin Bormann observing the siege of Warsaw.
The results of German bombardment in Warsaw
Starving citizens taking meat from the remains of dead horses on Nowy Świat Street near the intersection with Staszic Palace
Burning Warsaw Royal Castle in September 1939. The air strikes caused by the Luftwaffe destroyed many significant monuments and structures.
Graves of soldiers on Three Crosses Square that perished during the siege and had to be immediately buried to prevent the spreading of diseases
Tombstones of Polish Jews who fell during the siege of Warsaw in 1939 among their gentile colleagues
Graves of Polish soldiers who fell in the Polish Defensive War of 1939
General Walerian Czuma's appeal to the inhabitants of Warsaw. The text reads – "Citizens! Warsaw must be defended!"
Kampf in Warschau-Vorstadt, German 1940 painting

The siege of Warsaw in 1939 was fought between the Polish Warsaw Army (Armia Warszawa) garrisoned and entrenched in Warsaw and the invading German Army.

Warsaw Chopin Airport

The first British Airways flight from Warsaw to London waiting alongside a LOT Junkers Ju 52 at Okęcie in April 1939
The destroyed PZL works at Warsaw Okęcie in 1939
The 1960s terminal buildings at Warsaw's Chopin Airport in 2003 (since demolished)
Ongoing construction of Terminal 2 at Warsaw Chopin in 2005
Check-in hall at Terminal A
Departure lounge at Terminal A
Aerial view
Terminal A
Duty-free area
Cargo Terminal
Apron view
SKM train at Warsaw Chopin Airport railway station

Warsaw Chopin Airport (Lotnisko Chopina w Warszawie, ) is an international airport in the Włochy district of Warsaw, Poland.

Poland

Country in Central Europe.

A reconstruction of a Bronze Age, Lusatian culture settlement in Biskupin, 8th century BC
Poland under the rule of Mieszko I, whose acceptance of Christianity under the auspices of the Latin Church and the Baptism of Poland marked the beginning of statehood in 966.
Casimir III the Great is the only Polish king to receive the title of Great. He built extensively during his reign, and reformed the Polish army along with the country's legal code, 1333–70.
The Battle of Grunwald was fought against the German Order of Teutonic Knights, and resulted in a decisive victory for the Kingdom of Poland, 15 July 1410.
Wawel Castle in Kraków, seat of Polish kings from 1038 until the capital was moved to Warsaw in 1596.
King John III Sobieski defeated the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Vienna on 12 September 1683.
Stanisław II Augustus, the last King of Poland, reigned from 1764 until his abdication on 25 November 1795.
The partitions of Poland, carried out by the Kingdom of Prussia (blue), the Russian Empire (brown), and the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy (green) in 1772, 1793 and 1795.
Chief of State Marshal Józef Piłsudski was a hero of the Polish independence campaign and the nation's premiere statesman from 1918 until his death on 12 May 1935.
Polish Army 7TP tanks on military manoeuvres shortly before the invasion of Poland in 1939
Pilots of the 303 Polish Fighter Squadron during the Battle of Britain, October 1940
Map of the Holocaust in German-occupied Poland with deportation routes and massacre sites. Major ghettos are marked with yellow stars. Nazi extermination camps are marked with white skulls in black squares. The border in 1941 between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union is marked in red.
At High Noon, 4 June 1989 — political poster featuring Gary Cooper to encourage votes for the Solidarity party in the 1989 elections
Flowers in front of the Presidential Palace following the death of Poland's top government officials in a plane crash on 10 April 2010
Topographic map of Poland
Morskie Oko alpine lake in the Tatra Mountains. Poland has one of the highest densities of lakes in the world.
The wisent, one of Poland's national animals, is commonly found at the ancient and UNESCO-protected Białowieża Forest.
The Sejm is the lower house of the parliament of Poland.
The Constitution of 3 May adopted in 1791 was the first modern constitution in Europe.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, located in Warsaw
Polish Air Force F-16s, a single-engine multirole fighter aircraft
A Mercedes-Benz Sprinter patrol van belonging to the Polish State Police Service (Policja)
The Old City of Zamość is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
PKP Intercity Pendolino at the Wrocław railway station
Physicist and chemist Maria Skłodowska-Curie was the first person to win two Nobel Prizes.
Nicolaus Copernicus, the 16th century Polish astronomer who formulated the heliocentric model of the solar system.
Population of Poland from 1900 to 2010 in millions of inhabitants
Dolina Jadwigi — a bilingual Polish-Kashubian road sign with the village name
John Paul II, born Karol Wojtyła, held the papacy between 1978-2005 and was the first Pole to become a Roman Catholic Pope.
Jagiellonian University in Kraków
The Polish White Eagle is Poland's enduring national and cultural symbol
All Saints' Day on 1 November is one of the most important public holidays in Poland.
Lady with an Ermine (1490) by Leonardo da Vinci. It symbolises Poland's cultural heritage and identity.
Selection of hearty traditional comfort food from Poland, including bigos, gołąbki, żurek, pierogi, placki ziemniaczane, and rye bread.
Traditional polonaise dresses, 1780–1785.
Andrzej Wajda, the recipient of an Honorary Oscar, the Palme d'Or, as well as Honorary Golden Lion and Golden Bear Awards.
Headquarters of the publicly funded national television network TVP in Warsaw
The Stadion Narodowy in Warsaw, home of the national football team, and one of the host stadiums of Euro 2012.

Warsaw is the nation's capital and largest metropolis.

Polish Academy of Sciences

Polish state-sponsored institution of higher learning.

Staszic Palace, the seat of PAN, and Copernicus Monument
Henryk Arctowski Polish Antarctic Station is managed by PAN
Gdańsk Library of Polish Academy of Sciences
Aleksander Wolszczan
Leszek Kolakowski
Krzysztof Matyjaszewski, Wolf Prize winner
K. Alex Müller, Nobel Prize winner

Headquartered in Warsaw, it is responsible for spearheading the development of science across the country by a society of distinguished scholars and a network of research institutes.

University of Warsaw

Main gate on Krakowskie Przedmieście
Main University campus
The Warsaw University Observatory in 2010
University main gate, July 1944, when campus served as German military barracks
Kazimierz Palace, the university rectorate
Warsaw University Library, on ulica Dobra
Nowy Świat-Uniwersytet metro station next to the main campus
Collegium Novum
Tadeusz Borowski
Frédéric Chopin
Leonid Hurwicz
Leszek Kolakowski
Bolesław Prus
Ireneusz Roszkowski
Alfred Tarski
Olga Tokarczuk
Ludwik Zamenhof
Zygmunt Bauman
Jan Łukasiewicz
Yefim Karskiy
Kazimierz Michałowski
Wacław Sierpiński
Jerzy Szacki
Czesław Miłosz

The University of Warsaw (Uniwersytet Warszawski, Universitas Varsoviensis) is a public university in Warsaw, Poland.

National Museum, Warsaw

Lorentz courtyard of the National Museum
Lorentz courtyard of the National Museum
Main facade of the National Museum, 1938
Faras Gallery
Hermes Sitting on a Ram, 2nd century BC
The Raising of Lazarus by Carel Fabritius is displayed in the Gallery of Old Masters
Gallery of 19th-century Art
Grudziądz Polyptych, ca. 1400
Adam and Eve, Lucas Cranach the Elder
Madonna and Child, Sandro Botticelli
Maerten Soolmans, Rembrandt
Academic Study, Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres
Antibes - Morning, Paul Signac
Landscape near Cros-de-Cagnes, Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Landscape with Robbers Sharing Loot, Jan Brueghel the Elder
Holy Family with Saint John, Jacob Jordaens
Study of a Saint, Anthony van Dyck
Virgin and Child with the Infant St John the Baptist, Pinturicchio
Portrait of a Venetian Admiral, Tintoretto
Adoration of the Shepherds, Mattia Preti
The Guitar Player, Jean-Baptiste Greuze
A Man With His Daughter, Sofonisba Anguissola
Seashore, Gustave Courbet
Choice Between Youth and Wealth, Jan Steen
Dessert, Willem Claesz. Heda
Paris in the Phrygian Cap, Antoni Brodowski
Indian Summer, Józef Chełmoński
Jewish Woman Selling Oranges, Aleksander Gierymski
Polish Hamlet, Jacek Malczewski
At the Seashore, Anna Bilińska
A Cottage, Kazimierz Sichulski

The National Museum in Warsaw (Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie), popularly abbreviated as MNW, is a national museum in Warsaw, one of the largest museums in Poland and the largest in the capital.

Warsaw University of Technology

One of the leading institutes of technology in Poland and one of the largest in Central Europe.

Main building of Warsaw University of Technology
Founding date
Staircases in the Main Auditorium
Interior of the Main Auditorium
Faculty of Mathematics and Information Science

They are in Warsaw, except for one in Płock.

Warsaw Stock Exchange

Artus Court in Gdańsk was home to the oldest Polish mercantile exchange, established in the 14th century
Old Town Hall, place of securities trading before the establishing of the Mercantile Exchange in 1817. Destroyed in 1817.
Saxon Palace, the first seat of the Warsaw Exchange from 1817 to 1828. Destroyed in 1944 by the Germans.
Bank of Poland and Exchange Building, home of the exchange from 1828 to 1876
Exchange Building, home of the exchange from 1877 until World War II. It was completely destroyed in the war.
Centre of Banking and Finance, home of the WSE from 1991 to 2000. It was once the seat of the Polish United Workers' Party.

The Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE), Giełda Papierów Wartościowych w Warszawie, is a stock exchange in Warsaw, Poland.