Washington Monument

Monumentthe one in Washington, D.C.WashingtonWashington Monument SocietyWashington National Monument Society
The Washington Monument is an obelisk on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., built to commemorate George Washington, once commander-in-chief of the Continental Army and the first President of the United States.wikipedia
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Obelisk

obelisksobelisk erecting experimentsobelisque
The Washington Monument is an obelisk on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., built to commemorate George Washington, once commander-in-chief of the Continental Army and the first President of the United States. The Washington Monument is a hollow Egyptian style stone obelisk with a 500 ft tall column and a 55 ft tall pyramidion.
Most modern obelisks are made of several stones; some, like the Washington Monument, are buildings.

National Mall

the MallMallWashington Mall
The Washington Monument is an obelisk on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., built to commemorate George Washington, once commander-in-chief of the Continental Army and the first President of the United States.
The term is often taken to refer to the entire area between the Lincoln Memorial on the west and east to the United States Capitol grounds, with the Washington Monument dividing the area slightly west of its midpoint.

Lincoln Memorial

Lincolnmemorial to Abraham LincolnLincoln Memorial Circle
Located almost due east of the Reflecting Pool and the Lincoln Memorial, the monument, made of marble, granite, and bluestone gneiss, is both the world's tallest predominantly stone structure and the world's tallest obelisk, standing 554 ft tall according to the National Geodetic Survey (measured 2013–14) or 555 ft tall according to the National Park Service (measured 1884). This offset caused the McMillan Plan to specify that the Lincoln Memorial should be "placed on the main axis of the Capitol and the Monument", about 1° south of due west of the Capitol or the monument, not due west of the Capitol or the monument.
It is located on the western end of the National Mall in Washington, D.C., across from the Washington Monument.

Eiffel Tower

the Eiffel TowerTour Eiffela tower
It was the tallest structure in the world from 1884 to 1889, when it was overtaken by the Eiffel Tower in Paris.
During its construction, the Eiffel Tower surpassed the Washington Monument to become the [[List of tallest freestanding structures in the world#Timeline of world's tallest freestanding structures|tallest man-made structure]] in the world, a title it held for 41 years until the Chrysler Building in New York City was finished in 1930.

Robert Mills (architect)

Robert MillsMillsMills, Robert
The original design was by Robert Mills, but he did not include his proposed colonnade due to a lack of funds, proceeding only with a bare obelisk.
Robert Mills (August 12, 1781 – March 3, 1855), a South Carolina architect known for designing both the first Washington Monument, located in Baltimore, Maryland, as well as the better known monument to the first president in the nation's capital, Washington, DC. He is sometimes said to be the first native-born American to be professionally trained as an architect.{by whom|date=August 2013}} Charles Bulfinch of Boston perhaps has a clearer claim to this honor.

Lincoln Memorial Reflecting Pool

Reflecting Pool
Located almost due east of the Reflecting Pool and the Lincoln Memorial, the monument, made of marble, granite, and bluestone gneiss, is both the world's tallest predominantly stone structure and the world's tallest obelisk, standing 554 ft tall according to the National Geodetic Survey (measured 2013–14) or 555 ft tall according to the National Park Service (measured 1884).
It is a long and large rectangular pool located on the National Mall, directly east of the Lincoln Memorial, with the Washington Monument to the east of the reflecting pool.

Washington, D.C.

WashingtonDistrict of ColumbiaWashington, DC
The Washington Monument is an obelisk on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., built to commemorate George Washington, once commander-in-chief of the Continental Army and the first President of the United States.
The federal Height of Buildings Act of 1910 allows buildings that are no taller than the width of the adjacent street, plus 20 ft. Despite popular belief, no law has ever limited buildings to the height of the United States Capitol Building or the 555 ft Washington Monument, which remains the District's tallest structure.

McMillan Plan

McMillan CommissionSenate Park CommissionMonumental Core
This offset caused the McMillan Plan to specify that the Lincoln Memorial should be "placed on the main axis of the Capitol and the Monument", about 1° south of due west of the Capitol or the monument, not due west of the Capitol or the monument.
The plan proposed constructing major memorials on the western and southern anchors of the Mall's two axes, reflecting pools on the southern and western ends, and massive granite and marble terraces and arcades around the base of the Washington Monument.

Pierre Charles L'Enfant

Pierre (Peter) Charles L'EnfantPierre L'EnfantL'Enfant
Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant's 1791 "Plan of the city intended for the permanent seat of the government of the United States ..."
(See: Bowling (2002).) The National Park Service has identified L'Enfant as "Major Peter Charles L'Enfant" and as "Major Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant" in its histories of the Washington Monument on its website.

2011 Virginia earthquake

earthquake5.8 magnitude earthquakeVirginia earthquake
In 2011, an earthquake slightly damaged the monument, mostly the pyramidion.
A National Park Service spokesperson reported that surveys revealed cracks near the top of the Washington Monument, the world's tallest stone structure, which remained closed for repairs until May 2014.

Jefferson Pier

At that originally intended site there now stands a small monolith called the Jefferson Pier.
The stone is on the National Mall almost due south of the center of the White House and the midline of 16th Street, NW, about due west of the center of the United States Capitol building, almost due north of the center of the Jefferson Memorial and 391 ft WNW of the center of the Washington Monument.

List of tallest buildings in Washington, D.C.

tallest building in Washington, D.C.10th-tallest building in Washington, D.C.20th tallest building
It is the tallest building in Washington, D.C. The Heights of Buildings Act of 1910 restricts new building heights to no more than 20 ft greater than the width of the adjacent street.
This list of tallest buildings in Washington, D.C. ranks high-rises in the U.S. capital city of Washington, D.C. The tallest structure in the city, excluding radio towers, is the Washington Monument, which rises 555 ft and was completed in 1884.

Norman Mayer

For ten hours in December 1982, the Washington Monument and eight tourists were held hostage by a nuclear arms protester, Norman Mayer, claiming to have explosives in a van he drove to the monument's base.
Norman David Mayer (March 31, 1916 – December 9, 1982) was an American anti-nuclear weapons activist who was shot and killed by the United States Park Police after threatening to blow up the Washington Monument.

United States Army Corps of Engineers

Army Corps of EngineersCorps of EngineersU.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Construction resumed in 1879 under the direction of Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Lincoln Casey of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
The 555 ft tall Washington Monument, completed under the direction and command of Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Lincoln Casey, 1884

George Washington

WashingtonGeneral WashingtonPresident Washington
The Washington Monument is an obelisk on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., built to commemorate George Washington, once commander-in-chief of the Continental Army and the first President of the United States.
The Federalists made him the symbol of their party, but the Jeffersonians continued to distrust his influence for many years and delayed building the Washington Monument.

William Wetmore Story

StoryW.W. Story
The Society considered five new designs, concluding that the one by William Wetmore Story seemed "vastly superior in artistic taste and beauty."
In the 1870s, Story submitted a design for the Washington Monument, then under a prolonged and troubled construction.

Michael Graves

Michael Graves & AssociatesMichael Graves and Associates
During this time it was completely covered in scaffolding designed by the American architect Michael Graves (who was also responsible for the interior changes).
In 1997–98, when Graves designed the scaffolding used in the restoration of the Washington Monument in Washington D.C., he met Ron Johnson, a Target executive who appreciated his product designs.

Pyramidion

Benben stonepyramidia
The Washington Monument is a hollow Egyptian style stone obelisk with a 500 ft tall column and a 55 ft tall pyramidion.
* Washington Monument, which has a solid aluminum pyramidion that serves as a lightning rod

George Washington Parke Custis

G.W. P. CustisWash" CustisG. W. P. Custis
Two years later, on a torrid July 4, 1850, George Washington Parke Custis, the adopted son of George Washington and grandson of Martha Washington, dedicated a stone from the people of the District of Columbia to the Monument at a ceremony that President Zachary Taylor attended five days before he died from food poisoning.
On July 4, 1848, Custis attended the ceremony celebrating the laying of the cornerstone of the Washington Monument by Freemasons.

Thomas Lincoln Casey Sr.

Thomas Lincoln CaseyCol. Thomas Lincoln Casey
Construction resumed in 1879 under the direction of Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Lincoln Casey of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. This original design conformed to a massive temple which was to have surrounded the base of the obelisk, but because it was never built, the architect of the second phase of construction Thomas Lincoln Casey smoothed down the projecting jambs, pediment and entablature in 1885, walled up the west entrance with marble forming an alcove, and reduced the east entrance to 8 ft high.
He served as Chief of Engineers for the United States Army Corps of Engineers and oversaw the completion of the Washington Monument.

Zachary Taylor

TaylorPresident TaylorGeneral Zachary Taylor
Two years later, on a torrid July 4, 1850, George Washington Parke Custis, the adopted son of George Washington and grandson of Martha Washington, dedicated a stone from the people of the District of Columbia to the Monument at a ceremony that President Zachary Taylor attended five days before he died from food poisoning.
On July 4, 1850, Taylor reportedly consumed copious amounts of raw fruit and iced milk while attending holiday celebrations during a fund-raising event at the Washington Monument, which was then under construction.

Height of Buildings Act of 1910

height limitHeights of Buildings ActAn Act to regulate the height of buildings in the District of Columbia
It is the tallest building in Washington, D.C. The Heights of Buildings Act of 1910 restricts new building heights to no more than 20 ft greater than the width of the adjacent street.
The National Shrine stands as the tallest building in Washington, D.C., excluding the Washington Monument (555 ft) and the Hughes Memorial Tower (761 ft).

Hall–Héroult process

aluminiumaluminum extractionAluminium extractor
Two years later, the Hall–Héroult process made aluminum easier to produce and the price of aluminum plummeted, though it should have provided a lustrous, non-rusting apex.
Production costs using older methods did come down, but when aluminium was selected as the material for the cap/lightning rod to sit atop the Washington Monument in Washington, D.C., it was still more expensive than silver.

John W. Daniel

John DanielJohn Warwick Daniel
A final speech was given by John W. Daniel of Virginia.
Daniel delivered a speech during dedication of the Washington Monument on February 21, 1885 which extolled Virginia's central place in the nation, then served one congressional term, from March 4, 1885 – March 4, 1887, before elected to the U.S. Senate to replace Readjuster William Mahone.

Robert Charles Winthrop

Robert C. WinthropRobert WinthropWinthrop
Then, in the House Chamber, the president, his Cabinet, diplomats and others listened to Representative John Davis Long read a speech written a few months earlier by Robert C. Winthrop, formerly the Speaker of the House of Representatives when the cornerstone was laid 37 years earlier, but now too ill to personally deliver his speech.
He became a noted orator, delivering the eulogy for George Peabody in 1870, and speaking at the ceremony that opened the Washington Monument in 1848.